US 2397838 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 2, 1946 M. A. CHAVANNES METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING ELASTIC FABRICS 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 I NV EN TOR.
Filed March 30, 1940 M06 All-WED C/MWW/VES ATTORNE April 2, 1946. M. A. CHAVANNES 2,397,333v
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING ELASTIC FABRICS Filed March 50, 1940 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 v INVENTOR. fi/iflC ALFRED Cf/AVAN/VES ATTORNE nuns mi 45 April 2, 1946. I M. A. CHAVANNES 9 3 METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING ELASTIC FABRICS Filed March 30, 1940 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR, MARC IMF/YE D C/rAV/W vATTORIV' April 2, 1946. M. A. CHAVANNES METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING ELASTIC FABRICS 4 Shee ts-Sheet 4 Filed March 30, 1940 Fume.
I INVENTOR. fill/PC ALF/FED CHAWMVES ATTOR Y.
Patented Apr. 2, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUC- ING ELASTIC FABRICS Marc Alfred Chavannes, Genthod, Switzerland, assignor to American Ecla Corporation, Dover, DeL, a corporation of Delaware 11 Claims.
This invention relates to improvements in methods and apparatus used in the production of elastic fabrics and to the products resulting from the use of such improved methods and apparatus. It is particularly applicable'to the pro.- ductionof fabrics capable of stretching simultaneously in all directions in two dimensions, although some featuresare applicable also to the production of fabrics of other types.
In my prior applications Ser. No. 316,336, filed January 30, 1940, and Ser. No. 321,618, filed March 1, 1940, and in Schwartz application Ser. No. 112,972, filed November 27,1936, and map-1 plications by Schwartz and Chavannes Ser. No. 137,254, filed April 16, 1937, Ser. No}. 157,504, filed August 5, 1937, Ser. No. 162,892, fi1ed September 8, 1937, Ser. No. 197,935, filed March 24, 1938, and Ser. No. 214,916, filed June 21, 1938,
various methods and apparatus have been dis closed by which elastic fabrics may be produced capable of stretching in one or all directions. Fabrics produced in accordance with these prior methods have received their elasticity from rubber latex sprayed upon the surfaces of stretchable, but non-elastic, base materials which are combined or united by the adhesive action of the latex. Various schemes have been suggested, moreover, for increasing the stretch of the reof stretching sufliciently to build up the desired restoring forces in this manner.
sulting composite fabric in certain directions.
However, it has not'been possible in the production of these fabrics to impart a sufficient resistance to stretch, and accompanying restoring force or kick, to render them suitable for certain corset purposes, and the like, without utilizing an excessive amount'of the latex and producing an objectionably thick and heavy fabric. This is due to the fact that in applying the layers or coatings of rubber latex, according to these prior methods, it has not been possible to form the rubber into a homogeneous and continuous, fiat film having the characteristics of a separate film of rubber, nor is it possible to place the rubberv under initial tension. Rubber which is com pletely relaxed, i. e., under no initial tension, will offer little resistance to stretch at the outset but this resistance will increase as the extent of stretching of the rubber increases. If base materials or fabrics having unlimited stretchability could be'used, the desired resistance to stretch could be obtained by stretching the composite fabric to the required extent in use. Thus, a girdle formed of the fabric could be made suiliciently small, when untensioned, to givethe desired restraining forces upon stretching the same to apply it to the figure. But base fabrics suit- Furthermore, it is desirable in many instances to provide a substantial restoring force without stretching the composite fabric to any, great extent.
It has been an important object of the present invention to produce elastic fabrics having the outward appearance, and feel of ordinary non-elastic fabrics and capable of producing predetermined, substantial restoring forces upon relatively little elongation from their normal, re-
laxed conditions. A more specific object has been to produce fabrics of the character mentioned, having elasticity in all directions in two dimensions; these may be designated all-way stretch" fabrics. In connection with all types of elastic fabrics, it has been an object to provide regulated or controlled elasticity or resistance to stretch, throughout the range of stretchabillty of the fabrics.
An important feature of the invention is its applicability to the production of fabrics having I appearance, or it may present the effect of anyother of a wide variety of non-elastic fabrics of woven or knit or other character.
A further feature of the invention is its adaptability for the production of elastic fabric having distinctly different stretch characteristics in different portions of an integral length of the fabric. By appropriate steps in the production of the multi-ply, elastic fabric, one section may be given a substantially greater resistance to stretch than another section without substantially altering the appearance of the fabric and without correspondingly modifying the weight or thickness of the fabric. This phase of the invention is of particular utility in the production of fabric for use in various'types of body-confining or molding'garments, such as girdles, corsets, brassieres and the like,
Still another feature offthe invention is its adaptability for the production of an integral length of elastic fabric which is substantially flat over most of its area,.when extended to its normal length and width but not stretched, but has a series of pocket formations, or any other de sired configuration, in relief at selected points,
1 under these conditions, without the necessity of 1 employing folds or darts or seams of any charactor. This phase of the invention has a wide variety of applications. It is particularly advantageous for the production of fabrics for use in brassieres, bathing suits, andthe like, wherein extra fullness or special pocket formations, or
} some particular configurations, are desirable at various points.
Other objects, features and advantages of the invention will appear from the detailed descriptlon of several illustrative forms of the same which will now be given in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a schematic view, in elevation, illustrating a method and means by which the improved, composite, elastic fabric may be produced. 1
Fig. 2 is a similar schematic view in elevation,
illustnating certain steps and means employed in a subsequent stage of the improved method.
Fig.- 3 is a plan view showing schematicallythe devices of Fig. l. a V 1 Figs. 4 and 5 are schematic views, in elevation and plan, respectively, illustrating a modified method and means of performing certain, steps of the improved method.
Figs. 6 and 7 are schematic views, in elevation I and plan, respectively, illustrating a method and means of carrying out subsequent steps in the modified method.
Figs. 8 and 9 are schematic views, in elevation and plan, respectively, illustrating a further modi= j ficatiop: for carrying out certain steps of the improved process.
formation'isprovided in the fabric.
Fig. 11 is an isometric view illustrating, sche= matically and on agreatly enlarged scale, a sec tion of fabric, produced by the improved method,
having greater elasticity or resistance to stretch from which'it may be readily stripped. The latexemployed for this purpose may be of a prevulcanized type so that the film is vulcanized as it is formed or upon simple exposure tothe atmos phere. However, if desired, the film may be formedof ordinary latex, with any of the com mon accelerators and vulcanizing agents, and then subjected to a later vulcanizing operation Fig. 10 is an isometric view'illustrating, sche- 1 matically, a step in the method by which a pocket in a conventional manner. In any case the film I may be formed by spraying a plurality of layers or coats of latex upon an appropriate surface or by applying the latex to such surface in any other convenient way.
In the preferred practice of the invention one face of each of a pair of base materials is preferably coated with a relatively light coating or i series of coatings of rubber latex, sumcient to provide an efiective bond with one surface of the rubber film which is subsequently inserted leetween the two base fabrics. Any of the methods and features set forth in the aforementioned, pending applications may be employed in the aseasse application of the coating or coatings of latex to the surfaces of the base materials. It will be understood that these base materials will be selected with the desired appearance of the final, composite fabric in view and with the desired stretch characteristics of the final, composite fabric in view. Preferably the latex coatings will be applied'by a method and apparatus of the character set forth in the pending application Ser. No. 214,916. In the use of this method and apparatus I have found it desirable to subject each of the fabrics to a number of coating op- 'erations, i. e., a number of passages .through the spraying zone, the number varying with the amount of rubber desired. Durirng these coating operations the sprays are preferably adjusted to apply between two and twenty grams per square meter for each coating or each passage of the fabrics through the spraying zone. The operation is preferably such that the sprayed latex will not penetrate deeply into the fabric but will simply become lodged on the high points of "the coated side. Its presence will then not be apparent from the opposite side.
Referring now to Figs. 1 and 3, the base fabrics, having the rubber latex sprayed on one face of each, are carried in rolls l0 and H. The arrangement is such that the inner or upper surface of the fabric taken from roll i0 is provided with the porous, adhesive coating, which has not yet been vulcanized and is still quite tacky, while the fabric taken from. roll H has a similar coating, of either the same or dlfierent thickness or weight, on its outer or under surface. The fabrics taken from these rolls, which are supported in any suitable way by the frame of the machine, are brought together over a guide roller l2 and are then passed over the surface of a table E3 to a take-up roller it. V
Between the two webs or layers of base material, there is fed from a roll 85, suitably supported in the frame of the machine, the beforementioned Web or thin sheet or film of rubber. This is passed over the gulderoller I2 between the two base materials and continues in this relation over the table l3, on which the three layers or webs are adhesively combined or united in the manner to be explained. The rubber. sheet or film may bear any suitable thickness, depending upon the strength and elasticity of the composite fabric desired. It may vary between .001 and .010 inch, although in certain cases it may be more or less than this. Its weight, in an unstretched condition, may appropriately vary between and 300 grams per square meter, although it may, for special purposes, be either lighter or heavier than this.
The rubber film. may be made in any know manner. It may be formed by spraying rubber latex upon a relatively. smooth surface from which the sheet of rubber may readily be stripped. For this purpose a sheet or belt formed of cellulose acetate may suitably be employed as the deposition surface. This hasbeen found to have the requisite smoothness of surface and will permit the rubber film to be readily stripped from it. The important considerations are that the surface, on which the film is formed, should be water-proof, smooth and of such. nature as to enable the ready stripping of the rubber film from it. In the formation of the rubber film, the deposition surface, from which it is stripped, may be subjected to between 2 and 20 sprayings of coatings.
As shown in Fig. 3, the webs of base material carried by the rolls HI and I l are preferably wider than the roll I! of the rubber film. As the rubber film is passed over the guide roller [2, its longitudinal edges are attached, by appropriately stationed operators, to small clamps Hi, which are adapted to grip the opposite edges, of the rubber film at suitably spaced intervals. These clamps are provided with hooks or rings I'I slidably carriedby guide rods. The portions IQ of these guide rods, adjacent the roller H, are parallel and spaced only sufiiciently to enable the clamps IE to grip and hold the rubber film fiat but withoutsubstantial tension. As the rubber film is attached to the series of clamps, in the manner indicated, the latter will be advanced along the rods l8, by operators stationed at the two sides of the apparatus, and as the clamps are moved along the divergent portions 20 of the rods, the rubber film .will be stretched widthwise. This widthwise stretching of the rubber film may be to any extent desired, depending upon the amount of elasticity or kick" desired in the final, composite fabric and depending upon other factors, such as the original thickness, strength and composition of the film, the nature of the base fabrics, etc. The widthwise stretching of the rubber filmmay appropriately be between 25 and 100% of its original width,although' the film may K be stretched to an even greater or to a less extent for certain purposes. Beyond the divergent portions of the rods l8 there are parallel portions 2| which serve to maintain-the rubber film in the selected, stretched condition asit is carried over the table l3.
After a suitable section of the rubber film has been carried over the table l3, between the layers of base fabric, the three layers may be appropriately clamped against the top of the table, along a line adjacent the supply or receiving end, by means of a bar 22 operated in any suitable way, as by means of a lever 23. This arrangement is such as to retain one end of the sections of the three materials to be operated upon in fixed relation to the table while the three layers are otherwise still free. The forward end of the rubber film in the section beyond the bar 22,. which may be, say, ten yards in length and which overliesthe table II, is now advanced an appropriate extent to stretch the film lengthwise to any desired percentage of itsoriginal length. This is accomplished by the operators stationed at the two sides of the table, who may slide the clamps. along the section 2| of the rods and who may also pull the rubber film forwardly by gripping it intermediate its edges. After it has been stretched the desired extent, the forward end of the section of material overlying the table I! may be clamped to thelatter by a bar similar to the bar 22, or, if desired, the appropriate tension may be maintained on the rubber film by means of the take-up roller II;
It will be understood that up to this stage in the process the base fabrics and the rubber film have not yet been united and only the rubber film has been stretched. The base fabrics are still in their normal, untensioned condition so that if a ten-yard length of the rubber film has been stretched to fifteen yards, fifteen-yard lengths of each of the base materials will be required to be unitedvwith the rubber film. The uniting of the three layers of the composite fabric may now be accomplished in any suitable way, as by pressing and rolling a hand-operated roller 24 against and over the upper surface of the base fabric H. The roller may be readily operated in such a way as to avoid. wrinkling or creasing the fabric-and in this way an effective bond maybe bonded, the tension on the section of material over the table may be released by lifting the bar or bars 22 and by unclamping the members I from the edges of the rubber film. This will result in both a widthwise and lengthwise contraction of the fabric to a certain extent, although the rubber may not, in some cases, return to its original, unstretched dimension. The partially completed section of material may be-rolled upon the. take-up roller I4 and a new section of each of thethree layers may be brought over the table l3 and theoperation repeated until a composite fabric of appropriate length has been formed. At either this stage or at some subsequent stage the rubber film which extends beyond the edges of the base fabrics may be trimmed off and, if desired, a small strip of the base fabrics may be trimmed at each edge. I
In the event that a sufficient bond between the rubber film and, the base fabrics, has not been effected by means of the hand-operated roller 24, the fabric on the roll ll may subsequently be passed between a pair of pressure rolls, such as calender rolls or the like, adapted to squeeze the layers or plies of the fabric together underrelatively high pressure. In this'way the rubber film and base fabrics may be brought into intimate engagement. I
g It has been found that a considerably further contraction of the fabric may be. brought about by wetting the same after the several plies. or
layers have been firmly united or combined and preferably, although not necessarily, before the sprayed latex on the base fabrics has been vulcanized. The wetting of the fabric appears to put the base materials and even the fibers themselves into a'plastic condition, enabling the threads to amust themselves readily and permitting the tensioned rubber film to bring about a further contraction both widthwise and lengthwise. However, it will be understood that even in the wet condition the fabric may not be contracted sumcientlytorelieve the entire tension in the rubber film. A substantial portion of the pretensioning of the latter may remain, by appropriate selection of the base materials. This will be done when asubstantial initial kick isdesired. As a result of the-contraction of the fabric, the threads-or yarns of which it is formed will be brought more closely together than in the original base fabrics. Accordingly, the final, combined fabric will appear to be of a much finer texture, i. e., more closely woven or knit than the original base materials.
In Fig. 2 there is schematically illustrated the wetting, drying and vulcanizing operations to which the composite fabric on the roll I4 is sub-' sequently subjected. This composite fabric may be passed through a bath of water, preferably plain water, in a tank 25, Any suitable means may be employed for insuring the thorough wetting of the fabric with a minimum of strain or J neath a dr'ying hood 2! arranged to blow a stream an new:
of hot air upon and around the fabric and after it has been dried it maybe passed through an appropriate vulcanizer 128. Here the sprayed latex previously applied to the surfacespf the base fabrics will be subjected to appropriate vulcanization. The rubber film, however, should not be affected because of the use of prevulcanized latex in the'productionof this film or because of its prior vulcanization in other ways. Accordingly, the vulcanizing conditions in the vulcanizer 28 should be such as not to over-cure the rubber in the film-or otherwise detrimentally affect this film. The acceleratorsemployed in the production of the rubber film should be of such a char-- acter as not to bring about over-curing ofthe rubber in the vulcanizer 28, or the accelerators used in the latex applied to the base fabrics should be of such character as not to require a temperaforce the fabric over a series of fine needles car-. ried by the roller or drum 29. If considerable l 30 through several sets of rollers of this character.
porosity is desired, the fabric may be passed Other known means of producing the perforations may be employed, if desired, and this step might I be carried out at some other stage in the process.
After leaving the perforating rolls, the fabric may be subjected to any desired, final treatments and 1 formed into bolts or other suitable lengths, ready I for shipment and use. I
Referring now to Figs. '4 to 7, inclusive, a
different form of apparatus for carrying out the invention is schematically illustrated. A vulcanized rubber film, which may be formed in any of theways previously explained, may be supplied from a roll 3| and, without imparting any substantial lengthwise tension thereto, it may be applied to the needles 32 of suitable conveyor chains from the roll at any desired rate by means of a motor 31. Any suitable-form of variable drive mechanism, such as'indic'ated at 88, may be provided between the motor and the roll 36. For example, a drive of the well known'Reeves type may be employed, a belt 39 being provided to take off power from this variable drive mechanism and transmit it to the roller 36. By appropriate adiustment of a hand wheel 40, any appropriate reduction in the drive may be effected between the motor 31 and the roll 36.
The base fabrics to be united with the rubber film fed from the'roll 36 may be carried by rolls 4| and 42. These fabrics may be of any selected type of material, preferably capable of stretching to at least some extent in either one or both directions, i. e., widthwise and lengthwise, or being ward the rubber film. The three layers of mate 4 rial, including both base fabrics and the intermediate rubber film, are passed between a pair of feed rollers 43 and 44, the latter of which is preferably driven by means of a belt or chain connected with the drive mechanism 38. This arrangement is such that the rate of feed of the rollers 43 and 44 may be varied to any desired extent with relation to the rate of feed of the rubber film from the roll 36'. Thus, if it is desired to impart a lengthwise stretch to the rubber film as it is inserted between thetwo base fabrics, the ratio of the rate of feed of the rubber film from the roll 36 to the peripheral speed of the.. In this ofthe rubber film about the roller will add little 33 arranged at the opposite edges of the rubber film. A roller or brush 34 of suitable form may assist in attaching the rubber film to the needles 32 at the receiving-end of they-chains. These chains, as best illustrated in Fig. 5, may be arranged to diverge at any appropriate :angle so 1" priate-way by power from a motor or the like (not shown), the rubber will be withdrawn from that as the rubber film is carried along by the I needles 32, it'will be stretched widthwise to any a desired extent. The angle betweenrthe chains may be made variable or adjustable, if desired. At the end 35 of the conveyor chains, which, it willbe'understood, are operated in any approthe needles and wound upon a roller 36. This may be accomplished without applying any sub- 1 ,stantial lengthwise tension to the film and, due
to the friction of the wrappings of the film on the i The roll'36 of the rubber film, thus tensioned in a widthwise direction, may now be placed upon an appropriate combiningmachine, the roll'being suitably supportedby frames (not shown) and adapted to be driven to feed the rubber film to the total diameter of'the roll and will thus cause but slight variation in the rate of feed of the film from the roll. If desired, suitablecom I .connection withthe fabric producedby the firstdescribed apparatus. This subsequent treatment may include a thorough wetting of the combined fabric, to render it plastic and thus induce a fur,- ther" contraction, and it may include the perforating step or steps and preparation of the fabric steps of the improved method is schematically illustrated. In this arrangement, the rubber film in unstretched and untensioned condition is carried by a roll 41, mounted on suitable frames (not shown) and adapted to be driven by a motor 48 through a variable drive mechanism 49, which may be'of the same type as the drive mechanism these rollers.
38 previously described. A belt Ill may serveto connect the drive mechanismwith the roll 41.
As the-rubber film is fed from the roll 4| ,"it is applied by means of a brush or roller 5| to the pins or 53. These conveyor chains are arranged to diverge with respect to eachother so as to produce the widthwise stretch of the rubber film as it is advanced from the receiving end, beneath the roll 5|, toward the 'dischargeend 54. 1 Chains 53 ,are adapted to be driven by the motor '48, through the drive mechanism 49, at a speed differing fromthe rate of feed of the rubber "film from the roller 41 in any relationship desired. Thus, if the film is to be'given a 50% lengthwise stretch before it is combined with the non-elasticfabrics, it willbe fed from'the'roller 41 at a' rate which is only two-thirds of the rate at which it is advanced by the conveyor chains 53. With this driven at the same peripheral speedas the rated advance of the conveyor chains;- In thisway the same lengthwise tension, initially imparted to the film, will be maintained as it is combined withthe base fabrics taken from the rolls 5! and 58. It will be understood that these base fabrics may be of any of the types of stretchable, but non-elastic, materials previously explained and they will have an appropriate coating or coatings of latex upon the surfaces facing the rubber film so as to adapt them to be adhesivelyunitedjherewith. A sum-- needles 52 of a pair of conveyor chains rubber .film byjfirst forming a fiat,'unvulcanized film and then molding this into the desired form in the course of vulcanization," I
Now when'therubber film, formed in either methods described, the extra fullness or pocket formation or other I configuration will be eliminated andthe rubber film under tension will become perfectly fiat. However, due to the previous fullness or'pocket-formation of the rubber at the particular points, the tension upon the rubber in the areas formed over the projections 60 of the moldingfsurface will be substantially less I than'the tension in the originally fiat portions of the film and in some cases'they may be substan- "tiallyf free of tension, i. e. if the film is simply stretchedenough to flatten the projections.
Since the rubber film will be entirely fiat while under tension, it may be combined with the two a base fabrics, in any of, the ways explained, without presenting any special 'diificulty. However,
cient pressure or squeezing tension may be provided bythe rollers and 58 to firmly bond or unite the three layers as they are passed between The combined or composite fabric may then be woundupon a roll 59 andsubjected to any of the further treatments 'hereinbei'ore mentioned.
As a special feature of theinvention, it has been found that the final combined fabric may be very simply and effectively provided with pocket formations or other desired configurations-in relief at any desired points by a procedure which will now be explained. These pocket formations are in the nature of an extra fullness of the material or slack at the selectedpoints, when the material is laid fiat upon a table or the'like'. This slackness, or'extra fullness or special formation, may be very neatly imparted to the composite fabric by simply forming the inserted film of rub-- ber in such 'a way as to present the same fullness or pocket construction when not tensioned. Thus,
as illustrated in Fig. 1 0, the rubber film may be formed upon a surfaceof cellulose acetate, or the like, having bumps or projections 80' of any suitable configuration and size so that as' the film is formed by spraying a plurality of coats of latex from a nozzle or series of nozzles, 6|, it will be given this particular configuration. It will be clear that when the film is subsequently stripped from the cellulose acetate backing, it will not lie fiat but will have the extra "fullness or pocket formation, or other form of the surface on which it is 'produwd, at the points where the projections.
60 were provid d On the depositionsurface. Or the desired configuration may be imparted to, the
when the base'fabrics and'rubber film have been combined, and the tension is released upon the rubber film to the 'full'extent permitted by the base fabrics, it will be found that the extra. fullness 0 special formation will be imparted to the composite fabric. This 'extra fullness may not be to quite the same extent as inthe original rubber filmbutlt will bea substantial percentage of that original fullness. Due allowance for the possible difference should, of course, be made in the formation of thebumps 60 on the molding surfaces. 'In this waya ontinuous strip of elastic fabric may, for example, be formed with bust pockets provided at appropriateintervals tofenable a series of brassiere sections, or bathing suit sections, or the like tobe' cut therefrom,
In the production of the sheetor film of rubber, t e thickness of varions portions or sectionslof the sa e maybe varied, if desired, whether the sheet is s implyffiat or is'provided withthe projecting portions or pockets Just described.v 'This is in the event that extra strength and resistance to stretch or kick" }is desired in certain portions of the fabric which spraying operations. For example, if the thickest portions of the film are to be made of such a weightas to require ten passages of the mold or deposition surface through the spraying zone, the
entire area of the mold might be exposed for, say; five of these passages and thenselected portions, which are-to be thinner than the remaining portions of the film, may be covered with papenor the like, to prevent the latex from being deposited on those selected portions during the subsequent passages of the mold or deposition surface through the spraying zone. In this wayfthe selected areas which are covered or "shielded by paper will be of only about half the thickness of the areas which have not been covered. Obviously, the shielding may be applied at any esired stage or stages in the formation of the rubher film.
.It has been discovered, however, that a much, greater variation in the elasticityor resistance to stretch of difi'erentportionsof the .final 'fabric may be produced by. a variationin the quantity of latex sprayed upon different portions of.
are to form, for example, some particular parts of garments 'or'the like. This base fabrics. It been found, for example.
that if a certain areaof the base fabrics, such as that between the lines 62 and 63 of Figure 11 is given, y. w l coatings of latex, e. 8., is passed' through the ered or shielded with paper or. the like during the remaining four passages through the spraying zone, the composite fabric resulting fromthe combination of such base fabrics with a tensioned rubber film will .have an elasticity or, resistance to stretch. in the region between -thc-lines ,62 and p 63 that is many times the elasticity atother portions of the fabric. This is remarkable in view of the factthat the actual diiference in the amount of rubberin .the area between the lines small. For example, if the rubber film weighs 150 grams per square yard, the coatings on the two base fabrics in the area between the lines I 62 and 63 may be, say, eighty grams per square yard while thecoatings'on the base fabrics in.
other areas may be forty grams per square yard. In the composite fabric, then, the total rubber in the area between the lines 62 and 63 willbe 230 grams per square yard whereas the total weight of rubber in other, sections of the fabric will be 190 grains per square yard. Yet the elasticity, or resistance to stretch, of the section between the lines 62 and 63 may be three or four times, or even more, the resistance to stretch of other portions of the fabric. While I do not wishto limit myself to any theory as to howv this remark. able result is brought about, it is possible that it is due to the fact that the rubber in the inserted film andthe rubber in the latex applied to the coated'base fabrics is in part subjected to tensile stresses andin part to shear stresses.
Whenthe greater amount of latexis' applied to the base fabrics, there may be a correspondingly greater effect of the shear stresses, which mayac count-for the abnormallyincreased resistancetO stretch. Or theglobules or dropletsof latex on the base fabrics in arihering'to the-rubberfilm at spaced points may sormodify its stretchcharacteristics as to producethis result. It'will be appreciated that fabric of the type indicated in Fig. 11, having different sections of different stretch characteristics, may be used to advantage. in the production of various forms of garments and other articles. panties, of the type shown in Fig. 12, may be formed with a band 64, spaced somewhat below the upper edge, of greater elasticityor resistance to stretchthan the upper andlower portions}! and 6B, This will enable the intermediate portion 64 to exert a desired confining force upon the abdomen while the upper'and lower portions of the garment 'may have a relatively easy resistance to stretch and interfere little with the have been disclosed in'considerable detail, it will be understood that numerous variations may be made in the several methods'of procedure. and
in the form and arrangementof the apparatus for carrying outthe improved methods. as well as in the character of the products resulting from these improved methods, without departing from For example,
the general principles and scope of the invention. The terms and, expressions used herein have been used as terms of descriptionand not of limitation- The term "textile base fabric. as
i used in the claims is intended to include knit, woven and other fabrics produced-by the inter- I .engagementof threads'or yarns. JThe term "extra fullness" as herein employed may be defined as, the condition of ,the fabric resulting from the factthatthe surface area of. a particular. portion when-relaxed is greater than thatof a plain surface bounded by the-same periphery as said portion. Iclaimz l6 1. A method of producing elastic'fabrlc having the appearance and feel of non-elastic fabric ,whichcomprises forming a, thin-vulcanized film of rubber, applying unvulcanized rubber latex to only one surface-of each of a pair .of textile base fabrics, stretching said. rubber film, adhesively uniting said base fabrics by means of said latex to the opposite faces oLsaid rubber film as the latter is held stretched, wetting the composite fabric so formed with water, and subsequently 26 vulcanizing the latex. i a
2. A method of producing elastic fabric having substantially different resistance to stretch in an- I ferent regions and the appearance and feel'of non-elastic fabric which comprises forming a 30 thin, vulcanized filmof rubber, applying rubber latex to only one surface of each of a pair of textile base fabricsby spraying a plurality of successive 'lightcoatsupon each .of the same in such 3. A method of producing elastic fabric; having the appearance and feel ofnon-elastic fabric which comprises forming athin, vulcanizedfilm .of rubber, applying-rubber latex to only one surface .ofeach of a pair of textile base fabrics,
stretching said rubber film and tensioning the same both widthwise and lengthwise and holding the same in stretched condition, varying the tensioning force imparted by said stretching to different portions of said rubber film, and adhesively uniting said base fabrics by means of said latex to the opposite faces of said rubber film, as the latter isheld stretched. i
4. A method of producingelastic fabric having the appearance and feel of non-elastic fabric which comprises, forming athin, vulcanized film of rubber having integral portions of excess area formingpockets when the film is laidflat but not stretched, applying rubber latex to only onesur- 0 face of each of a pair, of textile base fabrics,
stretchingisaid rubber film and thereby eliminat-1 ing said pockets, and adhesively uniting said base fabrics by means of said latex to the'opposite faces of said rubber mm as the latter is held 68 stretched. 1 r f I 5. A method of producing elastic fabric having the appearance'and feel of fnon-elastic fabric which comprisesforming athin, vulcanized film of rubber having integral slack portions of greater 70 area than the, plane area enclosed'by the line .of'
connection between said portions and the surrounding parts of the film when the latter is not under tension,v applying' rubber latex to only one surface of each of a pair of textilebase fabrics, 7s stretching said rubber film and thereby eliminating said slack portions, and adheslvely uniting said base fabrics by means of said latex tothe opposite faces of said rubber film as the latter is held stretched.
6. A method of producing elastic fabric which comprises forming' a thin, vulcanizing rubber film having substantially fiat portions and pocketed portions extending out of the general plane of said flat portions, and adhesively uniting therewith, by means of rubber latex, anon-elas tic but stretchable textile base fabric, the rubber film being stretched in two dimensions in the plane of said substantially fiat portions and held under tension while the base fabric is substantially unstretched during the uniting process.
7. A method of producing elastic fabric which comprises forming a thin, vulcanizing rubber film, applying rubber latex in variable amounts to one surface of a textilebase fabric of stretchable but non-elastic material, said latex being applied in greater quantities at some portions of said surface than-at others, and adheslvely uniting said surface of the base fabric to a surface of said rubber film .while the latter is tensioned in two directions and held under tension. r
8.- In apparatus of the class described means for feeding a thin rubber film, means for feeding non-elastic base fabrics in juxtaposition to the opposite faces of said rubber film, means for operating said feed means to supply said rubber film at a slower rate than said base fabrics, means for including devices arranged to grip the longitudinal edges of the film stretching said rubber film and holding the same tensioned in twodimensions between said base fabrics and independently thereof, and means forsqueezing said base fabrics and tensioned rubber film together to unite the same.
9. In apparatus of the class described means for feeding a thin rubber film, means for feeding non-elastic base fabrics in juxtaposition to the opposite facesof said rubber film, means for op- Y crating said feed means to supply said rubber film at a slower rate than said base fabrics, said last recitedmeans being adjustable to-var the relative speeds of operation of said feed means,
means including devices arranged to grip the iongitudinal edges of the film for'stretching said rubber film and tensioning it in two dimensions between said basexfabrics and independently thereof, and means for squeezing said base fabrics and tensioned rubber film together to unite the same. I 1
10. In apparatus of the class described means for feeding a thin rubber film, means for feeding non-elastic base fabrics in juxtaposition to the opposite faces of said rubber film, means including devices arranged to grip the longitudinal edges of thefilm for stretching said rubber film in a widthwise direction, 'means for subsequently stretching said film in a lengthwise direqtiomsaid stretching means operating upon said film independently of-said base fabrics, and means for squeezing said base fabrics and tensioned rubber film together to unite the same.
11." In apparatus of the class described means for feeding a thin rubber film, means for feeding non-elastic base fabrics in juxtaposition to the opposite faces of said rubber film, means for stretching said rubber'film in a lengthwise direction, means including devices arranged to grip the longitudinal edges of the film for subsequently stretching said film in a widthwise di-.
rection, said stretching means operating upon said film independently of said base fabrics, and, I means for squeezing said base fabrics and tene 1 sioned rubber film together to unite the same.