US 2399027 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 23, 1946. H. J. HERlfBERT MUSTARD GAS PROOF APPAREL Filed June 20, 1.942
Patented Apr. 23, 1946 Application June 20,
This invention is a continuation in part of my parent patent application Ser. No. 423,268 filed Dec. 17, 1941.. It relates to mustard-gas-proof apparels and particularly mustard-gas-proof arments.
Since the summer of the year- 1917, when mustard gas was first used as an instrument of war, there has been acontinuous efiort to ameliorate or eliminate the terrible effect of this gas on living tissues and its destructive eifect on instrumentalities intended to afford protection thereagainst. To this end protective clothing has been proposed. Usually, such protective instrumentalities have utilized rubber and rubber-like materials to withstand the action of the mustard gas. However, all materials which have heretofore been proposed to protect against the efiect of mustard gas, do not neutralize the gas and, in time, have been penetrated by the gas. Additional chemicals, such as lime have been relied upon to neutralize the gas as it comes in contact with protective devices and to overcome its deleterious efiects thereon and therethrough to the person. Where chemicals, such as lime, are used to neutralize the effect ofv mustard gas, these are generally impractical for troops in the field because of the quantities required and the difliculty of transportation in even reasonably sumcient quantities by individual soldiers; their application by the individual to areas on the person or his clothing attacked by the gas, or to that of his affected companions, is difiicult and interrupts anddiverts attention from the pressing tactical problem. Similar dimculties present themselves where a civilian population is exposed to attack by mustard gas, but naturally not to the same extent because counteracting facilities can be more readily provided.
Moreover, where rubber or rubber-like mate rials have been relied upon to resist the effects of the gas for a sufficient length of time to be at all practical as a protection, such material has had to be utilized in relatively thick layers or in such a plurality of layers as to increase the weight of the protective garment and render 4 it cumbersome.-
The substances which are used in the -manu ,gasimpervious.
, 2. The substances of the second groupdestroy 1942, Serial No. 447,777 (Cl. 117-76) the mustard gas by chemical reaction which re sults in the formation of non-poisonous compounds, but they do not produce imperviousness. The great drawback of the substances of the 5 first group such as glue consists therein that the garments to which they are applied do not retain their pllability; they-also become pervious to the passage of mustard gas after a. short time and, therefore, ineffective. Furthermore, if these substances are not very carefully applied to the garment, a penetration by mustard gas after asurprisingly short time is unavoidable.
The disadvantages of the substances of the second group consist therein that as soon as the 1:; quantity which is applied to the garment is consumed by the chemical reaction, every protection ceases; due to the increase of weight and volume only a limited quantity o'i these substances can be incorporated in the garments.
substances of both groups and it creates advantages not obtainable by either of them.
It is based on the important discovery that 1. Polyamides are much more resistant to mustard gas than any substance hitherto used for this purpose,
' 2. That polyamides react with mustard gas and 3. That they form compounds which produce mustard gas imperviousness for an indefinite period of time.
This surprising result is achieved by the application of the polyamides to a garment material having a possibly large number of very small air cavities evenly distributed throughout its body.
Suitable materials are, for instance, textiles and fabrics. The mustard'gas proofing compounds created by the reaction of the mustard gas with v the polyamides are firmly anchored in these minute air cavities by chemical deposition and 40 forrna uniform waterand mustard-gas-proof body in the garments without impairing the pliability of the same.
The inert compound of which this body is composed is believed to have the formula CHr-CHaCl CHr-CHzCi where N stands for the polyamides, such as 5 nylon.
The capability of substances to be in the first place resistant to mustard gas under certain conditions, in the second place to react with the mustard gas and in the third place to form substances by the reaction which are indefinitely My invention avoids the disadvantages of the impervious to the poison and contribute this. property to textiles has not been known heretoore.
It is fully admitted that polyamides such as nylon have been used for the manufacture and the impregnation of garments; it was, however, not to be foreseen that they are much more resistant to mustard gas than other substances and that by the reaction with mustard gas bodies which are indefinitely imprevious to this poison and waterproof could be deposited in textiles and fabrics having an exceedingly large number of minute air cavities without impairing the pliability of the same.
Therefore, it is an object of the invention to manufacture a mustard-gas-proof apparel and a particularly mustard-gas-imperviousgarments from textiles and similar materials having a large number of minute air cavities distributed throughout its body.
' It is a further object of the invention to create the mustard-gas-proof body within those materials by chemical reaction.
It is another object of the invention to evenly distribute the mustard-gas-proof body in textiles and fabrics and firmly anchor it therein.
It is also an object of the invention to produce a mustard-gas-proof garment from textiles and fabrics which is pliable and waterproof.
These and other objects of the invention and the means for their attainment will be more apparent from the following detailed description taken in connection with the accompanying drawing illustrating various embodiments by which the invention may be realized and in which:
Figure 1 is a view showing a coat treated with the resistant material of this invention.
Figures 2, 3, 4, 5 are fragmentary views showing fabrics from which mustard gasproof garments may be made and to which the mustard gas resistant and neutralizing materials of my invention are applied,
The protective effect of nylon reacted with musemployed as plasticizers.
tard gas may be readily demonstrated in a test developed by me as the result of studies which I have carried on. A glass bowl, say two inches in diameter and one-half inch high, is about three quarters filled with distilled water, for example, 51,000 ohms resistance. Platinum wires enter diametrically through the sides of the glass bowl about one-eighth inch above the bottom of the bowl and terminate at the center of the bowl in small plates at their ends, out of contact with one another. These wires are included in a circuit with a Wheatstone bridge. A sheet of protective material, either a test sheet of the polyamides alone or a test piece of textile, such as fabric, or other material impregnated with, coated with, or laminated with the polyamides, as the case may be, is placed over the bowl. If, then' a 0.1 cubic centimeter (three drops) say, of mustard gas of 99.9% concentration is placed on the protective material and the material hermetically enclosed by a bell jar fitted tightly over the material on the glass bowl and registering therewith, it is found, even after a period of, say, three hours, that the conductivity of the water has remained at approximately 51,000 ohms resistance. Had the mustard gas penetrated the layer or sheet or impregnation of polyamides, the gas absorbed in the water would have increased the acidity of the water and increased its conductivity and the resistance as shown by the Wheatstone bridge would have decreased. After treating the test piece with a solution containing active chlorine to neutralize any mustard gas remaining thereon. the test piece can be washed to demonstrate that while the spots where mustard gas has come in contact now present a milky appearance showing that a reaction has taken place, the remainder of the material is as glass clear as it was originally. The milky appearance increases as the quantity of mustard in contact with a particular part of the material increases. The reaction of the polyamide and the mustard gas is believed to form an additive compound containing a tetravalent sulphur atom. The reaction product is a bright white spot which is easily recognized and is gas-proof, but, if desired, can be readily covered by a nylon foil or solution thus rendering the garment in a condition which is similar to its original state.
Furthermore, I have found that polyvinyl alcohol may be advantageously used in cooperation with polyamides because polyvinyl alcohol itself is mustard-gas-proof and water soluble, whereas the solubility of the polyamides in solvents is greatly restricted. Polyvinyl alcohol maybe used according to this invention in such a manner that the textiles are impregnated with an aqueous solution of the same.
Aqueous solutionscontaining about 3 to 12% in weight of polyvinyl alcohol are recommended. The volatilisation of the solution is increased in proportion to the percentage of alcohol in the solution. Glycerin or acetyl ethylamine may be The polyamides may be applied to the textiles either in the form of a solution or as a film.
One may also proceed in such a manner as to use a solution of polyamides and polyvinyl alcohol, for example in ethylene chlorhydrin.
The mustard-gas-proof garments may also be manufactured from textiles which are coated with polyvinyl alcohol and polyamide films by glueing or hot pressing.
The polyvinyl alcohol may be rendered water impervious by treating the same with chromium salts.
In Figure 1 there is illustrated a coat which may be considered illustrative of any garment comprising the protective material. The sheets I of the protective material, say, 0.003 of an inch thick are out according to the pattern of the garment and sewed together, as at 8, or otherwise adhered together as by an adhesive or a heat sealing substance. Where sewed, the seams may be coated as with a rubber compound or other polymer and permitted to dry. A hermetic seal 8 is formed. Since the material is relatively thin, it is preferable that the edges of the material be hemmed, as at H, to prevent tearing.
As an alternative, fabric [2 may be covered with sheets 1 of the polyamides and adhered to the textile in any convenient 'manner, as by an adhesive l3.
In the alternative, Fig. 2, fabric l2, shownas a woven fabric in the form of a coat, for instance,
may be impregnated with the polyamides l1 as by being sprayed thereon and a protective coating is formed thereon. Such impregnation may be performed before or after the garment is made.
If before, the seams should be rendered gas-proof,
as before. In Fig. 3 a textile is shown which is woven of threads [8 impregnated with a nonwater soluble solid synthetic linear polyamide and of threads IQ of a suitable plastic material.
Fig. 4 shows a portion of a fabric 22 for the manufacture of a mustard gasproof apparelto which an outer stratum 20 of a non-water soluble I acetate or the like.
solid synthetic linear polyamide and an inner stratum 2| of polyvinyl alcohol is applied The material for the manufacture ofa mustard gasproof apparel a portion of which isshown in Fig. 5, is composed of a fabric 23 and of a film 20,
both consisting of a nonwater soluble solid linear synthetic polyamide,
A garment which permits a suitable degree of ventilation for perspiration of the wearer may being somewhat porous would'not afiord complete protection against concentrations of mus- Obviously, such garment tard gas. However, in those situations where mustard gas is sprayed from airplanes or by gas shells, the mustard gas is diluted by the atmosphere and in this situation suclr'a garment afifords adequate protection.
Nylon stockings may be treated with an aqueous nylon dispersion and dried. One-third of. a pound of twenty-five percent aqueous nylon dispersion is usually required to cover one square foot of nylon fabric. Such stockings may beworn directly over the skin or as a protective cover for the trousers and are protective against mustard gas. A nylon film, say, 00005 or an inch thick may be laminated with nylon fabrics, as by cs-- ment, to produce gas-proof underwear and other protective garments. The nylonfabric may be covered on both sides with nylon film or the nylon film may be sandwiched between layers of nylon fabrics. Viscous fabric or foil may be treated with an aqueous dispersion of nylon in the proportion of about three pounds of nylon to every square yard of the fabric or foil. Such treated fabric or foil may be manufactured into any protective covers or garments. Similarly, cellulose fabric or foil may be treated by applying a nylon film, say, 0.003 of an inch thick either by cement and an as lutinant or by softening and rendering adhesive the nylon foil with a solvent. Laminations of cellulose fabric or foil and nylon roll are pliable and very suitable for the man- It will thus be seen that protective apparel.
such as garments and other covers may be readily rendered proof against mustard gas to a greater degree than that heretofore realized by mass production and without the use oi special facilities or skilled labor and from relatively cheap material which is readily available in unlimited quantities and an efiective protection against mustarisas and other chemicals and caustics and irritants may be provided.
Various modifications may be made in the selection of the particular polymers, their dispersion angjhe application thereof, and no limitation is in nded by the phraseology of the foregoing descr' tion or illustration in the accompanying drawings except as indicated in the appended claims.
1. Amustard-gas-proof apparel comprising a textile material containing incorporated therein reaction products of mustard gas and of a nonwater-soluble solid synthetic linear polyamide.
2. A mustard-gas-proof apparel comprising a textile woven or. a major proportion of fibrous threads impregnated with a non-water-soluble solid synthetic linear polyamide and a minor proportion of plastic threads.
3. A mustard-gas-proof apparel comprising a textile material to which a non-water-soluble solid synthetic linear polyamid'e and polyvinyl alcohol are appliedthe polyamide being located on the exposed exterior surface.
4. A mustard-gas-proof aprel which is coated with non-water-soluble solid synthetic linear polyamide and polyvinyl alcohol films the polyamlde film being located on the exposed exterior surface.
' 5. A mustard-gas-proof apparel which is coated with Stratified non-water-soluble solid synthetic 0 linear polyamide and polyvinyl alcohol the polyamide film being located on the exposed exterior surface.
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