US 2402330 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 18, 1946. l. J. JANosKo SAFETY CRUTCHES Filed April 20, 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet l Patented June 18, 1946 *STATES I PATENT OFFICE i 2,402,330" v 'f'. SAFETY CRUTCH i John J. Janosko; Anaconda, Mont. Application April 2o, 1944, serial Nass-13421 .During recovery from'a fracture or other injury l of the spine, legs or feet, a convalescent, due to weakness or lack of muscular control, may, when Walking, need supportand assistance that providessafety, comfort andconvenience to a greater degree than is ,found H11-such crutches or'other walkingaids as are now available.
. `SIheprime object of this invention. is; to pro-r vide such a support.
'3 A furtherobject is to provide various adjustments in the -apparatus to ensure a maximum of safety,comfort and convenience for the user..
The'construction, byV meansuof whichA these objects are attained, is shown in the accompanying drawingsin which g l Fig.1 .is'a sectional elevation on line kI-4-I'of Fig. 2. i f
Fig. 2v is a sectional elevation on line 2-2 of Fig.' 1.
Adevice illustrated in Fig. 5.
, General description The apparatusconsists essentially of a pair of adjustable crutches articulated to a light, easily movable, stabilizing base structure.V
Forward and backward. as well as transverse swinging movements ofthe crutches, are each limited by adjustable means described later.
The crutch members `are free, within adjustably controlledv safe limits, to respond to the' movements and needs of theuser, andthey are manipulated in a mannersimilar to ordinary crutches. j Y
,Ordinary crutches depend .upon friction between the vcrutch tips and the floor to prevent them from slipping when the crutches lare inclined, but a wet oor may cause them vto slip. f
In this. apparatus the crutches are strongly connected to the base and can not slip. The lim,- ited swings of the crutches'do not permit a vertical line, through the center of gravity of the users body, to fall outside of. a quadrilateral formed by lines passing through the axes of stabilizing members. It is thereforel practicallyimpossible for the user to fall forward, .backward or sidewise.
It might appear that the case could scoot from under the user, but, lsince' the angular movements ofthe crutches relative tothe base are always safely limited, incipient scooting -movenientyin e claims. (c1, 15:5;22)
i any direction kwould causethe base member to tipvery slightly, resultingin one or more of the stabilizing Acushions being forced against the floorrthus stabilizing the entire apparatus and providing safety for `the user.
Detailed description To provide strength with lightness many members are tubes of steel or light, strong alloys. Fixed jointsare preferably welded.
In: Fig. l, arm piece I may be made from a tube, the Vupper end of which is split and formed to receive'a pad I-a of soft material such as felt or rubber. The lower end I b extends down into tube 2 with a close fit but free to turn about its axis in response to movement of the users arm.
YTubes. 2 and 'I telescope, for adjustment of the height of the crutches, and safety set screw 3 locks'them together. Tubular member 'I is piviotally connected to I4. i
4 is a handle or grip welded to sleeve 5, which can slide on,.and turn about l. Safety set screw 6 holds grip 4 at any desired height or angle.
The lower end of tube I is flattened and drilled to form an eye I--a to receive a bolt 8, the shank of which is round and smooth where it passes through the eye 'I-a, and is threaded Where it passes through the flattened portion of 4the bar I4. This allows the crutch member I to swing forwardly or rearwardly relative to the vbase 9. Locknut 8a secures bolt 8 so that the crutch may swing freely on it without the bolt workingloose.
The base 9 isoval or elliptical, as shown in Figure 3, with its major axis in the plane of sym- .has its ends fitting into larger tubes I0 forming .sockets which are welded to the base frame il,
but axial movement is prevented by short tubes I5 welded inside of the tubes Ill. Tubes I0 are slipped over I4 before they are welded to 9. This construction allows the crutches to swing `transversely about the common axis of the sockets Illand the tubular bars I4.
. Welded to tubes I4 are laterally extending tubes I 8, the ,outer ends of which carry yokes I6, each of .which is fitted with an 4adjusting screw I 9,
and a lock nut 20. Screw IS is so adjusted that it bears on reinforcing pad S-a over which it is located, when crutch tube 'I is in the vertical position as shown in Fig. 6. The height of the yoke I6 is such that the crutches can swing inward until the arm pieces approach the plane of symmetry, when movement is stopped by contact between the lower arm of the yoke with the under side r`of S. f y
To limit .the forward and backward swings `of the crutches, arcuate tubes I'I are welded to tubes I4. and are fitted with adjusting screws 22 carrying lock nuts 23. As the crutch tube 1 swings 4about pivot 8 its outside is in contact with .the inner side of the companion tube I1, and any outward thrust on crutches I is transferred by tubes II,
I4 and I8, and screw I9, to base 9. If this side thrust is great enough, lone or more of the cushions I2 will Contact the floor and prevent overturning of the apparatus. y
Tubes I3, welded to frame 9, carry the Cylindrical rubber cushions or pads I 2, whichare bored to nt tightly over I3, and to bear against the closed end I3-a o-f the tubes I3. The lower ends of these cushions are, normally, slightly above the floor.
How the. apparatus is used Assume that the patient 'is sitting .on the :side of a bed and the apparatus standing near the bed with the rear portion of theframe Ior Ybase 9 extending under the bed. He grasps'the crutch handles 4, raises his body and places the arm pieces I under his arm pits. A.) Ashe leans and Vsteps forwardly, the arm pieces advance to position B. Resting his weight on one or both feet, he now moves the base by pushing forwardly land lifting slightly .on 4the crutch hand grips 4, During this movement of the base, the pivots at the lower ends of the crutches advance from position D to position E, the weight of the apparatus being lcarried by castors II. These alternate movements are repeated as the patient walks'forward.
41. Safety crutches comprising a rigid base structure, swiveledcasters attached to and supporting said base, stabilizing cushions secured to and depending from said base and normallydisposed slightly above Ythe floor, a pair of crutches provided with means for adjusting 'the height of said crutches, means pivotally connecting said crutches respectively to opposite sides of -said `base for forward land backward swinging movement and for transverse movement inwardly or outwardly relative to said base, adjustable stop means on said base respectively engageable`with said crutches to llimit forward and rearward swinging thereof, and other stop means in rigid relation with each of said crutches and respectively engageable with said base for limiting the transverse swinging movement of said crutches.
2. Safety crutches comprising a base consisting of an oval frame having curved side and end portions, casters carried by said frame and depending therefrom adjacent ends thereof, pads depending from ends and opposite sides of said frame and normally held spaced from a floor by the casters, bars extending longitudinally of said frame in chordal relation toopposite side portions thereof and rotatably connected with the frame, crutches pivoted to said 'bars for tilting movement longitudinally of the frameand' tiltable transversely of the yframe by turning move- (See Fig. 1--position Threaded lugs 2l are welded to I1 n ment of the bars, arms carried by and extending upwardly from said bars adjacent to and extending forwardly and rearwardly of said crutches, screws carried by said arms in front of and rearwardly of the crutches and constituting adjustable abutments for limiting tilting of the crutches forwardly and rearwardly of the frame, and arms extending outwardly from said .bars and vhaving vertical,yokes, at` their outer ends straddling 'side portions of theframe for limiting transverse tilting of the crutches and ,applying downward pressure to side portions of the frame and forcing pads at sides of the frame Vinto contact with a floor.
3. Safety crutches comprising a base consisting o'f an oval frame having curved side and end .-'porltions, sockets carried by said frame adjacent ends of its end portions and extending longitudinally of the frame inwardly of the side portions thereof, bars extending longitudinally in said frame inwardly of its side portions in chordal `relation to opposite side portions of the 'frame and 'rotatably mounted in `said sockets, casters carried by said frame'atfouter ends of said Asockets, pads depending from V'ends and sides of Asaid frame `and located'midwaythe'length of its end portions and itsv side portions' and 'normally spaced upwardly from a, surfaceupon which the casters rest, crutches disposed' vertically and pivoted at their lower ends to said bars midway the length thereof for swinging movement longitudinally of the frame and being 'tiltable transversely of the frame by 'turning ofthe bars in the sockets, arcuate arms'carried by said bars and extending upwardly therefrom in crossed relation to said crutches, lugs carried by said :arms in front of and rearwardly of the crutches, screws threaded through said lugs and constituting `adjustable stops for limiting longitudinal swinging of the crutches, side arms extending outwardly from vsaid vbarsv adjacent said crutches, yokes at outer ends of said side arms straddling side portions of said frame and having upper and lower ngers for limiting transverse tilting of Athe crutches and tilting the frame 'to move the side pads into contact with the surface upon which the casters rest, and frame-engaging screws carried by the upper fingers of said yokes.
4. Safety crutches comprising an oval base having curved side and end portions, bars extending longitudinally of said base in chordal relation to opposite sides thereof and vrotatably connected with the base, casters depending from said base adjacent ends of said bars, pads depending 'fromsa'id base at ends and opposite sides thereof and normally spaced upwardly from a surface upon which the casters rest, crutches pivoted to said bars for swinging movement longitudinally of the base the rotatable bars mounting the crutches for transverse tilting movement, members extending upwardly from said 'bars vand carrying adjustable abutments for engagement'by the crutches to limit longitudinal swinging of the crutches and cause tilting of the 'base to move the rear pads into contact with the surface upon which the casters restjand members extending outwardly from said bars and carrying yokes straddling side portions of the base for limiting -transverse tilting of the crutches and causing transverse tilting of the base to move the side pads into contact with the surface upon which the casters rest. I i
5. Safety crutches comprising an oval base'having curved side and end portions, bars extending longitudinally vof vsaid base in chordal relation to opposite sides thereof and rotatably connected with the base, casters depending from said base adjacent ends of said bars, pads depending from said base at ends and opposite sides thereof and normally spaced upwardly from a surface upon which the casters rest, crutches pivoted to said bars for swinging movement longitudinally of the base the rotatable bars mounting the crutches for transverse tilting movement, means carried by said bars for engagement by saide crutches lto limit longitudinal swinging of the crutches and cause the end pads to be moved into Contact with the surface upon which the casters rest, and means carried by the side bars for engaging side portions of the base for limiting transverse tilting of the crutches and causing transverse tilting of the base to move the side pads into contact with the surface upon which the casters rest.
6. Safety crutches comprising an oval base having curved side and end portions, casters depending from said base adjacent ends of side portions thereof, pads depending from said base at opposite sides and ends thereof and normally spaced upwardly from a surface upon which the castors rest, the pads at sides of the base being in outwardly spaced relation to the castors, said base being tiltable upon the castors to move the pads into contact with a surface upon which the castors rest, crutches at opposite sides of said base mounted for tilting movement longitudinally of the base and transversely thereof, means for lim- Y J OI-IN J. JANOSKO.