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Publication numberUS2398671 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 16, 1946
Filing dateNov 17, 1943
Priority dateNov 17, 1943
Publication numberUS 2398671 A, US 2398671A, US-A-2398671, US2398671 A, US2398671A
InventorsJacob A Saffir
Original AssigneeDentists Supply Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Artificial tooth and mount therefor
US 2398671 A
Images(3)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

5 Sheets-Sheet l INT THEFEFO l MOL April 16, 1946K JNVENTOR. N Jocob A Soffm BYLMMWFM f 47m/3.

April 16, 1946- J. A. sAFFxR 2,398,671

ARTIFICIAL TOOTH AND MOUNT THEREFOR 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed NOV. 17, 1943 April 16, 1946. J. A. sAFr-m ARTIFICIAL TOOTH AND MOUNT THEREFOR Filed Nov. 17, 1943 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOIL Jacob A. Soffm nummm Patented Apr. 16, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ARTIFICIAL TOOTH AND MOUNT THEREFOR Application November 17, 1943, Serial No. 510,651

4 Claims.

This invention relates to improvements in artiflcial teeth and mounts therefor. It more particularly relates to teeth of the interchangeable or replaceable type. Such teeth are adaptable for use in crown and brldsework in general. The teeth of this invention have certain important advantages when used in fixed bridgework and may be used in various kinds of removable bridgework with equal advantage.

There has long been a need in the art for teeth and brdgework that have adequate strength and which will minimize or keep down the display of metal. such as gold or stainless steel. oi which the framework of the bridge is commonly composed. This unsightly display of metal has been objectionable as observed in the contact areas between the teeth, at the incisal edges or on the occlusal surfaces. or even on the lingual side and becomes most conspicuous and evident when the patents mouth is opened as may be exemplified while talking, laughing or yawning. For a long time there has also been a. need for an interchangeable tooth structure that would be more sanitary and hygienic when in actual use and when in continuous service in the mouth. To those familiar with the art it is known that artillcial teeth in bridgework frequently become objectionably discolored. primarily because of the disintegration and washing away of the dental cements, thus allowing ingress to medicines, tobaccos and other compositions that leave stain deposits. Moreover, under such washed out conditions, bacteria and food particles lodge in such spaces to the detriment of the patients health and to the offensiveness of a bad breath toward others. Such oral conditions are breeding places for certain types of disease germs that may, through certain avenues. undermine the patients health, such as through the blood stream or the digestive tract.

Because of the ineffectualness of dental cements, interchangeable teeth of the prior art have frequently become loosened or completely uncemented. This has too commonly resulted in breakage or even in complete loss of the tooth structure, whereby embarrassing the patient and impairing the mastication of food. Moreover. such tooth losses have inconvenienced the patient and added to his expense of time and repair. This loss of time and the expense of repair is often costly because the damage may be extensive enough to necessitate the dentist constructing an entire new bridge.

Many of the interchangeable types of bridge teeth of the past have presented an objectionable feeling to the patients tongue. In some instances this has been an undesirable sensation of articiality whereas in other instances they have caused impairment of the patients speech. Most of these bridge teethl as manufactured heretofore have to one degree or another been comprised of metal on the lingual side and usually porcelain on the labial or buccal side. These two different types of composition have different thermal properties and different surface textures and each composition differs from the patient's natural teeth. The metal in this instance is the least easy to keep clean and from time to time will accumulate certain undesirable surface deposits and discoloration. All of this tends to accentuate the feeling of artiflciality. Further, in fitting the interchangeable artiiicial teeth to the metal framework of the bridge and to the metal lingual portion. contours are frequently obiectionably interrupted, or the two compositions will present sharp abruptness or poor fit at their junctural margins resulting in objectionable roughness, or the size of the complete articial tooth may be wrong to one degree or another and/or in one dimension or another, much of which readily contributes to adversely affect speech and may be conducive to lisplng, whistling, poor enunciatlon or poor pronunciation.

A certain amount of controlled translucency 0 has also been desired in artincial teeth but this has been oifset and to some degree nulliiied by the opacity of dental cements. Substantially all of the dental cements designed and recommended for crown and bridge tooth cementation have possessed this objectionable opacity. While I am aware that certain of the so-called "synthetic cements" have possessed translucency to one degrec or another yet these products were not designed for tooth cementatiori.' In fact they were l0 actually designed for a filling material to be used in filling cavities in natural teeth. Moreover, they were designed to be mixed to a heavy puttylike consistency wherein a precise amount of dry synthetic cement powder is mixed with a. rather denite amount or the liquid, all of which is recommended by the manufacturer of the product. Now when cementing crowns and bridge teeth this putty-like consistency of synthetic cements is so heavy that the tooth structure cannot be satisfactorily seated on its backing or support.

If the amount of liquid is increased in the powder-liquid ratio, thereby obtaining a more fluid creamy-like mix, then the physical properties of the synthetic lcements are upset and the results are unsatisfactory. Moreover, synthetic cernents ent invention to provide an integral one-piecek interchangeable articial tooth or pontic formed from a suitable plastic.

Another object oi' my invention is to provide an interchangeable artificial tooth formed from plastic having a depression, recess. or slot formed in a side or sides of the body thereof for the reception of a mounting permitting the application oi' the tooth to a bridge structure which may be already located in the mouth of the patient.

A further object of the invention ls to provide an interchangeable slotted or recessed plastic artincial tooth of the foregoing character, in which the slot or recess is filled with a monomer-polymer of the plastic from which the tooth body is formed to secure the tooth to the mounting, and wherein the illling plastic monomer-polymer becomes an integral, homogeneously molecularlyunited part of the tooth plastic to provide an integral. homogeneously mclecularly-united oneplece plastic articial tooth structure.

Another object of the invention is to provide an interchangeable artiiiciai tooth formed from plastic material, in which the previously formed and shaped plastic tooth is capable of application to a mounting located in the mouth of the patient, and in which means is provided for completing the plastic tooth to a'nished structure within the mouth of the patient whereby to provide a one-piece plastic tooth formed throughout from the same kind of plastic material.

Another object o! my invention is to provide an interchangeable one-piece plastic tooth whose exterior surfaces are substantially all toothsimulating.

Another object is to provide an interchangeable articial tooth formed from plastic and a mounting therefor, in which the plastic of the tooth penetrates and extends through spaces or openings formed in the mounting in the finished tooth structure.

A further object oi' my invention is to provide an improved interchangeable artli'lclal tooth structure formed from plastic, and an improved mounting therefor, which is of simple and durable construction, relatively inexpensive to manufacture, and one which may be quickly and readily installed directly in the mouth of the patient by normal methods and technique. y

Another object of my invention is to provide an improved interchangeable artificial tooth formed from plastic which aiords a good match as to size and color with the other artiiicial or natural teeth in the patients mouth.

Another object of my invention is to provide improved mounting means for supporting the plastic tooth oi' my invention.

A further object is to provide mounting means of improved nature, so shaped andiormed as to be particularly well adapted for. receiving and permanently supporting the integral one-piece plastic tooth of my invention in improved manner.

Generally speaking, my present invention reasoaon lates to the production oi aninterchangeable artificial tooth formed from a suitable plastic, and an improved mounting therefor, in which the tooth is preferably formed in a suitable separable mold and of substantially its final size, configuration and type, the tooth being provided while in the mold with a suitable depression, recess or slot which is adapted to receive one of my improved mountings to permit the plastic tooth to be attached as a permanent part of a bridge structure already installed in the patients mouth` In accordance with my invention the major body portion o! the molded plastic tooth is applied to the mounting and secured permanently thereto by the application of a. minor body portion of monomeric plastic, similar to the plastic from which the body of the tooth is formed, to the depression, recess or slot formed in the tooth body, which minor body portion of monomeric plastic will copolymerize with the plastic of the maior body portion and penetrate through openings or spaces formed in the mounting to become bonded with the plastic of the major body portion to provide a one piece homogeneously molecularly-united tooth structure whose exterior surfaces are all substantially tooth-simulating and which tooth structure is free from cracks, crevices or joints.

Further, and in accordance with my invention a suitable solvent and also a suitable catalyst are employed with the monomeric plastic, the former serving to soften the plastic of a wall or walls of the depression, recess, or slot to effect a bonding of the two plastics, and the latter, namely the catalyst, assisting or accelerating the action of polymerization of the two bodies or masses of similar plastic to provide the molecularly-united homogeneous plastic tooth structure. It will be understood that the quantity of catalyst employed determines the time required for polymerization.

Moreover, and also in accordance with my invention, improved mounting means or members are employed which have anchor portions so shaped and constructed, or formed as to substantially fill the depression, recess or slot provided in the plastic tooth and which, by virtue of their novel structure, including suitable spaces, openings or depressions formed therein, permit the plastic of the tooth to penetrate same and form an intimate bond with the embedded anchor portion o1' the mounting to ensure the permanent securing together of the tooth and mounting against accidental separation or loosening.

The foregoing and other objects and advantages of my invention will appear from the following description and appended claims when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings forming a part of this specification wherein like reference characters designate corresponding parts in the several views. In said drawings:

Figure l is a vertical longitudinal sectional view of a two-part mold, with the parts thereof separated, for producing one type or style of plastic artificial tooth or pontic in accordance with the present invention.

Figure 2 is a vertical longitudinal sectional view of the mold of Figure l with the parts in closed position and showing an artlcial tooth embodying my invention located in the mold cavity.

Figure 3 is a plan view of the lower half of the mold taken substantially along the line I-I of Figure 2, looking in the direction of the arrows.

Figure 4 is a perspective view of a plastic artiilciai toothiormed in the mold ofthe preceding views. Y

Figure 5 is a vertical longitudinal sectionalV view or a three-part moldy for producing teeth in accordance with the present invention, the. parts or sections thereof being shown separated.

Figure 6 is a vertical longitudinal sectional view of the mold of Figure 5, showing the parte o! the mold in closed position and with a plastic tooth embodying the present invention located in the mold cavity.

Fiul changeable plastic artificial tooth ng the invention and produced by the mold of Figures 5 and 6.

e '7 is a perspective view of an interr for the purpose o! properly Figure Bis a perspective view oi an improvedl mounting embodying my invention for use in connection with the plastic tooth of Figure 1.

Figure 9 is an elevational view of the lingual face or side mounting of Figure 8 associated therewith.

Figure l0 is a vertical sectional view taken substantially along the line III-i of Figure il, looking in the direction of the arrows and show,- ing the tooth after its application to the mounting o1' Figure 8 and with the minor body portion of monomeric plastic located within the mounting depression. recess or slot.

Figure 1l is a view similar to Figure 10 showing the tooth after the polymerization action has started.

Figure l2 is a view similar to Figures 10 and 11 and showing the plastic tooth of those figures after the completion of the process of polymerization. the tooth body presenting a one-piece homogeneous, molecularly integral plastic struc ture. 'Y

Figure lilV is a perspective view, partly broken away, of the lingual side or face of the tooth of Figure 12 showing polymerization of the plastic mounting openings or spaces.

Figure 14 is a iront elevational view of an upper arch showing a partial bridge structure therein and illustrating the manner oi applying the tooth oi Figure "l to a mounting of the bridge structure. Y

Figures 15, i6 and 17 are vertical sectional views of plastic artincial incisore showing several different forms and locatiorm of mountingreceiving depressions, recesses or slots formed therein.

Figures 18 to 30, inclusive, are perspective views oi' various modified forms or types of artiilclal tooth mountings embodying my present invention.

Before explaining in detail the present invention it is to be understood that the invention is not limited in its application to the detalls of construction and arrangement of parte illustrated in the accompanying drawings, since the invention is capable of other embodiments and of being practiced and carried out in various ways. It is to be understood also that the phraseology or terminology employed herein is for the purpose of description and not of limitation, and it is not intended to limit the invention herein claimed beyond the requirements of the prior art.

Referring now to the drawings and particularly to Figures i, 2 and 3 thereof, I have shown a suitable two-part mold for producing the maior body portion for a one-piece plastioarti-cial tooth or pontic such as' that shown in Figure 4.

in the region of the of the tooth of Figure 7 showing the in detail the action of .Der

li. lower or bottom mold section 3l is provided with a mold cavity formed in sections, as shown at 3l and n. which are separated by an upstanding projection, wall or rib Il which extends -transversely between Athe cavity sections and Ywhich, as

best seen in Figure 3, is of irregular outline or shape. The upper portion or section of the mold is shown at l5 and is provided with a single cavity ll. The lower mold section 3l is, as shown, provided with a guide pin socket Sla and 'with an upstanding guide, locating or centering pin lib, the former to receive a. guide pin lib carried by the upper mold section 35 and the latter being adapted a formed in the mold section or portion 35 and accurately aligning `the mold cavities when the sections are placed together. As shown, the lower mold section li is adapted to form the lingual face, surface or portion of the artificial tooth, such as that shown as a whole at l1 in Figure 4, whereas the upper mold section!! is adapted to form the labial face, surface or portion of the artificial tooth Il.

The mold sections Il and il are preferably formed from bronze or brass although .they may. i! desired, be made o! plaster of Paris, artificial stone or Bakelite.

The projection or rib 34 is provided ior the purpose of forming, in the lingual side of the tooth 31, a depression, recess or slot such as that shown at Il in Figure 4 tor the purpose of receiving the anchor portion of a mounting member for the artiiiclal tooth. as will be presently described.

In making an artificial tooth or pontlc, such as the tooth 31, with the two-part or two-piece mold. I preferably provide the mold with a doughy monomeric plastic. such as methyl-meth,- acrylate, which is placed in the lower half Il of the mold after which the upper or top hall I5 thereof is assembledwith the lower half. If desired, a plastic of more than one color may be used: in fact, as many different colors may be packed into the mold cavity as is desired. For example, if a two-color tooth is to be produced. I employ one color for the incisa] and enamel portions and another color for the body portion of the one-piece plastic artificial tooth. The

Iplastic is packed in the mold with a slight sur- 'plus to allow ior any shrinkage which might occur during polymerization and the mold parts or sections are closed together slowly and then prei'- erably placed in a spring press which will apply a continual pressure to they mold until such time asthe methyl-methacrylate has been completely cured. The parts o! the mold are then separated and the artiilcial tooth $1 removed therefrom.

Referring now particularly to Figures 5 and 6 of the drawings, I have shown in these figures a suitable threepart mold for producing a tooth, such as the tooth shown in Figure "I, Y

The mold of Figures 5 and 6 comprises an upsection or portion constituting the labial half of the mold, `'the lingualhali of the mold being formed in two separable Nmold sections or parts lll and Il. The labial portion or face of the artificial tooth is formed in the depression or recess "a of the labial heli of the mold. whereas the lingual side or portion of the tooth is formed in the cooperating depressions or cavities lla and lla o! the mold sections l0 and li, respectively. It is to be noted that the mold portion or section Il is provided with an inwardly 1| land longitudinally projecting tongue member 42 to fit within a guide socket whichl when the parts 40 and 4I are placed together, is located within the cavity 40a.

The mold section 39 is provided with a guide pin-receiving recess or socket 39o and with a guide pin 38e, the former being adapted to receive a guide pin 4lc carried by the mold section 4| and the latter being adapted to t within a pin-receiving socket or recess 40h formed inthe inner face of the mold section or portion 40. The section 40 is also provided with a guide pin-receiving recess or socket 40o for the purpose of receiving a guide or locating pin 4Ib carried by the mold section 4|.

To produce the tooth shown as a whole at 43 in Figure 7 in the mold oi' Figures 5 and 6, the lower mold sections 40 and 4I are placed together and their cavities 40a and 4|a have applied thereto a doughy monomeric plastic, such as methyl-methacrylate, after which the upper or top mold section 39 is placed in position upon the lower sections 40 and 4I, as seen in Figure 6. If desired, more than one color plastic may be used; in fact, plastics of several different colors may be packed into the mold cavities 40a and Ila so as to produce different portions of the finished artificial tooth in different colors, if desired. The plastic is preferably packed into the mold cavities with a slight surplus to allow for any shrinkage that might occur during polymerization and after the mold parts are brought together in closed position slowly, they are preferably placed in a spring press for the purpose of applying a continual pressure to the mold parts until such time as the methyl-methacrylate has been completely cured. With the three-part moldA of Figures 5 and 6. when the sections 40 and 4l constituting the lingual half of the mold are clamped together, theoretically, these associated parts together with the labial part or section 39 of the mold, constitute a two-part mold to pack with the plastic in the same manner as the two-part mold of Figures 1 and 2 is packed.

When opening the mold of Figure 6 after cur` ing of the plastic artificial tooth 43, the labial half or section 39 of the mold is rst removed. after which the incisal lingual portion or section 41| of the mold is moved away from the section or portion 4I, whereuon the nished tooth 43 is slipped off the tongue 42 of the gingival section or portion 4| of the mold. The finished tooth 43 is provided, as shown, withl a depression, recess or slot 44 which extends inwardly from the gingival lingual portion of the tooth toward the incisal lingual portion thereof, and provides means for the reception of one of my improved mountings which will be presently described.

It will be understood that other types oi molds may be employed for producing the novel tooth or teeth of my invention.

Referring now particularly to Figures 7 to 14. inclusive. of the drawings. I have shown in these figures a tooth 43 such as that formed in the mold of Figures 5 and 6, together with a suitable mounting for location within the recess or slot 44 of the tooth, and have also illustrated the action which occurs during the forming of an integral one-piece plastic artificial tooth after the mounting has been received in the tooth recess or slot. as well as one mode or manner of applying the tooth 43 to the mounting forming a part ot a bridge structure.

In Figure 8 there is shown one form of suitable mounting embodying my present invention.

As shown, this mounting is formed from some suitable metal and comprises a frame 45 having two generally triangularly shaped interconnect ed portions 45. Each of these frame portions has a space or opening 4l formed therein and it will be noted that the mounting is provided with another space or opening 4B located between the sections 46. The mounting is adapted to be received in the slot 44 of the tooth 43 and when in position with relation to said tooth, as seen in Figure 9, the projection 43a of the tooth will lit Within the space 48 oi the mounting.

Referring now particularly to Figure 14 of the drawings, there is shown in this ligure an upper arch structure, indicated as a Whole at 49, and several natural teeth 50 forming a Part thereof. A ybridge structure is mounted between the abutment natural teeth 53, this bridge being shown as a whole at 5I. The bridge, as shown. consists of four secured-together mountings such as the mounting 45 of Figure 8. In accordance with the structure shown in Figure 14, one of the plastic artificial teeth 43 of the incisor type has been applied to one of the mountings 45 adjacent one of the natural teeth of the arch. there being shown a second artificial tooth 43 in the process of being applied to another of the mountings 45.

In accordance with my invention, and by way of securing the maior body portion of the plastic articial tooth 43 to the 'mounting 45, I pref erably apply a monomer type bonding medium or material, which is the same as the plastic from which the artificial tooth portion 43 is formed, to the mounting 45 to substantiallyr fill the openings 41 therein, some additional bonding material also being applied to the slot 44 of the tooth. The monomer type bonding medium or material constitutes what I designate the minor body portion shown at 52 in Figure 10 after the tooth 43 has been slipped into position over the mounting 45. In addition to the monomer, I employ a catalyst in the form of an oxidizing agent, such as benzoyl peroxide, which may be used in proportion, by weight, of the monomer in from 0.10 to 0.50 per cent. The bonding material is prepared for use by adding a denite amount of the catalyst to the monomer and causes the walls of the tooth defining the slot 44 therein to return to a temporary soft stage as a result of the solvent action, the catalyst causing the bonding material and the temporarily softened plastic of the slot walls to set or polymerize. This setting may be accelerated if desired by the application of heat at a temperature oi' approximately 122 F. One manner in which the heat may be applied is by means of the application or a warm spatula which is held against the artificial tooth. The bonding material and the material of the softened walls of the tooth will flow together so that polymerization will cause a loss of identity cf the bonding material and it will appear, upon examination, as a homogeneous part of the tooth wall indistinguishable from the tooth wall itself, except perhaps for.a difference in color which can be remedied by coloring the bonding medium to completely eiiect its loss of identity.

As stated above, the monomer bonding material or medium constituting the minor body portion of the tooth-forming element immediately after its application to the mounting and the slot in the major body portion of the artillcial tooth-forming element, is represented at 52 in Figure 10. This same material is shown after groove or slot `mouth oi' the patient, it being unnecessary,

it has commenced to set or poiymerize, at 63 in Figure 11, whereas, after the Vmaterial has set or completely polymer-iced in theeregion of the ref erence characterloi' Figure 12, the' identity o! the minor body portion has been completely lost, the material having become an integral VYhomogeneous part oi the tooth structure and thus indistinguishable from the plastic of the tooth 43, as is clearly seen in the cross sectional view. Figure 12 of the drawings` It will be understood that some of the monomer type bonding material is applied to the Il above the top frame portion of the mounting l so as to completely ll this space and to produce a seal or covering above the mounting, it being understood, oi' course. that the monomer polymerizes with the adjacent walls of the tooth body at this point and also becomes an integral part of the tooth structure to conceal the mounting, as seen at 55 in Figure l2. Thus, by concealing the mounting, all surfaces or faces of the artiiicial tooth become substantially toothsimulating.

For the purpose of showing more clearly how the monomer type bonding medium constituting the minor body portion of the tooth-forming element may ow to become an integral part oi the final plastic tooth structure, I have shown some of the minor body portion penetrating the spaces of the mounting 45, as represented by the reference character 54 in Figure 13 of the drawings.

As a result of the polymerization of the minor body portion o! bonding monomer shown at 62 in Figure 10, in complementing contiguity with the rigid completely polymerized Vpre-formed maior body portion of the plastic artificial tooth struof ture, it will be understood that the mounting is not only concealed but that the tooth I3 will become positively locked or anchored onto the mounting.

In practice, the walls of the slot M are in intlmate contrast with and are coated by the complementing minor body portion of as yet noncompletely-polymerized monomer type bonding medium and this monomeric medium, suillciently thickened, penetrates the openings 41 and 48 forming the latticework-like mounting 85 bonding ainoleoull'ly with the walls of the slot ll and mechanically keying into o! the mounting member. After this association oi' the monomeric medium, the articial tooth I3 is placed in position upon the mounting, as illustrated in Figure 14, and held in such position until the bonding material has polymerized sumciently to hold the tooth firmly without danger of movement. The patient is then instructed not to chew or eat food for a period oi time up to two or three hours, or until such time as the monomeric medium will have become sufficiently polymeriaed to resist, without injury. the stresses oi' mastication. It will be understood that the amount of catalyst added to the monomeric medium will determine the time required for setting or polymerization, a smaller amount of catalyst being used i! relatively slow setting is desired, or agi-eater amount oi catalyst employed if rapid setting or polymerization is desired. Y

It will be funderstood that the mineral tooth l! is applied to the mounting 45 directly in the by virtue of my invention, to apply the tooth to the mounting outside the mouth of the patient.

I! any o! the monomeric bonding material should accidentally become lodged upon parts of the anchoring surfaces the labial or other surfaces oi the tooth where it is not desired or needed, this excess or surplus can be easily and Y'quickly removed by vprox-npr.

action before it has had an opportunity to set.

Referring now particularly to Figures 15, 16 and 17 of the drawings, I have shown in these figures three ii'lcisor type plastic artificial teeth made in accordance with my present invention. In each of these figures the tooth is shown as a Whole at 5l. In Figure l5, the major body portion or the tooth 58 is provided with a depression, recess or slot B1 which has an enlarged portion 51a at the base thereof. In Figure 16. the body portion 56 is shown as provided with a depression, recess or slot, shown as a whole at B8, which has irregular delining wall portions 58a. In Figure 17, themaior `body portion 0B is provided with a slot. showas a whole at 50. having irregular defining wall surfaces 09a. This slot is generally like the slot BB oi Figure 16 except that it extends transversely from the lingual face or side of the tooth toward the labial face or side thereof. The recesses or slots il, 58 and 59 are adapted to receive tooth mountings in the same manner as are the teeth 31 and 43 of the preceding views. By virtue of the particular types of depressions or slots employed, some additional advantages in bonding together of the pre-congured major body portion of completely-polymerized resin and the minor body portion of non-completely-polymerized resin such as the monomer type bonding medium herein-mentioned are obtained due to the slotdenning irregular wall surfaces. It will be understood that with the slot formations oi the teeth of Figures 15 to 1'1, inclusive, the monomeric bonding medium employed for securing the tooth to the mounting substantially conceals and envelops the mounting so as to provide an artificial tooth whose external surfaces or faces are all substantially tooth-simulating.

In connection with an artiiicial tooth formed, for example, from monomeric methyl-methacrylate, where it is desirable to keep the thus formed tooth over a long period of time in a place which might be too warm for this type ci monomeric material, I employ on inhibitor such, for example; as a hydrochinon or pyrogallol. These reducing agents are preferably used in from 0.01 to 0.05 per cent by weight. In connection with the monomer type bonding medium, the catalyst which I employ tor the purpose of'causing polymerization is preferably benzoyl peroxide in proportions by weight of the monomer in from approximately 0.10 to 0.50 per cent.

Referring now particularly to Figures 18 to 30. inclusive, of the drawings, I have shown in these ngures several modified forms of mounting means or members embodying my invention which are particularly well adapted for supporting the plastic artiilcial tooth structure of my invention. It will be understood that each of these mountings is adapted to ilt into a similarly shaped depressiorn recess, slot or opening formed in the plastic artiilcial tooth, with the tooth being bonded and thus locked or clamped'in position to the mounting in substantially the same manner as I have outlined above in connection with the use of the mounting I5 shown in the preceding views.

In Figure 18, the mounting comprises a frame having substantially triangular portions or sections 8l providing an integral structure. The upright end and intermediate frame portions oi the sections Il are interconnected by struts or web members l! to provide therebetween a series or plurality of spaces or openings Il. Thus, the

mounting oi Figure 18 presents, in eiiect. a latticework-like structure. the spaces 8l being adapted to receive the monomeric type 'bonding means as described above. y

In Figure i9 another form of suitable mounting is shown. This mounting comprises a skeleton-like frame structure 8l whose base portion extends inwardly and upwardly toward the top frame portion and terminates, as shown, in an apex lla. The space within the frame 8l is adapted to be iiiled with the monomeric type bonding medium previously described.

In Figure 20 I have shown a metal mounting il which is substantially A-shaped, the inner edges of the leg portions il thereof being serrated at 81 to thus provide a better or more eiectlve bond for the monomeric type bonding medium upon its polymerization with the similar plastic material from which the tooth structure is formed.

In Figure 21 my improved mounting is of substantially T shape and is shown as-a whole at it. The outer edges o! the leg portion 69 of the 1' are serrated at 10.

In Figure 22 there is shown a further modiiied form of artificial tooth mounting embodying my invention. In general shape. this Amounting is similar to the mounting of Figure i9 and comprises a trame 1l preferably of rectangular cross section. Instead of having an opening or space extending through the frame, this mounting is provided with a centrally disposed partition or web portion 12 tol provide on opposite sides ioi' the mounting, similar recesses or depressions for receiving the monomeric bonding medium.

In Figure 23 I have shown another modified form of artiiicial tooth mounting embodying my invention. In this form, the mounting comprises a body portion 13 in the iorm oi a substantially U-shaped frame having a central depending leg portion 1l from one face oi which a centrally disposed rib 15 proiects. The end portions of the frame 13 are in the form oi similarly depending legs 16 which are extended or thickened laterally to provide ribs 11 which converge in the direction of the central rib or post 1l. The ribs 11, 'as shown, are preferably V or wedge-shaped in cross section and. are provided with a series of holes or openings 18 which extend therethrough. This form of mounting is adapted to be received in a similarly formed or shaped slot or slots provided in an artificial tooth and when the .monomerio bonding medium is applied to the tooth and to the mounting, it will flow by virtue oi its plastically fluid quality and extend through the holes or openings 18 and, when completely polymerized in complementing contiguity with the plastic of the maior body portion oi' the tooth, will serve to lock or bind` the entire tooth rigidly to the mounting.

I have shown in Figure 24 another modiiled form o! mounting embodying my present invention. In this form, the mounting comprises a body portion 18 of substantially oblong shape having projecting from opposite ends and from the same face thereof, preferably the inner lace, a pair of rib members or flanges 80 whichI as shown, are of V or wedge-shaped cross section. Each oi the ribs or nanges ilo is provided with several holes or openings 8i which the monomer type bonding medium will penetrate upon application of the medium to the mounting and to the preformed slot or recess formed in the tooth which receives the mounting, to ultimately lock or bind the tooth securely to said mounting.

MiV

In Figure 25 there is shown another modiiied form of mounting embodying my invention in which the mounting comprises a .substantially U-shaped body portion or frame 82 from the depending legs 83 of which extend nanges 8l and 85 terminating in post-like portions 80. As shown, the post-like portion B8 formed'on the flange Ill is provided with a series, oi slots or openings 81, whereas the ilange 85 is provided with a series of holes or openings 88. When the mounting is applied to an artificial tooth, the slots or openings B1 and 88 will receive the monomer type bonding medium which is applied to the mounting and to the slot or recess formed in the tooth in which the mounting is located.

In Figure 26 there is shown another form oi mounting embodying my invention for use in connection with an artificial tooth also embodying my present invention. The mounting of this iigure is provided with an oblong or bar-like body portion or base 88 which, as shown, is of substantially square cross section. Extending irom one face of the body portion 89 at substantially the center thereof is a projecting member or rib Il which terminates in a substantially round or post-like portion 9|. The mounting of this figure is adapted to be used similarly to those of the preceding views, it being understood that the mrzinting is adapted to be applied to an artincial tooth having slots or recesses corresponding generally to the shape of the mounting for receiving said mounting.

In Figure 27 another form of mounting embodying my invention is shown. In accordance with this form of the invention, the mounting comprises a metallic rectangularly shaped and relatively thin body portion or base 92 through which extends a series or plurality of holes or openings 93. From the rear face of the body portion there extends a rib or projection 94 whose outer end terminates in a su tantially round or post-like portion 95. It will be understood that the mounting oi this gure is adapted to be engaged with conversely formed slots or recesses in the artificial tooth applied to the mounting and that when the monomeric bonding medium is applied to the tooth and mounting, portions of it will penetrate and extend through the holes or openings 93 to iirmly lock the artincial tooth to the mounting when the medium and the temporarily softened portions of plastic from which the tooth is formed, are completely polymerized.

In Figure 28 there is shown still another modiiied form of mounting embodying my. invention. This mounting comprises a rectangular, relatively thin and nat body portion or member 96 having formed therein a plurality oi' rows of holes or openings 91; It is to be noted that the holes 91 are substantially frusto-conlcal in shape. the diameter of each of th'e holes being greater at the iront face ofthe body portion than at the rear face thereof as represented by the reference characters 8l and 99, respectively. When the mounting of this form is positioned within a preformed slot or recess oi' an artiiicial tooth, the monomeric type oi bonding medium which is applied to the slot and to the mounting, will enter the misto-conical openings 91 so that, upon its complete polymerization, the plastic will extend into and through the openings to provide an integral mass and thus securely lock or bind the plastic artlcial tooth to the mounting.

In Figure 29`there is shown another modified form oi artificial tooth mounting in accordance with my present invention. The general shape of applied tothe 'maior' body Y mencion as shown mounting ,y shown at lll.

spasmi Y the mounting shown in this figure is similar tc the mounting l! of Figure 8.V The instant mounting comprises a body portion loll which, as shown, is of substantially rectangular form and which is relatively thicker than the previously described mountings'. The body portion Nil is provided' with a pair o! generally triangular holesor openings lll and the base portion of the mounting .s with a substantially wedge-shaped i lli located below the central lo legv portion lili which separates the ,openings lill; This particular mounting, which has relatively greater bulk than the preceding'moun is adapted l'or use in connectionwith a relatively large tooth such, for ex- 1c ample. as a molar. It will be noted that the iront and rear faces of the mounting are slightly concave lengthwise as indicated at lill and lill. By so forming the mounting, when the same is received in the slot of an artiiiclal tooth, there zo will be a space 'provided ofegradualiy increasing depth from' A end edged lieu oi the mounting toward the center thereof and between theiront and rear Iacopo! the mounting and the adjacent walls of the slot in the tooth; for the reception of 25 themonomeric typeoi bonding medium which is portion of the tooth and to the mounting to bind the two together; VYAs in the preceding forme, lthe bonding medium enters openings IM vas well as the space at so faces of the mounting. when completely polymer-ized, this bonding medium forms with the plastic of the tooth body, a onepiece homogeneous integral plastic tooth structure so that the bonding medium is indistlngulsh- 36 able from the rest of the tooth.

.Anotherv modified form of articial tooth mounting is shown in Figure 30. The mounting herein shown comprises a body portion lo!1 havlng two separateV substantially U-shaped holes 4o or openings lll formed therein. The iront face ci the mounting is convex in its mesita-distal diat |08, the rear face of th'e being similarly convex in shape, as

Whenthe mounting ot Figure 30H16 is in place within a slot formed in an artificial tooth, spaces are provided between the walls of the slot and the adjacent iront and rear faces of the mounting, which spaces are of somewhat greater depthat the portions adjacent the end so edges Ilia of th'e mounting and gradually diminish in depth toward the central leg or web lll of the mount When a monomer type of bonding medium is applied in complementing contiguity with the slot in the tooth, and to the 55 mounting. it will fill the spaces at the opposite faces of the mounting, as well as the holes or openings |01 formed therein. When polymerized with the plastic of the tooth body, the plastic of the minor body portion of the tooth structure oil will extend through the openings and rigidly bind to the mounting. sin the a larger type, such as s molar, and provides a c5 very substantial mounting for such a. tooth. From the foregoing it will be seen that I have provided a new and improved interchangeable integral one-piece plastic artioial tooth which is capable of being applied to a mounting and se- 70 curely locked or held to the mounting by the application of a suitable monomeric type of bonding,medium corresponding to the hplastic from which the maior body portion of the tooth body is formed, in which the monomeric bonding medium 76 of my present invention.

f ized state is homogeneous Vwith and indistinguishable from the maior body po polymerization. and in which all exterior surfaces or faces of theultimate artificial tooth are substantially' tooth-simulating. Y

Moreover, it will be l several forms of improved mountings for use in connection with artificial teeth, all ot which mountlngs are so formed and proportioned as to lend themselves readily to the reception oi' a monomeric type'oi bonding medium which', upc. complete polymerization, becomes an integral port of the tooth bow to rigidly hold or lock said tooth body to the mounting.

It will be understood that various kinds o! plastics may be employed in connection with `the manufacture ot artificial teeth in accordance with my invention. It is only necessary that a monomeric type of bonding medium which corresponds to the type oi plastic from which the tooth' body is formed, be used, so that upon polymerization oi the bonding medium and the polymerization of' the temporarily softened portion of the plastic oi' the tooth body, the plastic of the precongured tooth body and that o! the minor body portion of monomeric bonding medium will combine by molecular union as one and the same to provide an homogeneous one-piece plastic artiiicial tooth' structure.

y It is to be understood that while I have mentioned specifically the use of one type of plastic, namely resin known as methyl-methaorylate, and have also mentioned only several kinds ot suitable catalysts, solvents and inhibitors, various other types of plastics, catalysts, solvents and inhibitors may be employed within the purview and scope It will be understood furtherthat while I have not illustrated it in the drawings, an artiilcial tooth made in accordance with my present invention may be ground down on its meslal and distal sides or edges if and when deslred,.for the purpose of providing an accurate fit' between other teeth. Y

Having thus Vdescribed my invention, what I claim is:

l. An anchoring device for ;supporting an artificial plastic interchangeable tooth, comprising a frame portion having a pair of integral substantially triangular sections, and spaced substantially parallel web portions in each of the trianguiar sections providing a plurality of independent openings in said sections adapted to receive portions of the plastic from which the tooth is formed to hold the tooth to said device.

2. An artlcialatooth-iormlng element for a prosthetic dental appliance, comprlsing:` a major body portion oi' rigid substantially completelypolymerized synthetic resin having its surfaces configured in simulation of the natural tooth to be replaced thereby, a minor body portion compiementing said maior body portion and formed oi' synthetic resin in a non-completely-polymerhaving the quality of plastic i'iow under manually-imposable stress'and having the property of homogeneous molecular union wth the resin of said major body portion when subjected to complete polymerization in complementing contiguity therewith, and a tooth-mounting member having a portion received in said minor fixed embedded anchorage therein when complete polymerization of the resin thereof is ellected. said mounting member being of a iorm such as to be adjustable in said minor body portion by manipulation preliminary rtion o! the tooth body upon seen that I have provided to said complete polymerization o! its resin enabling precise mesial, distal. labial. lingual, gingivai and incisa! orientation of said congured major body portion preliminary to nal incorporation of the structure as an ultimate completely-polymerized tooth component of the appiiance.

3. An artiilcial-tooth-forming element for a prosthetic dental appliance. comprising: a maior body portion of rigid substantially completelypolymerized synthetic resin having its surfaces pre-configured in simulation of the natural tooth to be replaced thereby. a minor body portion complementing said major body portion and formed o1' synthetic resin in a non-completelypoiymerized state having the quality or flow under manually-imposable stress and having the property of homogeneous molecular union with the resin of said major body portion when subjected to complete polymerization in complementing contiguity therewith, said minor body portion being of a size. form and arrangement relative to said major body portion enabling insertion and embedding of the tooth-anchoring portion oi a tooth-mounting member of theappliance therein and manually-adjusted precise rneslal, distal, labial, lingual, lnsival and incisai orientation or said pre-coniigured major body portion immediately prior to ilnal incorporation of the structure as an ultimate completely-polymerized tooth component ot the appliance.

Patent No. 2,398,671.

4. An articial-tooth-forming element for a prosthetic dental appliance, comprising: a maior body portion of rigid substantially completeiy-polymerized synthetic resin having its most evident functional surfaces pre-configured in simulation of the natural tooth to be replaced thereby and having its relatively non-evident portion provided with a recess extending wel! into said body portion, a minor body portion disposed in said recess complementing said major body portion and formed of synthetic resin in a noncompleteiy-polymerized state having the quality of plastic flow under manually-imposable stress and having the property of homogeneous molecular union with the resin of said maior body portion when subjected to complete polymerization within the recess of said major body portion, said minor body portion being of a volume and fluidity enabling penetrative keying of its mass into and around the therein-embedded anchor portion oi' a tooth mounting m mber receivable and shiftable in the recess of aid major body portion incident to precision mesial, distal, labial, lingual, gingivai and incisal orientation of said pre-configured major body portion immediately prior to ilnal incorporation of the structure as an ultimate completeiy-poiymerized tooth component of the appliance. t JACOB A. SAFFIR.

Certiiicate of Correction April 16, 1946.

JACOB A. SAFFIR It is hereby certified that errors appear in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as 3l, strike out an integral, homogeneous a truly; page 5, Erst column, line 43, for

43 read 4? and 48; said Letters Patent conform to the record of follows: Page 2, ly molecularly-unted and insert instead contrast read Contact; line 47, for 47 and age 7, first column, line 34, strike out integral; and that the ould be read with these corrections therein that the same may the case in the Patent Oiiice.

first columnz lines 30 and Signed and sealed this 13th day of August, A. D. 1946.

LESLIE FRAZER,

First Assistant Gomme'ssoner of Patents.

to said complete polymerization o! its resin enabling precise mesial, distal. labial. lingual, gingivai and incisa! orientation of said congured major body portion preliminary to nal incorporation of the structure as an ultimate completely-polymerized tooth component of the appiiance.

3. An artiilcial-tooth-forming element for a prosthetic dental appliance. comprising: a maior body portion of rigid substantially completelypolymerized synthetic resin having its surfaces pre-configured in simulation of the natural tooth to be replaced thereby. a minor body portion complementing said major body portion and formed o1' synthetic resin in a non-completelypoiymerized state having the quality or flow under manually-imposable stress and having the property of homogeneous molecular union with the resin of said major body portion when subjected to complete polymerization in complementing contiguity therewith, said minor body portion being of a size. form and arrangement relative to said major body portion enabling insertion and embedding of the tooth-anchoring portion oi a tooth-mounting member of theappliance therein and manually-adjusted precise rneslal, distal, labial, lingual, lnsival and incisai orientation or said pre-coniigured major body portion immediately prior to ilnal incorporation of the structure as an ultimate completely-polymerized tooth component ot the appliance.

Patent No. 2,398,671.

4. An articial-tooth-forming element for a prosthetic dental appliance, comprising: a maior body portion of rigid substantially completeiy-polymerized synthetic resin having its most evident functional surfaces pre-configured in simulation of the natural tooth to be replaced thereby and having its relatively non-evident portion provided with a recess extending wel! into said body portion, a minor body portion disposed in said recess complementing said major body portion and formed of synthetic resin in a noncompleteiy-polymerized state having the quality of plastic flow under manually-imposable stress and having the property of homogeneous molecular union with the resin of said maior body portion when subjected to complete polymerization within the recess of said major body portion, said minor body portion being of a volume and fluidity enabling penetrative keying of its mass into and around the therein-embedded anchor portion oi' a tooth mounting m mber receivable and shiftable in the recess of aid major body portion incident to precision mesial, distal, labial, lingual, gingivai and incisal orientation of said pre-configured major body portion immediately prior to ilnal incorporation of the structure as an ultimate completeiy-poiymerized tooth component of the appliance. t JACOB A. SAFFIR.

Certiiicate of Correction April 16, 1946.

JACOB A. SAFFIR It is hereby certified that errors appear in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as 3l, strike out an integral, homogeneous a truly; page 5, Erst column, line 43, for

43 read 4? and 48; said Letters Patent conform to the record of follows: Page 2, ly molecularly-unted and insert instead contrast read Contact; line 47, for 47 and age 7, first column, line 34, strike out integral; and that the ould be read with these corrections therein that the same may the case in the Patent Oiiice.

first columnz lines 30 and Signed and sealed this 13th day of August, A. D. 1946.

LESLIE FRAZER,

First Assistant Gomme'ssoner of Patents.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2641837 *Sep 30, 1949Jun 16, 1953Peter B MolinaroPlastic tooth mounting
US2672687 *Nov 12, 1949Mar 23, 1954Adolf Dahl Gustav SvenDental prosthesis
US5775899 *Nov 1, 1995Jul 7, 1998Huffman; Ronald E.Dental model base having integral pins
US5788489 *Jun 7, 1995Aug 4, 1998Huffman; Ronald E.Dental model base assembly
US5788490 *Jun 7, 1995Aug 4, 1998Huffman; Ronald E.Dental model base and method for forming stone dowels
US6471513Jan 29, 2001Oct 29, 2002Ronald E. HuffmanDental model base assembly
US6884068Mar 13, 2002Apr 26, 2005Ronald E. HuffmanDental model base configured for customized aperture formation
US7044734Jan 26, 2001May 16, 2006Huffman Ronald EEncased stone dental model base body and method
US7210931Jul 7, 1999May 1, 2007Ronald E. HuffmanDental model base assembly
US7341451Nov 11, 2004Mar 11, 2008Huffman Ronald EDental modeling apparatus
US7347689Nov 11, 2004Mar 25, 2008Huffman Ronald EDental modeling methods
US7690919Mar 28, 2006Apr 6, 2010Huffman Ronald EDental articulator
EP0309604A1 *Sep 30, 1987Apr 5, 1989Christopher A. SalvoDental splint
Classifications
U.S. Classification433/208, 433/209, 433/212.1
International ClassificationA61C13/10
Cooperative ClassificationA61C13/102
European ClassificationA61C13/10C