US 2398194 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 9, 1946.
H. SICULAR FLUOROSCOPIC DETECTION APPARATUS Filed April 413. 1942 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 A TTORIYKS Apn'l 9, ma H. SICULAR 2,398,194
FLUOROSCOPIC DETECTION APPARATUS Filed April 13, 1942 2 sneetssheet 2 HE/VAPV 5/C/ A/e INVENTR.
Patented Apr. 9, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT oFFlcE 2,398,194 FLUOROSCOPIC DETECTION APPARATUS Henry Sicular, Berkeley, Calif. Application April 13, 1942, Serial N0. 438,696
The present invention relates to apparatus for the detection on a person of concealed objects, such as arms, tools, cameras, or any metal or other relatively opaque articles, quickly, without physical search, and, if desired, without the knowledge of the individual being examined.
The invention is adapted and intended for use in such places as large industrial plants engaged in defense work, military stations and al1 other places where people come and go and where it may be desirable to check quickly the contents of pockets, lunch pails, and everything capable of being concealed by clothing, or packages, in order to detect the presence of instruments of destruction being carried into a protected area, or valuable tools or the like being smuggled out.
It is the object of the present invention to provide apparatus t0 facilitate the thorough and rapid uoroscopic examination of a person throughout the entire Without inconveniencing the person examined or necessarily apprising him of the fact that he is being subjected to examination.
A further object of the invention is to provide a combination amination station, a fluorescent screen and an observation station which makes possible rapid scanning of the fluoroscopic image of the entire person by the observer, whose presence may be concealed from view and who may inspect the i person secretly during the performance of some conventional act or duty which compels the person to remain relatively still for a few seconds.
Other objects and advantages of the invention are made apparent in the following specification, wherein a typical apparatus embodying the invention is described in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
In the drawings:
Figure l is a vertical sectional View of an apparatus embodying the present invention;
Figure 2 is a section taken on the line 2 2 of Figure l, showing the construction of a platform upon which the personbeing examined stands, and the arrangement of an electric switch therewith, and
Figure 3 is a horizontal sectional View taken on lthe line 3;-3 of Figure l.
According to the present illustration, the invention comprises, as seen in Figures l and 3, a chamber Il! which contains a battery of X-ray tubes I I supported by a partition i2 in the chamber, the partition being provided with orices I3, one for each of the tubes,A so as not to'in-A length of his body and of X-ray tubes with an excause the projection terrupt the rays which emanate from the tubes in diverging paths, as indicated by the dotted lines I4. The X-ray tubes Il are mounted in vertical alignment, and while four are shown, a greater or lesser number may be employed under certain conditions. The tubes are connected as by conductors, such as indicated at I5, with a high tension transformer I6 and filament transfoi-mers I'I, the construction and arrangement of which is conventional and, therefore, need not be specifically set forth herein.
Spaced from the chamber il? a suiiicient distance to provide a convenient passage or gateway through which persons may pass, is an observation chamber I8. In this passageway is examination station I9, upon which a person must step in order to pass between the chambers I0 and I8. This platform I9 is positioned directly in the eld of the X-rays which emanate from the tubes II, and the outer wall 20 of the chamber I0, which forms one wall of the passageway, is a sufficient distance from the tubes Il to insure merging of the divergent paths of their rays so that the entire area of the passage may be Hooded with X-rays to insure the full image of a person on the platform I9 being projected upon a iluoroscopic screen 2l which forms a portion of the wall of the observation chamber I8 and is in direct line with the X-ray tubes and the platform I9. This uorescent screen ZI is protected on its outside by a wood panel 22 and on its inner side by a pane of lead glass 23, which serves to protect an observer behind the screen from the detrimental effects of the X-ray. The lead glass, however, may be omitted and the chamber lined with lead, using lead glass only in a small pane to protect the observer usingva sight opening.
In order to insure the full image of a person on the platform I9 being projected on to the fluorescent screen 2l, the platform is raised to a position with its upper surface in the plane of the center of the ray pattern of the lowermost tube II, so that the diverging pattern will not of any part of the body below the bottom of the screen 2 I. This may also be accomplished by lowering both of the chambers IB and I8 a sufiicient distance below ground level so that it is unnecessary to raise the platform I9. Where the platform is raised, however, inclined ramps shown at 24 and 25 in Figures 2 and 3,Inay be employed to' facilitate approaching the platform.
In the chamber 'I8 a mirror 26 is preferably ar- 55 ranged to reiiect the image projected on the liuoroscopic screen at right angles and toward an observers station 2l, which may, if desired, be separated from the major portion of the chamber i8 by the partition 28, which is provided with a hooded observation opening 29. The mirror 26 the event of any the protective lead glass 23. The mirror may, of course, be omitted, in which case the observers station would be directly behind the iiuoroscopic screen. The observers station may be fully lighted, or, if desired, may be dark or semi-dark to effect the continuous accommodation of his eyes to the ideal conditions for iiuoroscopic examination.
Within the observers station is a control box 30 which is of the conventional type employed for the regulation of the voltage and current in the tube circuits. Also within the observers station is a manual control 3|, shown as a selective switch by means of which the observer may energize the X-ray tubes one after the other in succession. This successive operation of the tubes may be accomplished automatically in timed sequence by suitable mechanism, if desired. Thus, while it is impractical for this purpose to operate simultaneously a battery of four tubes, the observer may, by successive operation of the tubes, quickly scan the entire body which is ineluded in the range of their combined X-ray pat terns.
Various methods may be employed for informing the observer that a person to be examined is approaching the examination station, such, for example, as a small signal light in the observers station, which gate or operation of a turnstile or even by the interception of a light beam projected upon a photo-sensitive cell, all of which methods are well known and form no part of the present invention.
It is also possible that the rst of the X-ray tubes may be energized by the approach of the person to be examined, or indirectly by the weight of the person on the platform I9. For this latter purpose a switch, indicated at 32 in Figures l and 2, may be disposed beneath and operated by depression of the platform, which may be supported by springs 33 contained in telescoping tubular legs 34.
In case such a switch is used, the observer Will be apprised of the presence of the person to be examined by the projection on the screen of the iluoroscopic image produced by the uppermost of the X-ray tubes. The observer may then, through manipulation of the controls 3l, scan the entire body of the person. While the observation may be made very rapidly to detect the presence of any tools or arms on the body of the person standing on the platform, it is necessary that the person be detained for a period of a few seconds, and this may be accomplished in several ways. For example, a swinging gate, such as shown at 35 in Figures l and 3, may be employed to detain the person being examined, and this gate may be locked by any conventional means not shown, such as a mechanically or electrically releasable lock which is under control by the observer. It is also possible, and desirable in many cases, to have no physical barrier across the passage, in which case persons entering or may be requested to sign a register or a card, and the register or card may be so positioned that the person signing the same will be compelled to stand upon the platform while they write their name, or if a longer time for inspecmay be energized by opening of the i tion is required, while they ll in a blank requesting any written information, such as the time oi'. their coming or going and the purpose or the nature of their business.
In practice, one or more units of the apparatus herein disclosed may be provided, as the only point of entrance and exit for the area or plant to be protected, and large numbers of persons coming and going may be very easily but minutely inspected for articles which they are not authorized to carry. Furthermore, while it may be impractical to maintain the use of this apparatus entirely secret, it is desirable that the observer and all operative parts be hidden from View so that where many thousands of persons are passing to and from a protected area, there is no way for them to gain knowledge as to whether the actual X-ray mechanism is installed at any particular entrance, or whether there is an observer on duty. As a consequence of this arrangement the psychological effect upon the persons under inspection is a deterrent to the unauthorized transportation of articles to and from a protected area, as the very inexpensive chambers which enclose the mechanism and shield the observer from View are always in evidence and serve as a constant reminder that a complete fluoroscopic inspection may be in progress at any time.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
l. Apparatus for detecting the presence of concealed objects on a person comprising, a battery of X-ray tubes arranged to project rays to include the full length of the person, a screen to produce a fluorescent image, and means to energize said tubes one at a time and successively to enable scanning of the full length of the persons body on said screen.
2. Apparatus for examining a person fluoroscopically which comprises, a battery of X-ray tubes arranged to project rays in diverging patterns, a iiuorescent screen intercepting said rays, a partition between the tubes and the screen conning the person to be examined to an area where the ray patterns overlap, and means for energizing said tubes one at a time in order to examine the full length of the body of the person.
3. Apparatus for examining a person iiuoroscopically which comprises, a battery of vertically aligned X-ray tubes, a fluorescent screen intercepting the rays from said tubes, a mirror behind said screen for reflection thereof to a point out of the path of said X-rays, and an observers station in alignment with the reflection from said mirror, and a control at the observers station for energizing said tubes one at a time.
4. Apparatus for detecting the presence of concealed objects on a person comprising a passageway through which a person may Walk, a fluorescent screen adjacent said passageway of substantially the full height of a normal adult persons body, X-ray means for projecting a fluorescent image of a person in the passageway against the screen, and means for concealing an observer in a position from which he may examine said screen.
5. Apparatus for detecting the presence of concealed objects on a person comprising a iluorescent screen of substantially the full height of a normal adult persons body and of sufficient width to receive a projected image of a normal adult persons body, means for projecting X-rays against said screen, a station for a person to be examined adjacent the screen and within the path of said rays, and an observers station from which the full length of the screeen may be examined.
6. Apparatus for detecting the presence of concealed objects on a person comprising a uorescent screen of substantially the full height and width of a normal adult persons body, means including a battery of X-ray tubes to project rays in diverging overlapping patterns toward said screen, a station for a person to be examined adjacent the screen and Within the overlapping portions of said ray patterns, and a protected observers station from which the screen may be observed.
t HENRY SICULAR.