US 2399691 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 7, 1946. M. PARTIOT ARMOR PLATE CONSTRUCTION Filed Feb. 5, 1945 lNVENTR MAURICE PART/0T BY- ATTO R N EYS v N) Qfi ,w v a $1 Patented May 7, i946 This invention'relates tov armor plate and particularly-to armor plate of the-laminated type, possessing high resistance. to. penetration and-capable of deflecting projectiles. which pierce the plate.
In applicant' copending application Serial No. 453,913 anovel type of laminated armor plate, is described in which layers or sheets of hardened material are arranged .to provide areas that are spaced apart to permit limited relative movementof. the sheets in a direction normal to the outer surface of the. plate. The laminae inthe sheet are secured to each. other. in 'sucha way that.localized zones of weaknessare -.1argely, if not. entirely, eliminated and theoverall resil iency of the armor-plate.isimproved.i
In accordance. with the. present invention,- armor plates of this character are further provided with means which serve to deflecta projectilerengaging or penetrating the plate. The deflecting means are located beneath the outer surface of the plate and are inclinedwith-respect thereto. whereby a projectile. penetrating. the outer. surfacewill be deflected if. it. should pass on into the plate. The deflecting means-further serve tov cause the outer surface of the plate-to be; shifted transversely. with respect. to an. inner surface or lower laminaeof the plateon compressionof the plate under impact, whereby. furtherdeflection of the projectile is effected More.- oventhe. yielding characteristics of the plate-in directions both normal to. and parallel to. the outer surface thereof aids in preventing .pene. tration .of the plate by projectiles. 4
One of the objects ofthe present invention is to providea novel type of laminatedarmor plate whichposses'ses high resistance to penetration,
Another object of the invention is to-provide armor. plate with means embodied therein which serve to deflectprojectilesengaging. or penetrat ing the plate.
A further object of theinvention is to provide armor plate formed of spaced sheets-of. material capable of limited relative movement-in.direc-. tionsboth normal to and parallel to the outer surfaceof the plate.
A particularobjectof the present inventionis to provide a novel type of armor plateembodying spaced sheets of material having members located therebetween andv inclined. with respect to. the sheets todeflect a projectile and to cause anouter sheet tormove in a transverse direction with re? spectto an inner sheet-or surface oncornpression ofthe plate under impact.
These and other objects and features .of .the
invention will appear from the following description-thereof in which reference is made-to preferred embodimentsot the invention. I
Inthedrawing Fig. 1 isa .transversesectional view through a laminated armor plateembodyingthe present i-nen i i.
Fig 2 ;is aview partly in elevation and partlyin vsection showing aportion of the construction illustrated in Fig I I I I I Figs. 3',- 4 and 5 are diagrammatic illustrations indicating the manner. of operation of the plate of Fig. .1 upon-impact-ofa projectile; and II I Fig; .Gi a diagrammatic sectional view through an, assembly ofl'armor plates embodying the presentinv'ention. I I I The'construction shown inv Fig.1 embodies an outer sheetjotmaterial' 2' and an inner sheetl, whiclr mayibe asurface-of an objectto be protectedbut' p'r'eferably isa sheet of material simila'rto the sheet-2i These sheets are spaced apart and preferablyfare' arranged in generally parallel relation.
Between the sheets 2 and 4 are a plurality of deflecting member' fifwliicl'iare in the for-in" of strips extendingacross."tli plate from one edge ofz'theplate t'o the'otliei' in substantially parallel relation; Thestrips preferably are formed in we separatepieces 8' and I 0;" having inclined and overlappin'gment'rar portions' I 2 and M i-espe'c tively. The piece' -8 of eachdeflecting member hasanedg'e portion H? which extendsparall'el to the outer sheet-2 and 'is weldedto the" inner'sur face thereotat-lfli- Th=piece 'I fl ofea'ch deflecting member is'similarIy formedWith-an edge portion 20 vvelde'd at 22- tothe' inner-face of the inner sheet 4. The overlapping central portion IZan'd I 4: of the deflectingm'embers' 6 "are similarly inclinedfiwithmespectto the-sheets 2 and rend are preferablymarallel and in contacewitlr each other but are capable of relative 'movem'entoncompression of the plate" under: impact of a projectile. Thexarmoroplateiimay thus zbe formed in two separate'parts; one ofcwhichtis composed ofthe sheet 2'. with. the-:pieces 8' welddith'ereto' andxthe other composed :ofithexsheetfi having .pieces I 0 welded thereto. These'r-two-"parts can then be assembled as shown and can be bolted or :otherwise'secured together to formthe completed-armor plate with the. deflecting members 6'."
The :angle at which the central portions ofthe deflecting; members iiare inclined to the adjacent sheets and .the spacing.-of the deflecting members from one another is preferably such-that *these members-- project over each other as shown;
When the deflecting members are so arranged, a projectile, in order to pass through the armor plate in a direction normal. to the sheet 2 and in the zone shown by the line A-A in Fig. 1, would have to pass through the sheet 2, then through the reinforcing edge portion l6 of the outer piece 8 of one deflecting member, then through the overlapping inclined portions [2 and M of the pieces forming an adjacent deflecting member, thence through the reinforcing edge portion 20 f the piece In of next adjacent deflecting member and finally passing out through the inner sheet 4. It will thus be seen that the armor plate presents six successive layers or sheets of material which would'have to be penetrated by any projectile passing in a normal direction through such portions of the plate. In case the projectile happens to pass through the plate in an intermediate zone, it will still have V to penetrate five layers or sheets of the protection material.
However, with the armor plate constructed as shown, a projectile will not pass directly through the armor plate in a straight line as described, since the nose of the projectile on engaging the inclined surface of the deflecting member will be turned or deflected laterally. On further penetration through the plate, after such deflection, the projectile can only engage the reinforcing edge portion 20 of the deflecting member or the inner sheet 4 at such an angle thereto that its chances of penetrating the inner sheet and passing completely through the armor plate are greatly reduced. Moreover, the central portions I2 and [4 of the deflecting members are not rigidly secured together but are free'to move and bend under the impact of a projectile. Therefore, a large part of the energy of the projectile will be expended in bending or distorting the deflecting members whereby the inertia of the projectile is reduced and the possibility of complete penetration of the armor plate is further diminished.
Furthermore, as shown in Fig. 1, the deflecting members are all inclined in the same direction so that compression of the plate vunder impact tends to cause the inclined portions of the deflecting members to move about their points of contact with the inner and outer sheets as pivots. The outer sheet will therefore tend to be displaced laterally with respect to the inner sheet, moving to the left, as seen in Fig. 1. Thus, transverse movement of the outer sheet under impact further serves to deflect the projectile on engagement with or penetration thereof into the armor plate.
The action of the armor plate will differ under different types of impact and when struck .by different types of projectiles. Typical actions are shown in Figs. 3, 4 and 5.
As shownin Fig. 3, a projectile 24 striking the armor plate in a direction normal to the outer surface thereof may penetrate the outer sheet 2 so as to engage the deflecting member 6. This member, being inclined, tends to deflect the projectile to the right as seen in Fig. 3. Moreover, the nose of the projectile is so inclined to the deflecting member that it presents a relatively flat or curved surface thereto and tends to crush or deform the member instead of penetrating therethrough. Furthermore, the member 6 embodies two pieces of material having relatively movable portions [2 and I4 so that these parts bend or are distorted by the projectile until they the portions present to relative movement as they are deformed, serve to decrease the inertia of the projectile and finally present it in an inclined or broadside position to the multiple layers of steel which back up and reinforce each other to prevent complete penetration of the projectile through the armor plate.
As shown in Fig. 4, if a projectile approaching the platein a direction normal to the outer sheet 2 is partially spent or if the outer sheet 2 is of such strength that the deflecting members yield somewhat before the nose of the projectile has penetrated very far through the sheet, the outer sheet 2 will be forced inward compressing the armor plate. As a result of this compression, the outer sheet will be shifted to the left as seen in Fig. 4,deflecting the nose of the projectile to the left before it engages the deflecting member 26. The deflecting members 26 shown in Fig.4 are formed of a single integral element but it will be apparent that they may be of the two piece construction shown in Fig. 1, and in fact, such two piece formationis preferred.
When so deflected by movement of the outer sheet '2 of the armor plate, the projectile will be presented in a substantially normal position to the deflecting member but on penetration thereof, it will approachthe end portion 28 of an adjacent deflecting member andthe rear sheet 4 of the armor plate at such an angle that final deflection thereof is assured and complete penetration of the armor plate prevented.
If, as shown in Fig. 5, the projectile penetrates the outer sheet 2 (and edge portion it of a de fleeting member) before much compression of the armor plate takes place, the nose of the projectile will engage the inclined portion of the next adjacent deflecting member at such an angle that it will be diverted from it normal path of travel through the plate. Furthermore, the impact of the projectile on the inclined portions of the deflecting member will instantly and forcibly shift the outer sheet 2 to the left, as seen in Fig. 5, and thus will throw the tail of the projectile sideways, further deflecting the projectile as shown in dotted lines and decreasing its chances of complete penetration.
It will be noted that the arrangement of the deflecting members shown in the figures of the drawing is such that, a projectile that is notsubstantially spent and forcibly penetrates the outer sheet of the armor plate, as indicated byFigs. 3 and 5, will be deflected to the right if it should penetrate through the rear sheet 4 and emerge from the armor plate. It will be apparent, however, that the deflection of the projectile would be toward the left, if the deflecting memberswere inclined in the opposite direction. It is, therefore, possible to arrange a number of armor plates so as to deflect projectiles in opposite directions from a particular area to afford the greatest proe tection therefor. Thus,.as shown in*Fig..6,;the plate 30 is constructed and positioned to deflect bullets to the left, while plate 32 will deflect bullets to the right, leaving a more thoroughly protected area 34 which may be the cockpit of a plane, a magazine in a boat, the breachportlon of a gun, or any other vitalparts suchas portions of a tank, reconnaissance car, or the like. The
meager joint between these plates may be covered .by a,
er a o ed wea me r. time serve 'to hold the plates'iiiland 32 in place. w I i constructing" the armor plate, the sheets 2 and iand' the pieces from which the deflecting? members} are formed are preferably thin slie ets of steel"having' high resistance topenetration by armor piercing bulletsfEach of the sheets and pieces may be individually nitrided or otherwise case hardened either before or after the elements are assembled into the finished armor plate. If they are hardened prior to assembly in juxtaposed interlocking relation, the adjacent surfaces of the pieces l2 and [4 of which the deflecting members are formed will each be more evenly hardened so that the total thickness of the hardened layers will be increased and the resistance to penetration improved as compared with hardening of the armor plate structure after the plates with their attached deflecting members have been assembled in such juxtaposed interlocking relation.
In assembling the elements into a finished armor plate, the reinforcing edge portions I6 of the pieces 8 of the deflecting members are welded to the outer sheet 2, progressing from right to left so that the point to be welded is readily accessible. Thereafter, the edge portions of the pieces ID of the deflecting members are welded in a similar manner to the inner sheet 4 proressing from left to right thus forming two independent structures. The terminal piece of each deflecting member is provided with a reinforcing piece 38 which is welded thereto to give it strength and penetration resistance comparable with that of the overlapping portions l2 and 14 of the intermediate deflecting members. The end portion of each plate is also provided with a reinforcin plate 40 as shown in Figs. 1 and 2. The structures thus formed are then assembled with the portions [4 of the pieces secured to the inner plate 4 overlapping the portions l2 of the pieces secured to the outer plate 2. The structures are held in assembled relation by any suitable means but are preferably secured together by bolts 42 which pass through bolt holes 44 in the plates 2 and 4 which are sufiiciently larger than in the bolts to permit the desired relative movement of the plates with respect to each other.
The welding operations may, of course, be carried out simultaneously at various points at the same time by the use of welding equipment having multiple electrodes and by suitably clamping the elements together in a jig or other suitable fixture. In any case, when welding the elements together, it is desirable to locate the welded spots in staggered or index spaced relation, that is, in such a manner that no two or more welds are in alignment in a direction normal to the surface of the assembled plate. In this way, any areas which are softened by the welding operation are so displaced with respect to each other that there are no overlapping or localized areas of weakness which might permit the penetration of a projectile through the armor plate.
While the invention has been shown in the drawing as composed of a single armor plate, including only two parallel sheets with deflecting members between the same, it will be evident that any number of armor plates or plates embodying any number of alternate layers of sheets and deflecting members may be produced and assembled as desired to provide the necessary protection to any given area. It will also be apparent that the form, shape and arrangeme v ie efl tin ni m ree d sh ts and. SI "with e st ibl a h. 0f -ma i dre lr W h u dep tin f bm the spirit ofQtheinventio In view thereo f, it s mulate une r togaf that the preferred form of the invention shown in the drawing and described aboveds intended for illustrative pur possonly and snot intended to limit thescope of the claims.
1. A composite armor plate comprising a pair of sheets of metal arranged in superposed spaced relation and having a series of deflecting members located therebetween, said members being formed of sheet metal and arranged in pairs with a portion of each member arranged in overlapping parallel relation to a like portion of the other member of the pair and extending obliquely outwardly toward the opposing sheet, one of said members having a marginal portion thereof bent to conform to the surface of one of said sheets and secured thereto, the other member of each pair having a like marginal portion bent to conform to the surface of the opposite sheet and being secured thereto, and said members having their opposite ends free, said overlapping parallelly arranged portions of said members also being of such length and inclination as to overlie, on the one side, the bent marginal portion of one member of the next adjacent pair of deflecting members and to underlie, on the other side, the bent marginal portion of one member of the pair of deflecting members next adjacent on the opposite side of the first mentioned pair of deflecting members.
2. A composite armor plate comprising a pair of sheets of metal arranged in superposed spaced relation and having a series of deflecting members located therebetween, said members being formed of sheet metal and arranged in pairs with a portion of each member arranged in overlapping parallel relation to a like portion of the other member of the pair and extending obliquely outwardly toward the opposing sheet, one of said members having a marginal portion thereof bent to conform to the surface of one of said sheets and welded thereto, the other member of each pair having a like marginal portion bent to conform to the surface of the opposite sheet and being welded thereto, and said members having their opposite ends free, said overlapping parallelly arranged portions of said members also being of such length and inclination as to overlie, on the one side, the bent marginal portion of one member of the next adjacent pair of deflecting members and to underlie, on the other side, the bent marginal portion of one member of the pair of deflecting members next adjacent on the opposite side of the first mentioned pair of deflecting members.
3. A composite armor plate comprising a pair of sheets of metal arranged in superposed spaced relation and having a series of deflecting members located therebetween, said members being formed of sheet metal and arranged in pairs with a portion of each member arranged in overlapping parallel relation to a like portion of the other member of the pair and extending obliquely outwardly toward the opposing sheet, one of said members having a marginal portion thereof bent to conform to the surface of one of said sheets and welded thereto, the other member of each pair having a like marginal portion bent to con form to the surface of the opposite sheet and being welded thereto, and said members having their opposite ends free, said overlapping paralleliy arranged portions of said members also being of-such length and inclination as to overlie, on the one side, the bent marginal portion of one member of the next adjacent pair of deflecting members and to underlie, on the other side, the bent marginal portion of one member of the pair of deflecting members next adjacent on the opposite side of the first mentioned pair of deflecting members, and the points at which said members are'welded to said sheets being arranged so that no two weld spots are in align ment in a direction normal to the plate.