US 2397473 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April l2, 1946.
Filed NOV. 1.5, l958 E. V. CROWELL MEANS FR TESTING FORMATIONS IN WELLS 2 Sheets-Sheet l 2" j qu l it f- INVENTOR. Erd V. Crowell BY v ATTQRNEY.
April 2, 1946. E. v. cRowELl.
vMEANS FOR TESTING FORMATIONS INVWELLS Filed Nov. 15, 1958 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR.
Erd V. Crowell ATTORNEY.
Patented Apr. 2, 1946 UNITED. STATES PATENT oFfFlcE MEANS FOR TESTING FQRMATIONS IN WELLS v Erd V. Crowell, Glendale, Calif.- Application November 15, 1938, Serial No. 240,484
(ci. 16e-1o) l 2 Claims.
This invention relates to means for testing formations in wells, and more specifically, to apparatus adapted to be lowered in a well shaft or casing on an empty tubing string or the like, embodying packing means to seal off a zone in the l well below a predetermined level, and operable This apclosed to pressure therearound adapted to belowl ered through fluid in-a Well, and carrying pack-A ing means to confine a zone in the well to be tested, and thereafter open the tubingto receive a sample of the fluid from said zone. l
It is a further object to provide a testing device comprising superimposed telescopic sections of drill pipe or tubing to be lowered into a well bore with a packer adapted to seal the annular space between the lower section and the wail of the well bore thus to form a confined zone therebelow: the lower section and packer having a vent to facilitate the by-passng of drilling fluid therethrough as the device is being raised-or lowered in the well bore, and having a. composite valve means for opening orsclosing the vent and selectively opening or closing communication between said upper section and the surrounding well bore through said lower section.
Another object is the provision of valve means contained in telescopicaily associated sections of tubing carrying a well packer to permit ejection of mud fluid under pressure introduced at the well surface from the device either above or below the packer to remove obstructions in the well bore tending to bind the string against removal, said valve means being further adapted to close against hydrostatic pressure of iluid within the tubing string upon withdrawal of the device from the well.
Another object is `to provide an auxiliary valve means adapted for placement in the device after reception of the sample by the tubing string to insure retention ofthe sample therein while re-L moving the apparatus from the well.
Other objects and salient features of my invention, such, for example, as simplicity of operation and construction involving a minimum number -of parts; and ease of assembly, willbe apparent to those of skill in the art from an examination of the following description read in the light of the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a sectional view partly inelevation of one embodiment of my invention illustrating the parts in the positions they assume as the device is lowered into a well; y u
Fig. 2 is a sectional view partially in elevation of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1 as positioned in a well while receiving a sample;
, A Fig. 3 is a View in section similar to Fig. 1 of another embodiment of my device;
Fig. 4 .is an enlarged section of the telescopic connection between the tubing and packer body;
Fig. 5 is an enlarged elevation of a hook wall packer and slip mechanism comprising Ia part of the embodiment of Fig. 3.
Referring to the drawings in detail, thenu- -merals of which indicate similar parts through'- out the several views, 6 designates a tubing string to the lower end of Which-the apparatus of my invention is connected for lowering in the well. A
tubing extension .'I is connected to tubing string 6 by means of a coupling 8, the bore of which is restricted to formv an upwardly directed annular valve seat 9 for a purpose later referred to.
Referring particularly to the embodiment of` Figs. 1 and 2: The tubing extension I protrudes telescopically into a tubular member I0 andA into an integral housing-head II of the packer' later to be described, of larger diameter than` member I0 which is threaded onto the lower end of the member. The lower end o"f the tubingl extension 'I'is internally threadedlto receive an insert I2 having anopening I3 the ethrough. An annular flanged lower end I4 f the insertv abuts against the end of the extension. The lower end of the bore of insert I2 is flared to form a valve seat I5.A A downwardly opening valve I6 to contact seat I5 is provided with a concentric valve stem I'I extending upwardly into the bore of extension l. A conical spiral spring I8 seats on the upper end of, insert I2 and bears against an adjusting nut I9 threaded on the upper end of stem I I to normally retain valve I6 on its seat. The bore of the tubing extension 1 is preferably of uniform diameter but theoutside diameter or the lower portion of the 'extension is reduced. An annular spring seat 2| is integrally formed with extension 1 so as to encircle the extension at the lower end of its diametrically larger portion. Ports 22 through the wall of the tubing extension directly above insert I2 are normally closed by a sleeve valve 23 encircling the tubing lthe sleeve valve. An inverted L-shaped slot 25 is cut through the wall of tubular member I into which a stud 26, welded or otherwise secured to the tubing, extends. The slot and stud 26 are located with respect to one another in positions whereby the engagement of the stud in the horizontal portion of the slot locks the tubing extension against telescopic movement within member I0 and housing-head I of the packer, with spring seat 2| against the lower end of tubular member` I0. Intermediate the ends of houslng-head and below the lower end of tubing extension 1 a distance less than the length of the vertical portion of the slot, the bore of the housing-head is restricted to form an upwardly directed beveled valve seat 21. The opening through valve seat 21 is of a diameter greater than the diameter of the insert flange I4 andv tubing extension 1, but less than the outside diameter of sleeve valve 23 to permit the telescopic extension o f the lower end of the tubing extension through valve seat 21, whereupon the beveled lower end 28 of sleeve valve 23 will close the bore of the housing-head by contact with seat 21. The housing-head1 I is provided with a series of lateral ports- 29 directly above seat 21 which communicate the bore of the body with the well.
The housing-head of the packer later described is formed at its lower end with an integral base 38 having an axially threaded opening into whichthe upper end of'a tube 3| is threaded. A rat hole packer 32 is mounted on tube 3| intermediate the base of housing-head andj'a collar 33 welded or otherwise secured on the tube, which assists in supporting the packer. The tube 3| is perforated below`packer 32 as at 34 to form a screen 35`for the receptionv of fluids from the portion of the well to be tested.
In the embodiment of my invention illustrated in Figs. 3-5, the tubing extension 1, secured to the tubing string by coupling 8 and constructed as above noted, is adapted to telescope into the upper diametrically reduced portion 36 of a tubular packer body 31, which portion 36 forms a housing for valve 23 and its seat 40. The packer body is normally suspended on the spring seat 2|' of tubing extension 1 by a collar 38 slidably en circling the tubingand threaded into the upper end of the body. A helical spring 39 encircles the extension so as to seat on collar 38 and bear at its upper end against valve coupling 8 to `resisttelescopic contraction of the packer body 31 and tubing extension 1.
Intermediate Ythe ends. of the upper reduced portion of the packe;` body an annular valve seat 40 is formed in the bore on which sleeve valve 23 is adapted to seat as above noted, in connection with the embodiment of Figs. l and 2. Lateral ports 4| through the upper portion of the body communicate the interior of the packer body and the well for a purpose hereinafter described. y
The diametrically enlarged lower portion 42 of Apacker body 31 is integrally formed with an exterior annular flange 43'recessed as at 44 on its underside for the engagement of an annular hook wall packer 45. Conventional slip mechanism is tained slidably in vertical gro l5' provided to expand the packer within a well casing or shaft comprising an expanding element 48 slidable on packer body 31 and secured tothe lower end of packer 45. A sleeve 41 on the packer body below expanding element 46 isnormalLy held against vertical movement on the packer body by the engagement of a pair of studs 48 located on opposite sides of the packer body with corresponding hooks 49 formed integrally `with the lower end of the sleeve. A plurality of outwardly .bowed leaf springs 50 are secured in spaced relation around the lower en of sleeve 41 by suitable means and with the lupper ends res 5| formed in the sleeve. A. series of slips '52 are held on the expanding element by attachment of the lower end of their respective stems 53 to sleeve 41. A
collar 54 is threaded on the exterior of thelower end of the packer body and has an outside diameter .substantially equal to the same diameter of the sleeve to limit' downward movement of the sleeve. The lower end of the packer body is again telescopically reducedV as at 55 and formed with an interiorly threaded vopening for attachment of a screen 56. The tubing string and packer -body arey held against relative rotation by a key 51, welded or otherwise secured on the tubing extension above spring seat 2| to engage in a key way 58 formed in thecollar 38 throughout the telescopic movement` of the tubing and packer body.
The operation of my invention is briefly de-v scribed as follows: It is a general procedure toinstall the tester embodying thev invention on thel 3l bottom of the drill pipe or tubing string 1 as illustrated, with valve I6 closed and valve 23 closing ports 22 thus preventing any fluid from entering the drill pipe or tubing while being. lowered lin the well. As the device is lowered vto position iluid in the well will be by-passed by flowing into screen 35 or 58 through the packer body and returning into the well 'above the packer through ports 29`or 4|. Should the device become wedged in the casing or well shaft as a result of restrictions of the bore of either due to' cavings or ac' cumulated debris thereabove, mud huid may be introduced into the tubing string and pumped downwardly under'pressure to displace valve I 5 and irculatey from the ports to the well surface through the well shaft or casing around the tubing string to thereby' remove the'objectionable matter and free the string.. It will be observed that circulationl from the well surface may be established through the screen if desirable, as when, for example, cavings in the well shaft should bind the packer or adjacent portion of the string below the ports 28 and 4|, by telescoping thev tubing. into the packer body and opening ports 22 for communication with` the lower bore of the packer body.
v When the packer on the tester reaches the proper point` above the Aformation to be tested, the packer is set to exclude anyy of the drilling fluid outside of the drill pipe or tubing from ilowing downward to the formation to be tested.
Various types of packers may be substituted forv at the desired location, the tubing string is again lowered to telescope the tubing extension .1 into the packer body to seat sleeve valve 23 and thus -close the ports 29 or 4| to communication with the bore of the well shaft below the packer, and to communicate the tubing string with the screen 35 or 5t through the packer body and ports 22 in the tubular extension. This telescopic contraction of the tubing extension and packer body will be effected in the embodiment of my invention illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2 after partially lrotating the tubing string in a clockwise direction to bring the stud 26 into alignment with the vertical portion of the slot 25. In the embodiment of Figs. 3-5 the tubing extension may be telescoped against the tension of spring 39 after first rotating the string to disengage the studs 68.
from hooks iii to permit the further lowering of the string to expand the packer. Further telescopic contraction of the tubing extension and packer body will displace upwardly valve 23 on the tubular extension and allow the now of oil, sas or water, if present. from the formation into the empty tubing string. If gas were present in the formation, it would flow freely 'through the empty in proportion, number and shape of the various parts may be made, that a spring 39 (Fig. 3) may beemployed in lieu of the pin and slot in the apparatus of Fig. 1 to resist telescopic contraction of the relatively moving parts, and that packers of any conventional type may be substi- 1, packer housing-head Il, or the same tubing drill pipe or tubing, its volume being measured at the surface. After the tester has been allowed to remain open for a desired period of time, valve 23 is then closed and the packer unseated by elevoting the drill pipe or tubing to remove the device with the entrapped sample of water or oil received from the formation.
Valve i@ will remain closed in response to the urge of spring i8 unless it is necessary to circulate through the tubing string and ports 29 or di trom the well surface. If circulation is desirable through thev screen the tubing and packer body may be telescoped and the circulating iiuid pumped into the packer body through ports 22 in the tubing screen. The nut i@ on the valve stem may be adjusted to compress the spring whereby the latter will resist considerable pressure from within the tubing string tending to open the valve and, accordingly, may be adapted to maintain the closed position of the valve against the hydrostatic weight of the uid comprising the sample or circulating uidy remaining in the tubing as the tubing'is removed fromthevvell. Where it is desirable to maintain a light tension on spring it, e. g., to avoid exces and its extension, and tubular packer 31, and any extension therebelow to the well screen, although I do not limit my invention to such specific ele-4 ments. By means to anchor I refer to any 'device by which the ilow line is secured at a selected .point Within the well, a.. preferred embodiment of which is described above as conventional slip mechanism for hook wall packer 45. e
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters 1. In vawell testing device for use in a well shaft, a pair of telescopically connected tubular members, one of said members forming a head for a packer and having a lateral port therein comsive pressure incident to circulating should it be necessary, the sample may be entrapped in the tubing string by dropping a ball valve te into the tubing when preparing to remove the apparatus. The ball will fall through the iiuid comprising the sample and close the bore of coupling d by engaging seat 9 as shown in dotted lines in Fig. l., to prevent the drainage of the sample from the tubing string as the latteris raised. It
water, or gas from the tubing. 4
If the iormation is dry, it would be established by the absence of oil,v
municating the bore of the lowermost tubular valve member movablev in said head and actuated by telescopic contraction of said tubular members to close said communication with the Well shaft and open communication between said tubular members through said head, and means operable in response to relative rotation between said members for controlling relative movement between said members longitudinally.
2. Acirculating valve assembly adapted for use witha pipe in o, well shaftconsisting essentially of twoconduit members, one superposed relative to the other, telescoped and secured together for limited relative movement and mounted above a packer, one of said members forming a housinghead for the packer and having lateral ports therein communicating the bore of said member below thefpacker with the well shaft above-the packer, and. a valve in said housing-head for packer to the section above the packer through it om te understood that numerous changes I' establishing and interrupting the iiow of uid from the section of the well shaft below'the said housing-head adapted to establish and interrupt the iiow of uid through the packer to the upper conduit member, said valve being opened and clos'ed by manipulation of the conduit members.
ERD V.; CROWELL.