US 2400853 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
M y v w. P. STILLEY WELL DRILLI I IG APPARATUS 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed July 8, 1941 -1NVENTO-R. Walter P. S tilley I ATTORNEY y 1, 1946. w. P. STILLEY 12,400,853
WELL DRILLING APPARATUS File c l July 8, 1941 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 1 A Fig? Walter P. St'i l l Yes 3 INVENIOR.
YATTORNE) v y 1945- I .w. P. STILLEY 2,400,853
' WELL DRILLING APPARATUS Filed July 8, 1941 4 Sheets-Sheet s YAITTORNEY a w. P. STILLEY 2,400,853 WELLIDRILLING APPARATUS Filed July 8, 1941 4 Shets-Sheet 4 Fig.11
Q lte nsciue INVENTORL -1 ATTORNEY Patented May 21,1946 V OFFICE Walter P. Stilley, Newcastle, Tex; Application J uly" 8, 1941, Serial No. 401,493 Claims. (0]. 255-4-4) This invention relates tc-an improvement in well drilling apparatus of the type used for the drilling of oil or other deep wells by means of reciprocating bits.
Various attempts have been made-heretofore to operate reciprocating bits by fluid pressure, but, due to the complexityof their design and to the special equipment necessary for their operation,
they have proved to be impractical for deep well drilling.
The object of this invention is to improve the construction of well drilling apparatus to provide for the practical utilization of reciprocating bits which may. be operated .by percussion, such as may be imparted by hydraulic pressure with provision for the utilization of the spent liquid in removing the debris from the hole as it is loosened by the bits without interruption of the drilling process'for cleaning out as has been th practice heretofore in percussion drilling.
In this invention, positive blows are imparted to a plurality of drill bits of relatively small size or area, which permits quick successive blows on the various bits -with mechanical uniformity,
whereby they cut the formation into relatively small particles without undue vibration being Fig. 2;
Fig. '7 is a similar view on the line 1-1 of Fig. 8 is a similar view on the line 8-8 of Fig. 9 is a bottom plan-view of the drill bits, with other parts omitted for clearness;
Fig, 10 is a detail vertical section through the impeller vanes, on the line ill-J0 of Fig. 5;
Fig. 11 is a vertical sectional view through a modified form of drill provided with a core barrel; and
Fig. 12 is a bottom plan view thereof.
Referring to Fig. 1 of the drawings, the numeral I designates the 'bore hole of deep well, such as an oil well, in which a drill stem 2 is suspended by a travelling block and tackle structure designated generally by the numeral 3. The lower end of the drill stem; 2 carries a drill d which accomplishes the drilling operation.
' The drill stem 2 isihollow or tubular and is adapted for the circulation of drilling fluidtherethrough in a manner customary with the rotary .method of drilling, which fluid is usually of the created at the lower endof the drill stem. The I drilling fluid which is forced down through the drill stemto operate the drill bits may be circulated back through the hole in a manner that will float out or remove the cuttings, thus allowin: for continuous drilling operation.
Since the drill stem and drill bit are not rotated bodily during-the drilling operation, but are lowered vertically. into the well, it is possible to direct the well as may be desired either in a straight line sired. V
A preferred embodiment of the invention, together with a modification thereof, is illustrated in the accompanying drawings in which:
, Fig. l is a vertical sectional view through'a deep well showing the inventiomin elevation installed therein;
Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view through the drill, with parts in elevation;
or at an angle which is often'denature of artificial mud, relatively fluid, which is circulated into the drill stem 2 by a pump 5 from within a, pit 6, the-pump being connected with the upper end of the drill stem through a pipe or hose 1. After the fluid is circulated downwardly through the drill stem, itis discharged at the drill 4 into the annular spacebetween the drill stem and the wall of the bore hole I, being circulated upwardly through the latter and discharged through a pipe 8 backinto the pit 6. carrying out with it the cuttings and debris, loosened by the drill.
The drill 4 which constitutes this invention is constructed of a body '9 which has a reduced threaded upper end ill for connection with the drill stem 2, and with a passage ll through said end of the body into a chamber l2 formed therein.
The body 9 has a partition l3 extending transversely therein beneath the chamber l2, with passageways M, extending downwardly there- Fit. 8 is a transverse sectional view therethrough on the line H of Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary vertical section there- ,through on the line 4-6 of P18. 3;
Fla. 5 is a. transverse sectional viewthroug I the drill on the line Il -B of Fig. 2;
Fig.6 is a similar view on the line 8-4; of.
through for the circulation of the fluid from the chamber i2. Asishown in Fig. 4, the passage ways I 4 are formed by and between louvers it which are spaced circumierentially. from each other as shown in Fig. 3. and arecurved longl tudinally to impart an angular direction to the Jets of fluid forced through the passageways H therebetween. Immediately beneath the partition It is an impeller .16 having passageways ll transversely therethrough and formed by vanes l8 arranged in circumferentially spaced relation is as shown in Fig. 8. The'vanes I! are also curved those shown in Fig.
It against the curved faces of the vanes i8 impart rotary movement to the impeller it. The impeller it is Journaled on antifriction bearings 19 on an axle 20 extending downward from the in the opposite direction from 4, whereby the late of fluid Y discharged under pressure from the passageways under side of the partition i3, and which axle supports the impeller It for rotary movement. The lower portion of the body 9 is cylindrical as indicated at 2i, and has a head 22 secured to the lower end thereof by a screw-threaded connection therewith. Aguidedisc 23 is also mounted in the cylindrical portion 2i of the body,
- spaced above'the head 22, on which it is supported by spacing bolts 24 extending therebetween.
Siidably mounted in the head 22 are the stems '25 'of the drill bits, which bits are designated :8
and :07, the bits as being arranged inwardly of the bits 28', while the latter are spaced around I hole previously drilled, which and even a sharp turn may be 1 the periphery of the drill, as shown more in detail in Fig. 9. The bits 26-26"have sharp raised ribs across the faces thereof, substantially like a star drill, and are arranged in such overlapping relation that they cover substantially the enwill be evident from Fig. 2.
Each of the stems has a coiled spring 21 sleeved thereover and interposed between the upper face of the head 22, and a plate conflned by a pin 28 attached to said stem,'-thereby tending toraise the stem 25 and the bit attached thereto. The upper end of each stem 25 is attached to 'a tappet 29 slidably mounted through the disc 23 and carrying a roll 30 thereon in position to onset with a cam 8| attachedto the under face of the impeller It.
The disc 28 and head 22 have axial openings .22 and 32' therethrough respectively and also spaced openings 33 and 84 therein, as shown in Figs. 6 and'l, topermlt freedom of passage or the drilling fluid and to direct the same downward through the lower end of the drill to a point where it will wash the cuttings and debris away rrom the bits and circulate the same to- .the top of the well during the return movement,
as indicated in Fig. 1,
In the operation of the drill, it is lowered in the well as the drilling progresses, being moved down gradually by the lowering movement of tire bottom .face thereof projecting outwardly somewhat beyond the periphery of the body 9, as
1 receive the core thus the drill stem 2 in the usual manner, durin which time fluid will be pumped down through the drill stem by the pump 5 and circulated out from the top of the well bore.
This circulation of the drilling fluid down through the drill stem is under sufficient pressure to force it through the chamber l2 in the drill body. thence through the passageways il,.and against the impeller vanes it under suflicient pressure to impart rotary movement to the impeller It. v
Two rows of cams Ii are provided on the under face of the impeller It in radial alignment with each other, while the stemsjl of the respective bits 26, 28' are arranged instaggered relation to each other, as shown in Figs. 8 and '7.- Thus of cams 2l.- Any desired number and arrange ment 0! the cams may be provided to produce the desired drilling action, but the arrangement 4i in proper position in the body 9',
shown causes the actuation or the drill bits in sets of six, uniformly spaced circumferentially of the drill thereby giving a balanced drilling action.
This reciprocating movement of the bits against the bottom of the hole, causes the strata to be loosened thereby. and the circulation of the fluid downward through the tings to be washed out of the bottom of the well andsfloated upward by the fluid to the top of the bore from where the fluid is discharged back into the it in the usual manner.
The drill stem 2 remains in a non-rotary position during this drilling operation, although it is gradually lowered, and in this way, it is possible todirect the course of the drilling more accurately than with a rotary drill stem. In some instances, it might'be desirable to drill in a specified direction so as to intercept a bore is possible with this invention, made in the course of the a whip stock to guide a It is also possible to operate the drill so as to take out a core from thewell, in which event, only the outer row of bits isused, as shown in Figs. 11 and 12. In this form, the body 8' has the impeller l6 Journaled on a tubular support 20', andv operates the bits in the same manner set iorthabove in connection with Figs. 2 to 10. However, to cut out a central core, the bits 28o, may be modified in shape for this purpose, if desired, as shown in Fig. 12.
A core barrel 4i may be lowered down the tubing and the body 9', being a cable, and through'the openings 32a and 32b to a point Just above the bits 26a in position to bore hole by-providin hinged drill Joint.
through lower end thereof to engage in the core and hold the same in the core tube during the lifting movement thereof.
Provision is made for retaining the core barrel purpose a pin 43 projects from a side of the axial opening in the body in position to engage a guide or seat 44 fixed on opposite sides of the core tube 4| as the latter is lowered in the body. This makes it possible to mark the drill stem, and as it is maintained in the same circumferential position throughout the depth of the hole, the cores retrieved from the well can be examined to determine the inclination and direction of the subsurface strata, to'enable this to bedisclosed immediately, thereby greatly simplifying and im-' proving the drilling operation.
- 1. A drill comprising a body having a cylindrical portion, ahead mounted in the lower end of ,saidcylindrical portion, a disc mounted in the cylindrical portion spaced above said head,
aplurality of bits having stems slidably mounted in said head and disc-each of said stems having I a spring connected therewith tending to move the same in an upward direction and having the rotation of the impeller II will cause flrst a tappet roller thereon, and an impeller mounted. in the body for rotary movement and having means thereon for engaging and actuating the tappet rollers of the stems, said actuating means including a plurality of circumferential rows of cams on the under face of the impeller and having the came of one row aligned radially with the cams of the other row in position to bear upon the tappet rollers. the stems (lithe bits being arranged in a plurality of circumferential rows radially spaced from each other and with the stems of ,one row staggered relative to the drillwillcausethecut-- supported by formed. The core barrel. 41 is shown as provided with barbs 42 in the for which e I 2,400,: stems of the other row for alternate engagement and actuation by the cams.
2. A drill comprising a body supported in stationary position and held against rotation, a plurality of bits carried by the body and having face portions approximately normal to the axes thereof and having ribs extending over said faces, said bits being arranged inside by side relation and interfltting with each other, so that the faces thereof extend over substantially the entire end of the drill, and means for reciprocating the bits.
3. A drill comprising an elongated body supported in stationary position and held against. rotation and having an opening extending 1ength-' wise therethrough, a plurality of bits carried by the body in circumferential spaced relation around said opening, means within the body for operating said bits relative to the body while the body is retained in a, fixed position, a. core tube extending into the opening in the body,'. and means for supporting said core tube therein.
3 4. A drill comprising an elongated body having an opening extending lengthwise therethrough. I
one or more bits mounted on the body, means for operating said bit or bits relative to the body while said body is retainedv in a fixed position, and a core tube extending into the opening in the body to-receive a core therein.
5. A drill comprising an elongated body having an opening extending lengthwise therethrough, one or more bits mounted on the body, means for operating said bit or bits relative to the body while said body is retained in a fixed position, a core tube extending into the opening in the body to receive a core therein, and means for supporting the core tube in the body and constructed for orienting the core tube into a predetermined position relative thereto.
WALTER P. S'I'IIJLEY.