US 2400726 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
y 1946. H. v. WRIGHT ETAL 2,400,726
APPARATUS FOR TREATING FABRICS Filed Sept. 26, 1935 A 6 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTQR. HOWARD l. WRIGHT WALTER m slascw JR.
May 21, 1946. H. v. WRIGHT ET AL APPARATUS FOR TREATING FABRICS Filed Sept. 26, 1935 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 m P m Wm W m m wwi m mm A v ,1... w g mm mm 3 .wm hm M W? h mw mm A a M WW o o Wh u M A R a L, h m NV n W \MHAAI Q n u Nfi J mm m mm? \m Q wv r J E \m WW .WN
May 21, 1946. H. v. WRIGHT ETAL 2,400,726
APPARATUS FOR TREATING FABRICS Filed Sept'. 26, 1955 v v 6 Sheets-Shet 5 FIG. 3
INVENTOR. HOMARD 0. WRIGHT WAL TE R PV. SIBSONJR.
May 21, 1946. H. V.YWRIGHT ET AL 2,499,726
APPARATUS FOR TREATING FABRICS Filed Sept. 26, 1935 G SheetS-Sheet 4 w -&
Q & L Q I\ N E V w \b :1 a l n E INVENTOR. HOWARD 1 WRIGHT WALTER ws/aso/v JR. 7
May 21, 1946.
Filed Sept. 26, 1935 H. V. WRIGHT ET AL APPARATUS FOR TREATING- FABRICS 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 FIG. 5
HOWARD l. WRIGHT ML ran w; SIBSONJR ATTORNEY.
M y 1, 946. H. v. WRIGHT Em 2 400,726
APPARATUS FOR TREATING FABRICS Filed Sept. 26, 1935 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 INVENTOR. HOWARD K WRIGHT WALTER W SIBSON JR.
Patented May 21, 1946 UNITED STATE 2.400.726 I APPARATUS FOR TREATING FABRICS Howard V. Wright, Edgewood, Md., and Walter'W.
. Sibson, In, Philadelphia, Pa.
Application September 26; 1935, Serial No. 42,332
The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the Government for governmental purposes, without the payment to us of any royalty thereon.
This invention relates to an apparatus for treating fabrics, and more particularly. to an apparatus for the impregnation of fabrics to render them resistant to the passage of vesicant gases and vapors.
It is well known that the vapor of mustard gas (bis-(beta-chlorethyl) sulphide) and similar vesicant substances penetrate ordinary clothing and cause serious irritations of the skin. Many attempts have been made to protect persons exposed to mustard gas and similar substances by providing protective clothing whichwould prevent the vesicant vapors and gases contacting the wearer's skin. Impermeable suits have been provided which exclude the gases and vapors,
but such suits are uncomfortable to the wearer since they prevent the passage of air to and from the wearer's skin. i
, Chemicals have been produced which can be impregnated into ordinary fabrics or clothing which permit the normal passage of air and moisture, but which will react with the vesicant gases and vapors to render them harmless. The present invention, although not limited thereto, relates more particularly to a method and apparatus for impregnating fabrics or clothing with such chemicals.
One object ofthis invention is to provide an improved apparatus whereby protective chemicals vmay be readily and expeditiously impregnated into and afllxed to fabrics and clothing.
Another object of this invention is to provide an apparatus of the above-indicated character wherein all of the operations of impregnating, draining, centrifuging, drying, and cooling of the fabrics and clothing are done in a closedchamber such that thepersonnel is protected at all times from harmful gases and vapors of the impregnating solution.
Another object of this invention is to provide an apparatus of the above-indicated character in which the amount of the impregnant aliixed to the fabric or clothing may be readily varied.
A further object of this invention is to provide an apparatus of the above-indicated character which is highly efficient with respect to the amount of chemicals used, the unused solution being recovered and used over again.
- These and various other objects of the invention will be apparent from the'following description and appended claims, it being understood that apparatus and the steps involved in the procedure may be widely variedwithout departing from the spirit of the invention or exceeding the scope of the appended claims. v
In general, the procedure comprises placing the;
fabric or clothing in a pocketed rotary drum. positioned within a closed casing, thoroughly soaking the fabric or clothing with the impregnatin solution while oscillating the drum, draining the excess solution, centrifuging the fabric or clothing for such time and at such speed as to remove a predetermined quantity of the impregnating solution, forcing heated air through the fabric or clothing to vaporize the solvent used in the solution, forcing cool air through the fabric or clothing, and removing the same from the drum.
Referring to the drawings, r Figure l is a diagrammatic view of the complete system. Y
Figure 2 is a top plan of the apparatus. Figure 3 is a right side elevation thereof. Figure 4 is a longitudinal section of the chamber in which the fabric is treated.
Figure 5 is a section on line 5-5 of Figure 4. Figure 6 is a front elevation of the treating chamber.
In the system herein shown and described for the purposes of illustration, the fabric such as woolen or cotton garments or the like are placed in a closed treating chamber ll, the details of which will first be described. The treating chamber ll includes a cylindrical outer casing l2 having end walls It, and a rotary drum l4 therein which is cylindrical, with a perforated outer wall. The interior of drum H is divided into a plurality of pockets, shown as three innumber, these pockets being formed by a triangular partition I! which extends longitudinally of the drum and is also perforated. As seen in Figure 5, the triangular partition lii does not extend outwardly to the drum ll, there being radially extending portions 18 which are riveted or otherwise secured to drum ll. perforated, and are in effect extensions of the sides ii.
The drum l4 and triangular partition is secured to a central shaft I! by spider .l8 secured to an open triangular frame I! which in turn is secured to walls I5. Spider l8 as seen in Figure 4 is adjacent one end of the drum. The opposite end of drum is is closed by a partition 2! which has three doors, 22 thereon, each door pivoted on hinges to swing toward shaft l1 and normally held closed by suitable catches. three doors provide access to the three pockets These portions 1 8 are likewise These g anon-72c the front of the apparatus. Suitable control,
between the triangular partition l and rotary drum it, whereby clothing or goods may be positioned therein for treatment.
As seen in Figures4 and 6, the end of outer casing i2 is provided with a door 28 which may swing downwardly toward shaft l1, whereby the inner doors 22 may be exposed for opening. When door 23 is open, one of the doors 22 may be aligned therewith by manual rotation of the-drum M if necessary. The charge of fabric or clothing may then be-positioned in the exposed pocket, inner door 22 closed and secured, drum l8 turned until means are provided for motor 63 whereby shaft l1 and drum i4 may be oscillated in order to thoroughly saturate the liquid compound into the ,cloth, or may be run at high speed in one .direction to centrifuge the excess liquid'out of the cloth.
The air conduits or pipes 2! connected to the valve 41, and this duct has a filter element 49 the next adjacent door 22 is aligned, and this next pocket may be similarly charged with fabric or clothing.
It will be seen that the construction described provides a central longitudinal duct of triangular cross-section with perforated walls I5. This-duct is for the purpose of passing air or other gas over and through the .clothing for evaporating the v solvent or other fluid from the clothing. To this end, the rear end wall I3 of outer casing l2 has an enlarged opening around shaft I'I into which extends a pipe 24. This end of rotary drum I4 is closed by an unperforated wall 25 secured to the flanges IQ of spider l8, this wall 25 having a central triangular opening corresponding to the triangular duct within the rotary drum. A frustroconical hood 26 is secured to .end wall 75 and closely surrounds the inner end of pipe 24, so that entering air'passes into the triangular duct.
The outer casing I 2 is provided with two butlets 23 mm upper portion for the exit of the air.
As seen from the arrows in Figures 4 and 5, the,
air is forced into the central duct and out of the perforations in walls I 5 and also through .the
perforations in radially extending portions it, into outer casing l2, and out of pipes 27.. Thus the air passes through and around all of the clothing, including thatwhich is in the corners ofthedrum.' v,
The rotary shaft I! is driven by any suitable means, preferably an electric motor having control means such that the drum it may be oscillated at relatively slow speed.'and rotated continuously in onedirection at relatively high speed, which may be varied in accordance with the fabric being treated and the size of the drum. Referring now to Figures 1, 2 and 3, the complete system will be described. As heretofore indicated, this invention is directed primarily to the impregnation of cloth with a protective compound such as"to render it impermeable to vesicant gases and vapors such as may be-encountered inwarfare. Impregnants of this character have been developed which are suspended or dissolved in volatile solvents, the impregnants when prooerly applied to the cloth reacting with mustard as or similar vesicants to render them harmless. The impregnating solution is stored in tank 3i rovided with a motor actuated stirring device 32 and connected to tumbler drum casing I! by a gravity feed pipe 33 having a valve 38.. Tank 31 is provided with a steam heating coil connected,
to steam pipe 35 having an automatic temperature controlled valve 36 and shut-off valve 37.
The solvent may be pumped into tank 3| from valve 34 and drain into tumbler drum Ii *the" motor 43 connected by suitable'drive mechanism to shaft l1. Interposed in this drive mechanism is a clutch l4 operatedby handle it accessible at oscillating th clothing while. passingheated air therein for the, air, preferably of mesh wire screen. By-pass duct 48 has a cut-off valve 5! and is connected to a condenser 52 containing a.
suitable condensing element connected to coolwater inlet 53 and outlet 54, the inlet water being controlled by valve 55.
From condenser 52, the recirculating duct .56 extends'to a-heater 51. The solvent condensed from the'air in condenser 52 drains into a sump and is run 015 by pipe 58 torecovery solvent container 59. Air heater 51 has 'a vaned heating element therein into which steam from pipe Bl enters, the steam flow being controlled by valve 62. From heater 5! the heated air flows through recirculating ducts 63 and 64 back to duct 26 leading into casing H. as heretofore described. A fan 65 between ducts 63 and it causes the air to flow as described.
\ Recirculating duct as has an aninlet duct ts controlled by valve 5! and duct has a valve 68 therein between fan 65 and inlet 2%.
A by-pass air duct it having a damper 12 is solution, the opposite end of pipe It being 'connected to pump 39 whereby this solution may be returned to solution tank 3!. A screen filter 14 having a removablejfilter elementis positioned in pipe 13 in front of the pump inorder to extract lint, tags, buttons, and other foreign matter from the drained solution, flow in this line being con-=.
trolled by valve 10.
A' vent pipe 75 is connected to the top of the solution tank-and to stack It by way of by-pass duct II. A plurality of thermometers are con-'- nected to the various points in the system wherein a knowledge of temperature ranges are desirable,
as indicated on Figure 1. These thermometers have not been given separate reference characters, for the sake of clearness in the drawings.
The indicating dials of these, thermometers are.-
all grouped on a control panel 78, Fig. 2, adjacent the front of the machine, this panel also carrying the electric switches and speed controls for the motors. and the operating handles for the valves. The solution tank 3 i is provided with a gauge.
. glass 11 and an indicator 1s visible from the front" of the machine whereby an operatormay open required amount of solution.
The complete cycle of operations will now be described. It has been found that certain of the impregnating solutions and particularly certain solvents are corrosive to many metals in thepresence of water. Therefore the clothing or other fabric to be impregnated is-ilrst ,de humidified to remove moisture therefrom when-the presence.
of moisture i undesirable. This-preliminary drying may be accomplished in the usual laundry I drying machine, or may be done in'drum H by snoop ac" A 3 over and through it by the apparatus above described. I
The impregnatingoperation is more efficiently carried out when the temperature of the solution is raised above room temperature. Therefore the required amounts of impregnant and solvent are placed in solution tank 3i, steam is admitted to the heating coil therein from steam pipe 35, and the solution thoroughly mixed by agitator or stirrer 32. Then valve 3415 opened, as isvalve I0 in drain pipe I3, and pump 39 is started, in order to circulate the hot solution into and through the drum so as to warm up the metal surfaces, it being understood that all doors of easing II are closed during this warming-u step, as are also all dampers of the air ducts, so that there will be no condensation of liquid in the air ducts.
, Pump 39 is then stopped and valves Ill and 34 are closed. Since some of th solvents used with certain impregnating liquids are volatile, it'is desirable that the gases and vapors thereof be com fined to the system and not escape into theat- .mosphere, not only for the sake of economy but for safety and comfort of personnel operating the system, since some of these vapors are unpleasant Or even dangerous. Therefore the fan 85 is next started,by-pass valve 12 is opened, recirculating ductdamper BI is also opened, stack damper 41 and inlet damper 68 remaining closed. When door 23 is now opened, the fan causes-a draft of air into casing ll through the open door, outlet ducts 21, recirculating ducts 48,-, 83, 64, and
by-pass duct 1| to stack 46. With door 23 open, one of the inner doors 22 is aligned therewith and opened, so that a charge of clothing or fabric m y be placedin one of the pockets of rotary drum i4. Door 22 is then closed, and the other pockets 'of the drum similarly charged by aligning each door thereof with door 23.' After door 23 is se-' curely closed, fan 65 is stopped, drive motor 43 is started for oscillatory motion and clutch 44 is correctly Positioned to oscillate the drum. The
speed of oscillation may be varied in accordance with the amount and kind of clothing bein impregnated, but it has been found that a speed of about 30 R. P. M. with reversal of rotation every onehalf minute is generally satisfactory.
The correct amount of impregnating solution is then run into casing H by opening valve 34,
oscillation of the drum i4 being continued for several minutes after the flow of solution into the casing II has been cut off. The clothing is thus thoroughly saturated with the solution. Then the excess solution is drained ofl by opening valve [0 and'starting pump 39, oscillation of the drum. preferably being continued during draining. It.
will be understood that there is no air flow during these saturation and drainingsteps. Next the motor 43 is set to operate 'at relatively high speed in one direction,-for example 150 to 300 R. P. M. and clutch 44 operated to connect the drum to the motor. This causes the excess solution to be centrifuged out of the clothing through the perforations in drum l4,'the solution draining to the bottom of easing l2 and being drawn oil and returned to tank 3i by pipe 13 and pump 39.
- After the excess solution has been thus extracted, the motor 43 is set for oscillation, valve 10 in drain line 13 is closed, and steam is turned into air "heater 51. Stack damper 4! remains closed, damper BI is opened, cooling water is admitted to condenser 52, inlet 33 remains closed. damper .38 is opened, and valve or damper 12 in by-pass II is closed. Fan 33 is started, causing a closed circulation of heated air from the fan into the central triangular duct of drum l4. This air passes through the perforations in plates l5 and extensions l8 thereof and through and over the clothing or fabric. Due to the-oscillations of drum H, the position-of theclothing changes tracted solvent passes through filter 49 to remove the lint and fine particles of foreign matter and thence goes to the condenser where the solvent is chilled and condensed. The condensed solvent continually drains into drum 59, and this drainage also is an indication as to the completion of this step. The 'air then passes into heater 51; is
' heated, and returns through the fan. to chamber The next step is to-cool the clothing so that it may be readily handled and to. also drive off the last traces of the volatile solvent. For this purpose, stack damper 41 is opened, damper ii in recirculating 'duct 48 is closed, and damper 61 opened) This draws cool air in at 68 for circulation through the clothing and out of stack 46.
when the temperature .of the clothing is down to a suitable range for handling, the motor 43 is stopped. If the fumes of the solvent are particularly dangerous, it is well to so position the air dampers that a draft of air will enter the door of easing ,as previouslyidescribed. Generally, however, this is unnecessary as all dangerous fumes will have been carried ofl.
Doors 23 and 22 are opened to remove the I clothing and to insert a new charge thereof into the pockets of the drum.
Due to the arrangement of a central air duct through the drum, and the perforated clothing pockets, an efficient vaporization and cooling flow ,of air is obtained. Some of the clothing will rest upon the bottom I! of the uppermost pocket, whereas in the lower pockets the clothing will lie against the outer surface ll of the drum. Thusmuch of the air will flow downwardly instead of passing directly to the outlet pipes 21. As the drum revolves, the flow of air through and over the clothing is reversed. This air also flows outwardly through the corners of the pockets due to perforations in extensions it. -Thus very uniform, rapid. and thorough drying, deodorizing,
v and cooling of the clothing is obtained.
" It will be understood that the machine is v mounted on a suitable supporting frame, as seen in Figures 3 and 6.- An I beam 3| extends across. the front'of the machine and supp rts shaft H in bearing 82. As seen in Figure 8, a clean-out door 83 and sight glass84. are provided in the front of easing II, and asafety cut-outswitch 83 which controls the electric circuit for drlving" motor 43 crime drum. As long as locking hans dles 36 of deer are in theirupright latched positionasseeninFlgure 8, the switchis closed and motor 43 may be operated. When the left lever 38 of door 23 is swung to the left (see Figure -6) the safety switch 83 opens to cut-off the motor.
In the preceding description, and appended claims, we use the word air to include air or other gas, since obviously gas other than air may be circulated for extracting, cooling, or deodorizing. Furthermore, although the form of rotating drum herein shown is preferred, obviously other arrangements of goods pockets may be provided, such as two pockets, or four or more such pockets.
We have used the term perforated to include all forms of drums wherein free and complete circulation of air or liquid may be obtained while retaining the clothing or fabric in the drum. n While we have shown and described the preferred embodiment of our invention, we wish it to be understood that we do not confine ourselves to the precise details of construction herein set forth by way of illustration, as it is apparent that many changes and variations may be made .therein by those skilled in the art, without detreating apparatus, a valved recirculating duct between said exhaust and supply connections including a solvent recovery device and an air heater, a valved air-vent from the aforesaid supply connection to the atmosphere, and valve means for controlling said supply connection interposed between said exhaust connection and said treating apparatus.
2. A system ofthe character described com-. prising in combination a goods-treating apparatus or washer, means for-introducing volatile liquid solvent into said apparatus and withdraw ing it therefrom, means including a valved suppl connection with a blower interposed therein for supplying air to said treating apparatus, a
valved air-vent connection from said treating apparatus to the atmosphere, a valved recirculating duct between said air-vent and supply connections, including a solvent recovery device and an air heater, valve means for controlling said supply connection interposed between said blower and saidtreating apparatus and a valved airvent to atmosphere from said suppl connection, between said blower and said valve means.
3. In an apparatus for impregnating goods or clothing, 8- closed casing, a rotary cylindrical drum mounted therein having a foraminous peripheral wall, longitudinally extending partitions within said drum forming a plurality of separate goods. pockets .within the drum, doors on one end of said drum giving access to said pockets, and a door in the end of said casing with which the drum doors may be; aligned by rotation of said drum. v
4. In an apparatus for impregnating goods or clothing. a closed casing, a rotary cylindrical drum therein having a foraminous peripheral wall, longitudinally extending partitions within said drum forming'a plurality of separate goods pockets, doors on said drum each giving access to one pocket, and a door on the outer casing with which the doors on the drum may be aligned b rotation of the drum. 7 J
5. An apparatus for impregnating goods or clothing with a protective impregnant comprising a closed casing, a rotary cylindrical drum therein having a foraminous peripheral wall, a plurality of longitudinal partitions in saiddrum forming a plurality of. goods pockets therein, air inlet and outlet ducts in saidcasing, a fan for forcing air through said casing by way of said ducts, a normally closed door on said casing whereb access I may be had to said goods pockets, and means for said casing.