US 2401759 A
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me EE, EM@ R. E. HERSEY Filed March 22, 1944 DIRECTIONALLY SLECTIVE RADIO COMMUNICATION SYSTEM 3 Sheets-Shea?l l RE. #555V V DIRECTIONALLY SELECTIVE RADIO COMMUNICATION SYSTEM Filed Ma HERSEY rch 22, 1944 @www l 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Illu/70,?
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ORIG/NA '7l/VG MARKER ATTORMEV Jun@ Ei, i946. R. E. HERSEY 2941159 DRECTIONALLY 'SELECTIVE RADIO COMMUNICATION SYSTEM Filed March 22,' 1944 l :s sheets-sheet s Tq/VDEM Patented June 11, 1946 DIRECTONALLY SELECTVE RADIOv COM- MUNICATION SYSTEM Ralph E. Hersey, Madison, N. J., assignor to Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application March 22, 1944, Serial No. 527,604
(Cl. Z50-6) 2 Claims.
This invention relates to telephone systems and particularly to machine switching systems employing radio links, the object being to employ an antenna transmitting a highly directive beam and to mechanically orient the beam by machine movement under dial control.
Y In accordance with this invention, a radio link is 4used in establishing a telephone channel. A transmitting antenna will be rotatable so that the channel may be selectively beamed to cooperate with any particular one of a number of receiving antennae in accordance with the location of the wanted party.
In a simple embodiment of the invention, a small telephone system may employ a radio link for communicating with a number of surrounding points relatively inaccessible to land lines, as for instance for interisland communication. In such `a case the antenna may be rotated under dial control. If the number of surrounding points is ten or less, then the setting of the directive antenna may be directed in accordance with a single digit of the called telephone number. Means -will also be provided to adjust the elevation of the beam to care -for differences in elevation of the cooperating receiving antennae. In the simple case above mentioned, a camming arrangement may be employed so that the elevation is automatically adjusted for each azimuthal position directly reached.
The invention may be employed in more com.- plex systems-as for instance in the cross bar telephone system-where such a directive transmitting antenna is associated with each district junctor and is set to a given azimuthal and elevational position under control of the originating marker.
The invention also comprehends means for directing a pair of antennae to line up on the same line extending therebetween so that where both are adjustable, a communication channel between thetwo may be established by machine switching movement control.
The invention further comprehends the use of relay antenna stations so that if a path is de- `siredvvhich ,is optically poor because of interfering objects or distance the antenna may be vpointed toward a relay or tandem point in order that the beam may be redirected to avoid the obstruction.
A feature of the invention is a movable antenna in a Vradlotelephone system which may be directively pointed in a'w'anted direction under dial contro1.` Y
Other features will appear hereinafter.
The drawings consist of three sheets having seven figures, as follows:
Fig. 1 is a perspective and schematic representation of one manner in which the present invention is employed; l
Fig. 2 is a schematic circuit diagram of the means lfor controlling` the elements of the present invention AFigure 3 is a side view of a mechanism that may be used for pointing a transmitting antenna;
Fig. 4 isa View similar to that of Fig. 1 showing the use of a plurality of antennae atop each of a plurality of central oice buildings;
Fig. 5 is a schematic representation of thev means including circuits employed for controlling the devices of Fig. 4;
Fig. 6-is a side vview of the mechanisms which might be employed to point the antennae of Fig. 4; and
Fig. 7 is a schematic representation of the employment of a tandem or relay point.
One embodiment of the invention is shown in Fig. l. Here are shown four buildings marked Sta. A,. Sta. B, Sta. C and Sta. D, respectively. Mounted atop the buildin-g Sta. A is an antenna I which may bemoved into cooperative relationship with any one of the fixed antennae 2, 3 or 4 `mounted atop the buildings marked Sta. B, Sta. C. or Sta. D, respectively. It will be understood that these antennae may be of any conventional and convenient form for establishing a very narrow beam communication channel, and that they will be connected to circuits for two-way transmission.
The operation of the system may be seen through a consideration of the system as illustrated in Fig. 2. Let us say that a subscriber at station 5 Wishes to establish communication with a subscriber at station 6.- The subscriber at station 5 by methods indicated by the dial 'I will set up a connection to a machine switching element 8 which may be astep-by-step selector having a brush 9 operable under dial control to move over a row of contacts I0 and to come to rest in connection with any one of them such as II. Each of the contacts, such as I l, is connected to means in, the. rotary movement control I2 whereby through the movement of shaft I3 the antenna I4 maybe selectively pointed to establish communication over vpaths controlled by distant xed antennae such as I5 and I6. Let us'say that when v,the brush 9 is set on terminal II, the antenna I4 is moved ton cooperative relationship with an- 'tenn'a I5.H Thereupon the two-way radio sets I'I and |8 will be enabled and communication will be established between substation and substation 6. In the same manner communication may be established to other substations such as substation |9. The essentially new operation in this arrangement is that the subscriber sets up the connection to the wanted subscriber in the conventional manner through the manipulation of his dial 1 and that in response to at leastone operation of the dial the antenna I4 is rotated and oriented into cooperative relationship with a distant antenna leading to the wanted substation.
Fig. 3 shows a mechanical arrangement which may be mounted atop a building for orienting an antenna. The device is made `of a pair ofV hollow concentric sleeves 20 and 2|. The outer sleeve 2l) has a cam 22 affixed thereto which is found to tilt the antenna represented by its reector 23 by an appropriate amount at each azimuthal position thereof. The reflector is mounted to move about a horizontal axis under control of an arm 24 which carries a roller 25 bearing on the surface of the cam 22. The reflector 23 is primarily mounted on a bracket 26 which is fixed to the inner sleeve 2| so that by rotation of this inner sleeve the antenna may be rotated to any desired -azimuthal position. A coaxial connection to the antenna is represented by the element 21 and the two conductors 28 and 29, the conductor 29 being connected to the centrally located conductor and the conductor 2 8 being connected to the sheath 21.
Fig. 4 shows another embodiment of the present invention in ywhich it is employed on a much more elaborate basis. In this arrangement the movable antennae may be used atop central office buildings so that communication channels replacing interoice trunks may be established. There may be a plurality of antennae functioning as either transmitting or receiving antennae. Thus central office A, serving a large plurality ofl subscriber stations, such as the substation 3U, may have mounted thereon the antennae 3|, 32 and 33, representing a great number of such devices. It is contemplated that a plurality of `antennae may be mounted on each support and thatthere may be a `plurality of such supports. Likewise central oiiice B and central o flice C are each shown with similar arrangements. 1
One manner of operation may b e controlled by an order wire arrangement whereby a pair of fixed antennae are employed for a common communication channel between each pair of central offices. Thus antenna 34 atop central oice A and antenna 35 atop central office B are both vfixed and provide a permanent communication channel between these two offices for a purpose which will now be described in connection with -Fig. 5.
This arrangement is'illustrated in schematic form as applied to a cross bar telephone system such as that generally described in an article en titled Crossbar dial telephone and switchingsystem by F. J. Scudder and J. N. Reynolds in the Bell System Technical Journal, volume 18, Janu ary, 1939, pages 76 et seq. In accordance with this arrangement a subscriber at station A36 in removing his telephone from its cradle causes his line to be extended through the line link frame 31 to a free district junctor 38 and this Vin turn will be connected throughthe subscriber sender link 39 to a subscribers sender 4 0. The subscriber at station 36 will nowoperate his dial 42 and register inthe vsender ,40 the number of the called station. After `this .number-has vbeen .4 partially registered the originating marker 4| will control the xed dipole selector 43 to establish a communication channel to the central offlce in which the wanted subscriber is located. Let us assume that under control of the marker 4| the fixed dipole selector 43 moves the brushes 44 and 45 into association with terminals leading to the two-way radio circuit 46 which feeds the fixed dipole 41 whereby acommunication charinel is established by way of the cooperating xed dipole 48 and the two-way radio circuit 49. Thereupon the usual information is transmitted from the subscribers sender 40 over the normal contacts of a relay 5D, the brushes 44 and 45 the two-way radio circuit 46, xed dipoles 41 and 48, the two-way radio circuit 49 to the usual incom- Y ing sender and terminating marker (not shown).
At the originating end the originating marker 4I controls devices 5| and 52 to orient the antenna 53 individual to district junctor 38 into cooperative relationship with another antenna suchk as 54 which will be similarly oriented by the terminating marker thereat. When a communication channel is thus established through Ythe antennae 53 and 54 an appropriate signal translated by the two-way radio circuit 55 will cause an operation in the control circuit 5B which will result in the operation of relay 50. The common circuit established via antennae A41 and 48 will then be dropped off and returned to common use. By means of a control circuit an appropriate control may be exercised over the district junctor 38 so that the subscriber sender link and the other common apparatus in the system will be dismissed as soon as the wanted connection is established by way of antennae 53 and 54.
The mechanical arrangements whereby the elevational and azimuthaladjustments are made by the elements 5| and 52 under` control of the marker 4| are not shown as any convenient mechanical device may beV used. In Fig. 6 the inechanical arrangements on the support for orienting a plurality of antennaeare shown.
The mechanical arrangements for making the elevational and'azimuthal adjustments to point the transmitting antenna to different receiving antennae are fundamentally th'e same as shown 'in Fig. 3. Here, however, a larger number of concentric sleeves are provided, two for each antenna, such as a sleeve 6,0 for making an azimuthal adjustment of the reflector 6| and a sleeve 62 to which a gear 63 is aiiixed to make an elevational adjustment of reilector 6|. Similarly a sleeve 64 to make an azimuthal adjustment of reilector 65 and a sleeve to rotate gear 65 to make an elevational adjustment of thereilector 65 are provided. The elevational adjustment of reflector 5| is made through a train consisting of gear. 63, gear 61, gear 68, worm 63 and gear 1|), the reilector being mounted on bracket 'll and being rotatable about a horizontal axis by -the gear 1B. f
Fig. 7 shows an arrangement which may be used when a straight line optical path from an What is claimed is:
l. In a dial telephone system, means for establishing a telephone channel including a radio link under dial control, including a transmitting station and a plurality of surrounding receiving stations, a narrow beam transmitting antenna at said transmitting station and a cooperating receiving antenna at each' of said receiving stations, dial controlled means for selectively rotating said transmitting antenna into cooperative relationship with any one of said receiving antennae and means for automatically adjusting the elevational position of said transmitting and receiving antennae.
2. In a dial telephone system including a plurality of central oiilces, means under dial control i'or establishing a plurality of telephone channels between substations in different central offices each including a radio link between the two central oflices serving the calling and the called substations, including orientativa narrow beam antennae at said central ofiices, and dial controlled means for selecting and orienting a pair of said antennae into cooperative relationship with each oth'er.
RALPH E. HERSEY.