US 2396309 A
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March l2, 1946. F. A. woDAL AIRPLANE CONTROL Filed July 30, 1942 l/ Runnin Patented Mar. 12, 1946 UNI T ED STATES PATENT O F FICE AIRPLANE coNTaoL Francis A. Wodal, Camden, N. J. Application. July 3o, 1942, serial N0. 452,824 a claims. (ci. 244-83) (Gran-ted under the act of March 3, 1883,` as amended April 30.11928; 370 O. G. '757) The purpose of my airplane control is to provide a means of control for airplanes that is more responsive to the thoughts of the lpilot and permits a closer coordination between the thoughts of the pilot and the resultant maneuvering. This is accomplished, due to the functional properties of this control in that one merely points the control shaft in the direction one wishes to travel, in a manner similar to that of the aiming of an anti-aircraft gun, and turns the wheel to supply the necessary bank for the particular maneuver. The important factor of my control is that it reduces considerably the training period and the resulting pilot with this control will be superior to opponents in like airplanes with standard control.
Fig. 1 illustrates in perspective the angular movements of the control at the control pylon necessary to obtain the corresponding reaction of the plane.
Fig. 2 illustrates the three axes about which the airplane moves angularly in response to the corresponding angular movements of the control.
Figs. 3 and 4 show details of the control pylon mechanism.
Fig. 5 illustrates in perspective another form of control having the same functional characteristics but using direct cable connections to the control surfaces, without any intervening gears, links or levers between the main control shaft and the surface control cables.
Figs. 6 and 7 are detail views of the gimbal ring shown in Fig. 5.
In Fig. 2 13a-Pe illustrates the yawing movement about the vertical axis Z-Z and Cz-Ce in Fig. 1 indicates the necessary angular movement of control shaft I to operate the rudder to obtain the yawing movement.
Py-Py illustrates the pitching movement about the lateral axis Y-Y and Cy-Cy indicates the necessary angular movement of the control shaft I to operate the elevators to obtain the pitching movement.
Paz-Px illustrates the rolling motion about the longitudinal axis X-X and Car- Cx indicates the necessary angular movements of the control shaft through the member 2 to operate the ailerons to obtain the rolling motion.
Fig. 5 illustrates a perspective view of the direct cable form of my airplane control assembly.
The control member 2 and control shaft I are integral. The control shaft is mounted in rotatory gimbals 3. The elevator cables 4 and 5 are connected to rotatable ring 6, whereby the vertical Cil movement of the member 2 and shaft I are directly transmitted to the elevators. The rotatable ring 6 is fixed axially relative to shaft I but is free to rotate about said shaft. The rudder cables 'I and 8 are connected to rotatable ring 6, whereby the lateral movement of the member 2 and shaft I are directly transmitted to the rudder; The outer gimbal ring 9 has mounted on it a lever I0 to which the aileron cables II and I2 are connected; thus the rotating movement of the member 2 and shaft I are directly transmitted to the ailerons. A counterbalance I3 is fixed to shaft I to counterbalance member 2.
Figs. 6 and 7 are cross sectional views of the rotatory gimbals 3 illustrating the method of ball bearing mountings at all moving points.
In Fig. 1 is illustrated one form of mechanical type of control pylon, whereas in Figs. 5, 6 and 7 is illustrated a direct connected cable system. The details of the control pylon are shown in Figs. 3 and 4. The control member 2 and control shaft I are integral and are rotatable in fork 25. The rotary movement of the control member 2 and control shaft I is transmitted by universal 24 and miter gears I5 to shaft I6 upon which is mounted lever I'I to which the ailerons are connected by suitable linkage. The lateral movement of control member 2 and control shaft I is transmitted by fork 25 to yoke I8. Yoke I8 is integral with hollow shaft I9 upon which is mounted lever 20 to which the rudder is connected by suitable linkage. The vertical movement of the control member 2 and control shaft I is transmitted by fork 25 and link rod 2I to slidable shaft 22. The slidable shaft 22 has mounted thereon collar 23 to which is connected forked bellcrank I4. The vertical movement of the slidable shaft 22 is thereby transmitted to the elevators.
I am illustrating herewith only mechanical methods of transmitting the movements of the control wheel and shaft to control surfaces. Hydraulic means may also be used to transmit the movements of control member and shaft to the control surfaces. This is more particularly applicable for large airplanes. The functional control principle may also be connected into the pneumatic mechanism of the automatic pilot.
From the foregoing description and the disclosure in the drawing which is merely illustrative, it is evident that various modifications and changes in designs of the apparatus and method may be resorted to without departing from the spirit of the basic invention or the scope of the appended claims.
The invention described herein, if patented, may be manufactured and used by or for the Government of the United States of America for governmental purposes Without the payment to me of any royalty thereon.
What I claim is:
1. An airplane control comprising a control shaft having gripping means for manual operation at one end and being connected at its other end through a universal to a horizontally mounted shaft geared to an aileron control, a yoke with a hollow shank mounted loosely on said control shaft, the ends of the forked membei` of said yoke being pivotally mounted on horizontal pivots formed on the ends of the forked member of a vertically mounted yoke having a hollow rotatably mounted shank through which a rod freely passes for vertical reciprocation, said pivots being located concentrically in a horizontal plane with said universal connection, the end of said rod between the forked ends of said vertically mounted yoke being pivotally connected by a link to the shank of the yoke on the control shaft for reciprocation by angular movements of said shaft in a vertical plane, the other end of said rod being connected to an elevator control, the shank of the vertically mounted yoke being connected to a rudder control.
2. An airplane control as dened in claim l wherein the vertically extending parts are mounted in a pylon having a housing at the end thereof for the universal connection, the forked ends of the yokes, the horizontal shaft and gearing, a concentric movable portion of said housing about said universal connection overlapping an opening in the stationary portion thereof, said movable portion being movable with the swinging of the shank of the yoke mounted on the control shaft, so as to keep the housing sealed during operation of the control shaft within wide limits.
' FRANCIS A. WODAL.