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Publication numberUS2396828 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 19, 1946
Filing dateOct 28, 1942
Priority dateOct 28, 1942
Publication numberUS 2396828 A, US 2396828A, US-A-2396828, US2396828 A, US2396828A
InventorsHarold Carpenter Miles
Original AssigneeHarold Carpenter Miles
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Building construction
US 2396828 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Maffi i9, 48. m CARPENTER 2,396,828



, Filed Oct. 28, 1942 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 so 9 6 '88 Y 66; M 1 v I INVENTOR MILES H. CARPENTER ATTORNEYS I Patented Mar. 19, 1946 2,396,828 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Miles Harold Carpenter, Memphis, 'Tenn. Applicationflctober 28, 1942, Serial No. 463,707

7 Claims.

My invention relates to building constructions generally, and inparticular to buildings of prefabricated elements. Withinthe pastfew years, need has arisen for buildings adaptedto be erected quickly, easily and completely. The necessity for concentrations of workers at andnear manufacturing centers has created housing problems which cannot be "solved by conventional'building methods, nor can conventional building methods cope with the need'for-shifting buildings from one site to another to accommodate population movements.

7 The main object of my invention, therefore, is the provision of a building of prefabricated elements, which building can be erected easily, quickly and completely, which can just as easily, quickly and completely be taken down without damage or destruction to the elements'anol connecting members, shifted to another site, and at thisnew site re-erected just as easily, quickly and completely, using the same elements and connecting members, as in the original erection.

Among other objects of my invention, aiding in the accomplishment of the mainobject above set forth, are the provision of wall, ceiling and roof panels .or modules of such relative dimensioning as to be readily interfitted and connected in the erection of a building; the provision of a complete roof by the use of interfitted and interlocked panels; .and the removable securement of the roof panels to each other and to the ceiling -panels, both supportedby the wall panels.

In the drawings annexed hereto, .forminjga part .of this specification:

.Eigure .1 is a perspective view of one form of building constructed accordingto .and embodying my invention, a .roof panel being shown in pos'itionfor placing on the roof;

Fig. .2 is a perspective view of a roof panel constructed according .to vand. embodying .my invention, with :parts broken away to show details of construction;

Fig. .3 .is :a perspective .view showing the connections between the roof, ceiling rafters and wall panels, with ,parts broken away;

Fig. 4 is a front elevational view showing a portion of the front wall, the ceiling rafters and roof assembly, with parts broken away;

Fig. 5 is a vertical transverse section showing the roof and-ceilingconstruction;

Fig. Bis avertical transverse section showing the roof crown construction in detail;

Fig. 7 is avertical transverse section of an in-- .ternal Wall and ceiling detail; 7

.Fig. 8 is a vertical longitudinal section on the line:8--"B of Fig. l;

Fig. .9 is a vertical transverse section-on the line 99 ;of Fig.1; and

Fig. 10 is :a vertical longitudinal section .on the line I 0-'I0 of Fig. '1.

. My invention is "based on .the panel or module system; that is, the walls, ceilings and roof, {as major elements-ofmy building, are formed of one or more panel or module units, of such size and relative dimensioning as to :be readily interfitted and interlocked, and just as .readily disengaged. While'proportions may be important, anydimensionsand sizes Irmay :give are illustrative and may be varied within wide limits without .de parting from the spirit of my invention. I will illustrate and describe my invention herein as applied to a'rectangula-r building, having a3plu- 'rality of'roomsiand a, gable-pitched roof, but this is only for illustration and notfor limitation, otherbuildingshapes-as well coming within the scope of my teachings.

My'wall, ceiling and roof panels are preferably rectangular inshape .(except the end wall panels),'this form lending itself best to economical and simple :fabrication on .an assembly-line ,;plan by the-use of, jigs, diesand patterns. The .rectangular :shape 'a'lso lends itself best to crating,

shipping, and easy handling in transportation and erection. The panels are :made iof sufficient strength-as to-be self-sustaining and weight supporting, and able to withstand the stresses and strains of erection, dismantling, transportation and :re-erection, as well as the weight of any lighting fixtures, plumbing fixtures and wall .decorations which may be incorporated therewith.

Reference numeral l-0 indicates "my building generally, mounted on a foundationstructure 12 which may rest upon a plurality :ofpiers creel-- umns 14. ,Foundation structure l2 comprises :a rectangular sill for framework 1-6 of secured-together beams disposed atop piers l4. The-floor joists I 8 are disposed upon and-secured to sill 16 as by angle irons 20 and 'heavy wood screws or bolts 22 passing therethrough into sill l6 and floor joists 18. Additional floor joists as 24, :at right angles to the main joists i8, .may be :employed and secured flush with the top of .fioor joists L8 to provide .a support, with :beams l-8,for a suitable flooring 2:6. The ends of joists --l8 may be notched, as at +9, to receive the wall panels therewithin, the notch extending entirely about the structure. -My sub-floor structure, comprising joists 1.8 and cross-members 24, may (be formedin ,panel units, I of rectangular shape, and

may be formed by locking together a plurality of panels in edge-to-edge abutting relationship.

Each wall panel or module 32 comprises a rectangular framework of 2" x 6" vertically disposed stud beams 34, set flatwise, a 2" x 8" beam 38 horizontally disposed and extending flatwise across the top of the studding members 34, and a horizontally extending, flatwise disposed beam 40 of less than 2 in thickness, at the bottom flush with the front of the frame and spaced from the rear thereof. The interior of the panel may be filled with suitabl insulating material, or I may employ blanket insulation as 42 secured within the panel framing. Heavy facing material 44 is applied and secured over one side of the frame, from side to side, but short of the upper and lower marginal edges of the frame, and may consist as desired, of plywood, fiber boarding, shingling or the like, 'to form the outer face. of the panel. The studding in each panel may be uitably spaced to provide necessary window 46 and door 48 openings therein, and the outer facing material 44 is similarly apertured for such openin'gs in the panels. Additional studdings as 36 may be incorporated inside the frame work for reinforcement or for outlining window, door 01" other openings.

Facing material 53 of plywood, plaster board, fiber boards, etc., similarly apertured to provide window and door openings, is employed to cover the other and inner face of the panel; and to cover same from side-to-side but not at the top or bottom, facing 50 being spaced from the top and bottom of the frame as shown in Fig. 9 for purposes to be explained below. The facing material is secured to the wide flat sides of the studding 34, 3B and cross beams 38 and 40 as by a suitable adhesive, and the bond may be reinforced by the l use'fof nails or wood screws. The use of the studs and cross beams in flatwise disposition permits the use of uniformly thick members with certain thereof having different widths, and also provides greater glue-bond area than would be secured if the beams were set edgewise. The inner facing material may be wallpapered or painted, and may havelighting or other fixtures installed thereon with suitable lead wires extending-out from the top or bottom of the panel.

' Panels 52 forming the end walls of the building, are of construction generally similar to panels 32, except thatthey may be shapeddifferently. Building I is shown with a gable-pitched roof 54, and the upper edges of panels 52 are angled as shown. A number of panels 52, 52 may be provided and locked together by suitable wall lock mechanisms as indicated at 56, to form the end wall, and similarly suitable means may be employed not only to secure a number of panels together to form a wall, but also to secure side and end walls to each other at the corners of the building, andto secure internal walls to each other and to the outer walls. I prefer to use 2" x 6" studding for th sides of the wall panels not onlyfor their strength and bonding surface. but also because the 6" depth is quite suitable for the insertion thereinto of wall locking mechanisms'. The wall panels, complete with doors and windows in place, and complete with interior surface decorations, are entirely factory fabricated, and thereafter boxed or crated for shipment to the building site.

In erecting the outer walls of my building, the panels are raised into vertical position and set down and keyed into notch l9, which extends entirely about the sub-floor structure. Suitable openings are factory formed through floor joists l8 and through cross or trimming joints 24 in registry with openings through the cross beams 40 at the lower edge Of t e panel, and carriage bolts II are passed through these registering openings to removably secure the wall to the foundation structure. The outer walls, front, side and rear, are removably secured to each other at the corners by suitable lockingdevices. The depth of notches I9 is such, and the inner facing 59 is so applied to the panel, that as the panel rests upon the floor joists, facing 59 is slightly spaced upwardly from the top of the beams l8, leaving space for the insertion of a floor covering as 28. A base board l3 and molding as IE5 may be removably field-applied to complete the wall and floor joint inside the building. At the outside of. the building, a drip board i! may be fieldapplied and removably secured as by wood screws or other bolts, lapping over the bottom of panel 30 and a field-applied sill covering sheet or board 21 entirely around the building.

In like manner, internal walls 3| may be set up and removably secured in place and to the front, rear or side walls as desired.

One form of foundation structure I may employ is shown and described in my co-pending application Serial No. 398,374, although I may employ fixed height concrete blocks instead of adjustable columns or piers; a wall locking mechanism well adapted for use in removably securing my walls and wall panels to each other is shown and described in my co-pending application Serial No. 421,660, Patent N0. 2,340,864, issued February 8, 1944; and a flooring structure applicable to my building teachings is shown and described in my co-pending application Serial No. 427,451, Patent No. 2,348,724 issued May 16, 1944, although a flooring surface may be factory laid upon joists I8, 24. These prior applications represent portions of a complete building program, and the present application represents a final step in the construction and assembly of a building as a complete entity.

My ceiling panels 58, 58 comprise a plurality of 2" x 6" joists BB evenly spaced apart, set edgewise in parallel relationship having a rigid facing ma.-

terial as plywood, plaster board or the like, secured At the front of each panel, the joists are notched at the underside thereof, as at 10, and a tie strip H extending the full width of the panel is disposed within the notches and secured to all the joists as by nails, cement, or otherwise. The spacing between joists 60a, 60b, 680, etc., is maintained by the facing material 12, the tie strip II, and cross beams 6|, 6| extending across the panel in the center thereof. The ceiling panel frame is completed by a cross-beam T4 at the rear end of the panel. Suitable blanket insulation as 15, may be secured inside the ceiling panels 58 as desired (see Figs. 5 and 9).

on one side thereof.

I have found it convenient to make the ceiling posedatop thereot the front endof the panel-resting atop the crossbeamsfill of the wall paneLwith thezbeam 3.8 heingmeceivedwithinza locating notch 13 in the :tie strip "14, :and the rear end resting altop wall -3 I :Nails or wood screws =80 may be employed, through'the strip -l'zl and extending :intoframe lceam 38,'to secure the ceiling panel atop front wall 30, andrsimilar fastening .means 82 may be employed to secure the rear end of 'the ceiling panels .tolthe inner-walls as.3l. .As so secured (see :Fig. 3), the strip serves as a wall plate or capping. After the first ceiling panel A is secured in position, the second panelB, formed with joists .620, .6212, to l62d,. is.laid .overatop walls .30 and 31,:and similarly.securedthereon. just as panel B. Care must be.taken,-however, .to butt the first joist .620. OfpaneLBflatly against .the end joistfifld of the first panel,A,.in orderto have a continuous ceiling surface, and (in order to provide proper roof rafter securement. In'likemanner; the remaining Ice'iling panels 0,.D, etc.,,may'be added to complete the coverage, eare'being taken that the end joist d of each panel butts closely against the first joist a of thenext, panel. A plurality of horizontal openings are.'formed through the end joists of .eachceiling panel, and carriage-bolts are passed therethrough to removably secure'the panels together.

The rooms are carefully dimensioned; that is, the sill structure. It 'is' prepared of suchlength and width,.and.the walls of such length, that a whole number of ceiling panels will cover same, from end to end.

L'Iprovide roof panels 3 1,- 84 in equal number to the number of ceiling panels 60, 62. Each roof panel 84 is'rectangular in shape and comprises a'pluralityof 2" xfi" rafters 86, set edgewise (as are the-joists o-fthe'ceiling panels). Rafters 86a, 86b and "86c'are evenly spaced apart in parallel relationship, and covered on one side preferably bya layer of plywood 88, although fiberboarding or'other suitable material may be employed. Atop the plywood, -I apply a layer SO-preferably of asphalt felt, although-other similar material may be used, and over the felt, I-place'a layer of thick butt strip-shingles 92. Along the lateraledges of each roof panel -84, I insert flashing strips .94, 95, of copper or other suitable material, embedded'between the plywood 188 and felt '90 layers in the panel covering, and extending the full length of the ,panel. Exceptifor the panelsto be placed at the endsofthe roof, the flashing :strip 94 on one sideof each panel, isbent upwardly at right angles to the panel, and then back inwardly and over to formahook or bend95 opening downwardly towards the panel, as .shown in Fig. 8. Flashing strip 85 .at the other side :of the panel also projects upwardly at'right angles to'the panel. The extension offlashing 9.6 is such as to reach above bend 95 in flashing 9'4, :and flashing 96 is then curved .outwardly and over and around bend 95, with-theterminal end'9'! thereof bent back and inwardlytto form an upwardly opening hook 99.

The top edges of all the rafters at the front thereofrare'notched as at 81 to receive therewithin a:ti e strip;B3,-which,may be permanently secured toeach rafter as by heavy wood screws, spikes, etc., and the rafters 86, at therear thereof are cut at an angle and a tie beam 85 secured across the ends thereof, :angled rearwardly as shown in Figs. and .6, which :serves, with the plywood layer, to maintain the proper predetermined spacing between the (rafters 86a and .-86c. The covering material, comprising plywood ,88, felt .90- and shingle fllonay gbe formed of =;such length as tho extend over beyond the strip 89,;as :atl9.l,.:and a flashing 38 .may be .ermbedded in the front edge thereofrextending forwardly vthereof, .all .at the fabrication site.

In order to "form {the gableepitched roof shown here for illustration; the :ends of the-rafter beams 86 must :be treated inxaccordance .withithe angularity of pitch :desired. The inner ends 1.01] .of rafters 18B are miter .cut:at the-.desired. angle, as at 4'02 (see Fig 2) and-the endtie beam fitl, extending across the :ends -:of the rafters, is inwardly angled,asabovesreferred to. i'Ihe front endaedge of each rafter, .at the bottom thereof, is .cut :upwardly at an angle-as at EH15, at right angles to rear end m2, and the upper edge portion is cut downwardly :at an angle as at 108, .the upper edge cut loeing :at right :angles to-cut W6 and parallel to :thereanen'cl :l'll2 cuts l0'6'and "08 forming a point lilltat t'hefronttipof eachrafter.

The end rafters o'f each roof panel are -:transversely apertured at. a number OfzPOil'ltS, and the end tie beamsifliare also provided with a plurality ofapertures itherethroug-h for reasons to be -developed below, and :the panel covering may be apertured topermitthe extens'iontherethrough of ventilating ducts (not:shoum) or the :erection thereonof-gable 'dormers or t'helike, all at the factory. I

The end roof panels, that is, the panels for the ends of the-roof, are'prepa'red in th form shown in Fig. 10. The-inner sides'l lfl'thereof-are formed as above described in respecto'fordinary roof panels, but the outer-Sides are specially formed. The panel covering materialcomprising layers 88, 90 and 92 isextended"laterally-and outwardly beyond the end rafter 'Bli as at l|'2,and a facing molding strip as H4, -is permanentlyedgewise secured to the underside of the panel covering-extension I I 2,-projectingdownwardly therefrom and spaced from "rafter 86* a distance substantially equal to the thickness of end -wall '52 to define a downwardly opening, -si'de wall receiving channel. Astrip of flashing materia-l llfi is embedded between the panel covering layers overlying strip H4 and extending around and under the lower end thereof (see FigA'O). The sidewalls '52Vmay be cappedTby'a-fiashing sheath as 'I I8, and when the end panel set down over. endwall"52, the wall is received within the channel formed by rafter 86* and strip .1 M. iSecurement in the field is achieved by the use of nails or spikes M0 through strip l'ldyfacing dfiand into crossmember 38.

After'the walls are erected and covered over'by the ceiling panels,the addition of baseboard l3, floor molding 1'5 and ceiling molding I50, completes the interior. These maybe removably secured by theme ,of nails orwood screws, "and serve not onlyto decorate the room, but also to cover anygaps, as I152, whichmaylbe created deliberately ,to compensate forqswellings and shrinkages, or which maybe. leftdue tosome slight local irregularity...

The ceiling panels are removably secured atop the front and rear walls by means of spikes or wood screws '80, and the roof panels are secured to the ceiling panels by means of elongated carriage bolts I54 which pass through registering apertures in the butted together .ceilingjoists and the abutting roof rafters which also butt against the butted joists. ;-As above mentioned, additional openings I56 are formed .in the :endmost rafters of each panel, and additional bolts as l 58-may be used to further secure the roof panels in side-byside relationship, I

In the field'erection of my building, the ceiling panels are first secured atopthe walls by means of nails, spikes or wood screws 80. .The roof panels are then rested at their'frontends on the walls and are temporarily supported until the opposing panel on the other side of the roof is aligned therewith and the angled rear tie strips 85, 85 are brought together, and carriage bolts I60 are passed through registering apertures to removably lock same together. A number of king posts I62 may be prepared and rested atop the ceiling joists preferably in line with inner walls as 3I to receive the secured-together ties 85, 05 within a suitable notch therewithin. Collar beams I64 may also be provided and secured to aligned ceiling rafters by means of field applied bolts I66. Additional ties as I68 may be used to hold the ceiling joists in alignment, bolts I'I0 being used for the removable securement of ties I68 to the ceiling joists- A metal ridge cap I12, of predetermined length, may be removably secured over the ridge crown to top off the roof. As the roof panels are butted together and flashing-interlocked (see Fig. 8), the upstanding flashings may be crimped togethenif desired, to more positively seal the joints against the entrance of rain, snow, or the like.

Carriage bolts, as IE4, may be field-applied through registering apertures to locate the ceiling rafters with respect to the ceiling joists, and to removably secure the roof panels to the ceiling panels. A- wedge-shaped kick-stop. bar I80, of'

sufiicient length preferably to extend across two or more ceiling panels, may be field-laid across the top of the ceiling joists and driven up against the roof rafters 86, at the point where the rafters and joists interfit, and then fixed to the joists at the point of crossing with the rafters, as by nails, wood screws or spikes I82, driventhrough stop I80 into thejoists 60, 62, and 64. Additional kick-stop bars may be provided to extend the full width of the building, or a single elongated bar may be used instead of a number of shorter bars. A tie-beam I84 extending across several roof panels, may then b set up against the underside of the rafters, bearingagainst kick stop I80, and spiked, Wood-screwed, or nailed to the rafters, as at I05. This kick stop I80 and tie beam I84 arrangement serves not only to help support the roof and keep it from sagging and sliding, but also to keep the joists and rafters in lateral alignment. The kick-stop I80 and ,tie beam I84 arrangement is very important. They receive and transmit the entire thrust load of the roof, and also relieve the holding bolts I86 from the shearing effect imposed by the roof weight load. The bolts I54 may be inserted through the abutting rafters and joists after the kick-stops and tie-beams are secured in position to align the rafters and joists for securement, or before. The preferable method is to insert the bolts after the kick-stop and tie-beamarrangement is secured. After the bolts I54 are nserted and tightened, additional bolts may be passed through registering apertures in abutting rafters and joists, as desired,'to make the securement more positive. i v V A filler board Ill may then be fittedover against the outer edges of the ceiling rafters, flush with wall covering 50, and a facing board I14 lapping over the'joi nt between filler III and facing 50 may then be field-applied to complete the outside of the building, and the roof edge separated without damage.

flashing 98 nailed to facer I" to finish the sealing of the building against the elements.

I All the carriage bolts used to secure the walls to'the foundation, the ceiling panels to each other, and the roof panels to each other and to the ceiling panels, may be removed easily. The roof flashing interfit may be uncrimped and the panels The spikes, Wood screws or nails used to secure the ceiling panels to the walls, and to secure the moldings and facings, may all be withdrawn without material damage either thereto or to the panels, moldings or facings.

My building may thus be taken down without damage, moved piecemeal to another site, and at this other site re-erected as easily and as quickly as in the first instance. The same wall, ceiling and roof-panels may be used thusly time and time again; the same carriage bolts may be used, as may be the moldings, facings and trim. The interfit and interlock of the ceiling and roof pane els, and of the roof panels to each other, may be readily reduced in order to restore the building as a whole to its panel components.

All the major elements of my building are preor factory-fabricated. Once the piers or columns I4 and sill I6 are in place at the designated site, the floors, walls, ceilings and roof may be erected thereupon as units. The floor panels may have the floor surfacing material factory laid upon the joists; the walls may have the window and door openings factory formed therein, and the wall painting or papering factory completed, and the lighting and plumbing fixtures and electrical outlets may also befactory completed. The ceiling surfaces and lighting fixtures may also be factory incorporated, and the roof panels may have their covering materials and decorations factory completed. All the major components of the building of my invention thus lend themselves readily to assembly-line production, for once the size of the ultimate building is determined, the dimensioning of the floor, wall, ceiling and panel units is relatively simple. The walls interfit with the roof, the roof and ceilings interfit, and the final construction is sturdy and as long lived as a conventional building of the same materials.

Having now described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:-

1. In a building construction, a roof comprising a plurality of panels disposed and secured in edge abutting relationship, a ceiling comprising a plurality of panels disposed and secured in edge abutting relationship, the roof and ceiling panels having substantially the same width, the abutted edges of a pair of roof panels sideby-side butting against the abutted edges of a pair of ceiling panels, and a single means to removably secure same together.

2. In a building construction, a roof comprising a plurality of panels disposed and secured in edge abutting relationship, a ceiling comprising a plurality of panels disposed and secured in edge abutting relationship, the roof and ceiling panels having substantially the same width, the abutted edges of a pair of roof panels side-by-side butting against the abutted edges of a pair of ceiling panels, and a single means passing through registering openings in all the abutting members to removably secure a pair of ceiling panels and a pair of roof panels together.

' '3QA building construction as in claim 2, in

which the means comprise a single elongated bolt passing through two ceiling panels and through two roof panels.

4. In a building construction, a roof comprising a plurality of panels disposed and removably secured in edge abutting relationship, and a ceiling comprising a plurality of panels also disposed and removably secured in edge abutting relationship, the abutting edges of a pair of roof panels butting against the abutting edges of a pair of ceiling panels in side-by-side relationship.

5. In a building construction as in claim 4, having means passing through the abutting edges of a pair of roof and a pair of ceiling panels at one of the ends thereof, to removably secure same together.

6. In a building construction, a roof comprising a plurality of panels disposed and secured in edgeabutting relationship, and a ceiling comprising a plurality of panels disposed and secured in edgeabutting relationship, means comprising a downwardly projecting abutment secured to the underside of the roof panel cooperating with means secured to the top of the ceiling panels and hearing against first referred-to means to locate the roof with respect to the ceiling, each roof panel comprising a plurality of parallel and spacedapart rafters having a facing over the top thereof, each ceiling panel comprising a plurality of parallel and spaced-apart joists having a facing over the underside thereof and remote from the facing on the roof panels, the joists and rafters interfitting at least at one end thereof and the locating means extending entirely across a plurality of roof and ceiling panels at the point of interfitting.

'7. In a building construction, a roof comprising a plurality of panels disposed and secured in edgeabutting relationship, and a ceiling comprising a plurality of panels disposed and secured in edgeabutting relationship, means comprising a downwardly projecting abutment secured to the underside of the roof panel cooperating with means secured to the top of the ceiling panels and bearing against first referred-to means to locate the roof with respect to the ceiling, each of the roof panels comprising a plurality of parallel and spaced apart rafters and having a facing over the top side thereof, each of the ceiling panels comprising a plurality of parallel and spaced apart joists and having a facing on the underside thereof remote from the facing over the roof panels,

and the rafters and joists are aligned at at least one end'thereof, and the rafters angle upwardly from the point of alignment, and wedge-shaped means are secured to the top of the joists bearing against the underside of the rafters, and means are secured to the underside of the rafters hearing against the wedge-shaped means, whereby to' support the weight of the roof and receive the thrust load of the roof and locate same with respect to the ceiling,


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U.S. Classification52/92.3, 52/263, 52/94, 52/529, 52/275, 52/478, 52/270
International ClassificationE04B1/343
Cooperative ClassificationE04B1/34315
European ClassificationE04B1/343C