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Publication numberUS2403280 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 2, 1946
Filing dateMar 1, 1939
Priority dateMar 1, 1939
Publication numberUS 2403280 A, US 2403280A, US-A-2403280, US2403280 A, US2403280A
InventorsHicks Raymond M
Original AssigneeTeleregister Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Secret telegraph system
US 2403280 A
Abstract  available in
Images(5)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

y 1946. R. M. HICKS 2,403,280

SECRET TELEGRAPH SYSTEM Filed- March 1 1939 s Sheets-Sheet 1 FIG. I

INVENTOR R. M. HICKS ATTORNEY July 2, 1946. R. M. HICKS SECRET TELEGRAPH SYSTEM 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed March 1, 1939 lNYENTOR R. M. H :c KS

Emm-

ATTORNEY Filed March 1,1939 5 sheets-sheaf. 3

mvsN'roR R M HICKS ATTORNEY July 2, 1946.

R. M. HICKS SECRET TELEGRAPH SYSTEM Filed March 1, 1939 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR R. M: H ICKS ATTORNEY hlH- SShaets-Sheet 5 Filed March 1, 1959 comm; RELAY APPARATUS ATTORNEY Patented July 2, 1946 SECRET TELEGRAPH SYSTEM Raymond M. Hicks, Westfield, N. J., assignor to The Teleregister Corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of Delaware Application March 1, 1939, Serial No. 259,267

9 Claims.

This invention relates to secret communication systems and apparatus wherein the information is transmitted in cipher form and thereafter deciphered automatically at a receiving station. More specifically the message is set up by means of a telegraph typewriter keyboard which causes a coding mechanism to function to place the message in coded form and transmit the same to a. receiving station when it is decoded automatically. Coding and decoding systems of various types have heretofore been proposed, but such systems are complicated in structure, difificult to maintain in synchronous operation, and in general are not practicable for use in commercial service.

An object of the invention is a novel and improved system and apparatus in which the disadvantages of the various systems heretofore proposed are obviated, and in which the code: combinations corresponding to each of the various characters comprising a message are changed automatically at frequent intervals during the transmission of the message whereby the character most frequently appearing in the coded message does so as the result of chance and not by reason of association with a particular character of the original message.

A further object of the invention is a system of the character disclosed in which the various elements may largely be composed of standard telephone and telegraph apparatus and in which the number of special parts required is reduced to a minimum.

A further object of the invention is an improved system in which a message is automatically placed in coded form such that the different character signals of the message are transmitted in permutation code and are permuted in different Ways after each character or group of character signals have been transmitted, thereby to change the code frequently during the transmission of a message.

Still another object is the provision of means for restarting the cycle of operation of the encoding devices at desired intervals and for maintaining the decoding devices at a receiving station in synchronism with the coding devices of the transmitting station.

Another of the objects resides in the provision of novel and improved means for automatically changing the codes of a. message in cipher at frequent intervals during the transmission of the coded message to a receiving station.

Another object resides in the provision of apparatus for receiving messages in cipher wherein the received message is decoded according to different codes corresponding to difierent portions of the message and posted on a posting device.

Another object is to provide a system for controlling the operation of a telegraph printer or stock quotation display board by telegraph signals received in permutation code wherein the code corresponding to each character of the Fig. 1 shows transmitting apparatus in accordance with one embodiment of the invention;

Fig. -2 shows the receiving apparatus controlled by the transmitter of Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 shows one of the many code arrangements suitable for use with the transmitting systems herein disclosed;

Fig. 4 shows the code arrangement for use with the receiving mechanism when the code arrangement of Fig. 3 is employed;

Fig, 5 shows transmitting apparatus in accordance with another embodiment of the invention;

Fig. 6 shows the receiving and decoding apparatus for use with the transmitting apparatus of Fig. 5; i

Fig. 7 illustrates diagrammatically a telegraph printer controlled by the apparatus of Fig. 6;

Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic illustration of a stock quotation board and control apparatus therefor operated by the receiving apparatus of Fig. 6;

Fig. 9 shows a system for converting a coded telegraph message into a plurality of different codes;

Fig. 10 is a View in section, partly broken away, taken along the line llll0 of Fig. 9;

Fig. 11 is a view in perspective partly broken away of the sending device of Fig. 9;

Fig. 12 shows a suitable arrangement for readily changing the connections between the incoming conductors and the contacts of the coding relays; and

' Fig. 13 shows a modified cam arrangement which may be used with the impulse machine of Fig. 5.

Referring now to the drawings, on which like parts are designated by like numerals, there is shown on Figs. 1 and 2 thereof a complete system comprising a transmitting and receiving station, respectively. The transmitting station comprises a tape transmitter TTR, a set of coding relays GR, a set of counting relays GT and a transmitting distributor TD having an outgoing line L connected thereto.

The receiving station comprises, among other elements, a receiving distributor RD connected to the transmitting station by means of the line L, a set of receiving relays RR, a set of decoding relays DR, a counting relay chain CY and a telegraph printer designated PTR for recording the telegraph message set up in the tape of the tape transmitter TTR. The printer may be of the type known in the telegraph art as 25-A, pat ented March 20, 1923, Patent No. 1,448,750.

The operation of the system will now be described in detail. Assume, for example, that the tape transmitter has been provided with a copious supply of tape 1, perforated by a tape perforating machine, as is well known in the telegraph art, to represent a message and that the code employed during the process of perforation is a code suitable for operation of the printer PTR, Fig. 2. Since in the assumed case, there is an ample supply of perforated tape in the tape transmitter, the auto-control AC will have its contacts 2 closed thereby applying ground to one end of the windings of the tape-step magnet TS and the transmitting distributor start magnet TSM by way of conductor 3 thereby causing the start magnet to attract the latch 4 and release the distributor brushes Bi and B2 for rotation, the motor mechanism for operating the distributor not bein illustrated as this construction is well known in the art to which the invention relates. As the brushes of the transmitting distributor move away from their stop or rest position the start magnet RSM of the receiving distributor RD, Fig. 2. is caused to operate, as is the common practice in distributors of the type herein disclosed, thereby setting the receiving distributor into operation.

Since at this time relay 6-, Fig. 1, is unoperated', battery at armature of relay G and break contact thereof is applied to conductor 6, armature l and break contact of relay GT2 and thence to the winding of relay CT, thereby causing relay GTI to operate. The operation of relay CTi closes a circuit from ground at the break contact and armature 8 of relay GT2, armature 9 and make contact of relay GTI to the winding of coding relay CR5 thereby causing relay GR! to operate and connect the conductors ll, l2, I3, I l, l5 and iii to the conductors ll, l8, I9, 20, 2i and 22 respectively. The conductors ll, l3, I9, 25, 2! and 22 are connected to segments 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 1 respectively of the ring R! of the transmitting distributor TD. If the character perforated in the tape is such that the tongues 23 of the tape transmitter TTR are closed in combination to connect battery to conductors ll, l3 and I5, for example, the circuits including these conductors will be continued by way of operated contacts 2t, 25 and 26 of relay GRI to conductors I1, I9 and 2| respectively such that battery will be applied to the line L during the time that the brush Bl of the distributor TD is in engagement with the segments 2, 4 and (i of the ring RI thereof. When the brush B2 engages segment 2 of ring R3, a circuit is completed from battery at ring R4, brush B2, segment 2 of ring R3, conductor 21 and thence to the winding of relay G, causing relay G to op- 4 erate and at its armature 5 remove battery from conductor 6, thereby causing relay GT2 to operate over the following circuit: battery at armature 28 and break contact of relay H, conductor 29, winding of relay GT2, conductor 3!, armature 32 and make contact of relay GTI, winding of relay GTI and thence to ground. The operation of relay GT2 at its armature 8,, removes ground from the winding of relay GRI causing relay GR! to release, and at its armature I, closes a circuit in part for the subsequent operation of the next succeeding pair of counting relays, with the switch 33 in the position illustrated on the drawings. As armature 5 of relay G engages its make contact battery is applied to conductor 34 extending to the windings of the tape step magnet TS thereby causing the magnet TS to operate and step the next transverse row of perforations into operative positionwith respect to the tongues 23 of the tape transmitter. As the brush BI engages segment 9 of the ring RI battery is applied to the line L. As the brush B2 passes. ofi segment 2 of the ring R3, relay G releases thereby deenergizlng the tape step magnet and again applying battery to conductor 6, the circuit now being continued through armature l and make contact of relay GT2, switch 33, armature 35 and break contact of relay GT l, winding of relay GT3 and thence to ground thereby operating relay GT3. A circuit is now completed from ground at the armature 33 of relay GT4 by way of armature 31 and make contact of relay GT3 to the winding of code relay CR2 causing relay CR2 to operate and connect the conductors H, l2, f3, I4, [5' and Hi to the conductors 22, :7, I8, IQ, 23 and 2! respectively.

If it be assumed, for example, that the character previously set up in the tape transmitter is to be repeated, battery will again be applied to conductors ll, l3 and I5 and by virtue of the operation of relay CR2, these conductors are now in electrical circuit with conductors 22, i8 and 20 respectively whereby battery is applied to the line L as the brush B1 passes over segments, 3-, 5 and l of the ring RI.

When the brush B2 crosses segment 2 of the ring R3, relay G operates to effect the operation of relay GT4 and cause the tape to be stepped ahead. The operation ofrelay GT4 at its armature 36' releases code relay CR2 and at its armature 35 connects the pulsing circuit to the pair of counting relays GT5 nd GT6, the operation of relay GT5 causing relay CR3 to operate and interchange the connections between the tongues 23 of the tape transmitter TTR and the segments 2, 3, l, 5, 6 and 1 of the ring R! in accordance with the arrangement shown on Fig. 3 of the drawings in which the topmost horizontal row of digits represents the six units of the code setup by the tongues 23 of the tape transmitter and.

each succeeding horizontal row of digits. shows the manner in which the original code is altered" by the operation of the code relay GRI to CR6 as these relays are successively operated. During the fourth, fifth and sixth revolutions of the distributor TD; the counting relays CT! to GTI2 are caused to operate and control the operation of the code relays CR4 to CR6 to switch the connections between the tape transmitter tongues and the transmitting segments, of the distributor TD- generally in the manner of the foregoing de-- scription' Because of space limitations, relays GT7, GT8 and CR4 are not shown on-Fig. 1: of the drawings, but it will be understood that they are interposed as indicated by the dotted line portions of the conductorsshowninthe figure..

The operation of relay CR6 at its armature 38 connects ground to the winding of relay H, which operates when brush B2 engages segment 2 of the ring R3 and at its armature 39 connects battery to segment I of the ring RI whereby a battery signal is applied to the line L duringthe passage of the brush BI over this segment to cause the release of the receiving equipment as will more clearly appear as the description proceeds. The operation of relay H at its armature 28 removed battery from conductor 29 thereby releasing the operated relays of the counting chain CT and coding relay CR6. As the brush B2 passes 01f segment 2 of the ring R3, battery is removed from conductor 21 and the relays G and H release. Relay H is sufficiently slow-in releasing to maintain battery on segment III of the ring RI until after the brush BI has passed off this segment. The release of relay G at its armature connects battery to conductor 6 thereby operating relays C'II and CRI whereupon the cycle of operation of the transmitter is repeated until the tape I causes the auto-stop AC to open its contacts 2 and bring the transmitting and receiving distributors to rest by deenergization of their stop magnets TSlyl and RSM respectively. During the first revolution of the transmitting and receiving distributors, it will be recalled, segments 2, 4 and 6 of the transmitting distributor were energized and during the time that the brush BI was passing over these segments, the brush RBI of the receiving distributor RD, Fig 2 was in engagement with the correspondingly designated segments of the ring R2 of the receiving distributor thereby causing receiving relays RI, R3 and R5 to be operated from battery signals received over the line L.

The operation of relay RI at its armature 4| closed a locking circuit by way of conductor 42 to maintain the relay RI operated after the distributor brush RBI has passed off segment 2 of the ring R2 as follows: Ground, winding of relay RI, armature 4| and make contact of relay RI, conductor 42, break contact and armature 43 of relay R and thence to battery. In a similar manner the relays R3 and R5 lock to armature 43 of relay R during this revolution of the receiving distributor.

Now since during the time that the brush RBI was traversing segments I to I of the ring R2 of the receiving distributor during the first revolution thereof, relay R was unoperated, a circuit is completed from battery at armature 44 and break contact of rela R, conductor 45, armature 46 and break contact of relay CY2 to the winding of relay CYI and thence to ground thereby causing relay CYI to operate. The operation of relay CYI completes a circuit from ground at armature 4! of relay (3Y2, conductor 48, armature 49 and make contact of relay CYI to the winding of decoding relay DRI thereby causing relay DRI to operate and place the receiving equipment in condition to receive and decode the character received during the first revolution of the distributor RD. More specifically, the operation of the decoding relay connects the conductors 5|, 52, 53, '54, 55 and 56 to the conductors BI, 62, 63, 64, 65 and 66 respectively extending to the selection magnets SMI to SM6 of the printer PTR.

When the brush RB2 engages segment 3 of the ring R3 a circuit is completed from battery at segment 3 of the ring R3, brush RB2, segment 3 of the ring R4, conductor 61, armature '51 and make contact of rela RI, conductor 5|, make contact and armature 68 of relay DRI, conductor thence to theprinter selection magnet 8M3. In

a similar manner battery on conductor Ii! is extended by way of armature 59 of the relay R5 and armature II of the relay DRI to the printer selection magnet SM5. ,The printer, selection magnets SMI, SM3 and SM5 are operated over the circuits just described thereby storing in the printer the first character transmitted-having code units I, 3 and 5 marking in character and thus setting the printer in operation to close its contacts I2 and, prepare in part a circuit tothe print magnet PM; a

When the brush RBI is brushBI, ring R2, line L, ring RI of the receiving distributor RD, brush RBI; segment 9-.of the ring R2,.conductor I3, winding of relay Rand thence to ground. The operation of relay R at its armature 43 removes batteryfromconductor 42 thereby releasing relays RI, R3 and'R5r When armature 44 of relay R moved away from its break contact battery was removed from conductor 45 thereby causing relay CY2 to operate-over the following circuit: battery, armature l4 and break contact of relay P, conductor I5, winding of relay 0Y2, armature I6 and make contact of relay CYI, winding of relay CYI and thence to ground. The operation of relay CY2 atits armature 41 removed ground from conductor 48 thereby causing relay DRI to release. I V i As brush RBI passes oiT from segment 9 of the ring R2 relay R releases and at armature thereof applies battery to conductor 45, armature 46 and make contact of relay 0Y2, switch, I-I, armature I8 and break contact of relay 6Y4, winding of relay CY3 and thence to ground thereby causing relay CY3 to' operate and close a circuit from ground at the break contact and armature I9 of relay 0Y4, conductor 8I, armature 82 and make contact of relay CY3 to one endof the winding of decoding relay DR2, the other end of which is connected to battery. Relay DR2 operates and, as indicated on Fig. 4,'connects the conductors 5|, 52, 53, 54, 55 and 56 to the conductors 62, 63, 64, 65, 66 and BI, respectively.

When the distributor brush RB2 engages segment I of the ring R3 a circuit is completed from battery at segment I of the ring R3, brush RB2, segment I of the ring R4, conductor 80, contacts I2 of the printer which close automatically whenever the selection magnets SMI to SMS respectively have received a character signal, winding of the print magnet PM and thence to ground, thereby causing the print magnet to operate and print the character having the code units'I, 3 and 5 marking and the code units 2, 4 and 6 spacing. In the assumed example, it will be recalled, the second character of the original message had the code units I, 3 and 5 thereof marking in character whereas, due to the operation of coding relay CR2, Fig, 1, this character was transmitted over the line L as a signal having the code units 2, 4 and 6 thereof marking and the codes I, 3 and 5 spacing in character. Duringthe second revolution of the receiving distributor, therefore, marking signals will be received during the time that the brush RBI is in engagement with the segments 3, 5 and I of the ring 1320f in engagement with segment 9 of the ring R2 the relay -R operates over the following circuit: battery on segment-,3 of the ring RI of the. transmitting distributor,

7 the receiving distributor and relays R2, R4 and R6 will be operated and lock by way of conductor 42 to battery at the break contact and armature 43 of relay R.

When the brush BB2 engages segment 3 of the ring R3, battery is applied to conductor 61 extending to armatures 83, 84 and 85 of relays R2, R4 and R5 respectively and thence to conductors 52, 54 and 55, contacts and armatures 86, 81 and 88 of relay DRZ, from whence the circuits are continued by way of conductors 53, $5 and SI to the selection magnets SMi, SM3 and SM5 of the printer PTR thus causing these selection magnets to operate and store within the printer the second character comprising the code units I, 3 and 5 marking and the code units 2, 4 and 6 spacing in character.

As brush RBI engages segment 9 of the ring R2, relay R operates thereby releasing relays R2, R4. and R6 and causing the operation of relay Y4 and the release of relay DRZ. The operation of relay CY4 at its armature I8 transfers the pulsing circuit comprising the conductor 45 to the next pair of counting relays. When segment I of the ring R3 is engaged by the brush RBZ the print magnet PM operates to print the second character stored in the printer selection magnets.

In a similar manner during the third, fourth, fifth and sixth revolutions of the receiving distributor the pairs of counting relays CYCYG to CYI I-CYIZ are operated thereby controlling the operation of the decoding relays DR3 to DRE successively to decode the message coded by the relays CR3 to CR6 respectively.

During the sixth revolution of the transmitting distributor, it will be recalled, battery was applied to the line L during the time that the brush BI was in engagement with segment II] of the ring RI of the distributor TD from whence the circuit is continued by way of ring RI of the receiving distributor, brush RBI, segment II] of the ring R2 and conductor 89 to the winding of relay P causing relay P to operate. The operation of relay P at its armature 74 removes battery from conductor I5 thereby releasing the relays of the counting chain CY and the decoding relay DRS. The release of counting relay CY2 at its armature it causes relay CYI to reoperate over the following circuit; battery, armature 44 and break contact of relay R, conductor 45. armature 46 and break contact of relay CYZ, winding of relay CYI and thence to ground. The operation of relay CYI at its armature 49 causes the decoding relay DRI to operate. As the brush RBI leaves segment II] of the ring R2, the relay P releases and when the brush RBZ engages segment I of the ring R3, the print magnet PM operates to print the last character received and stored within the printer. The receiving apparatus of Fig. 2 has now completed a complete cycle of operations and restored to normal.

Whereas in the foregoing example, the system of Figs. 1 and 2 has been described with reference to transmitting and receiving six characters before restoring to normal it is not so limited as a greater or lesser number of coding and decoding relays CR and DR with their associated control relays and switches may be provided whereby any desired rearrangement of the code units may be employed for transmission of the message signals,

Thus, where a six-unit code is employed, the possible number of different connections of the contacts of the coding relays CR Will be factorial 6, which is 720, and therefore it is possible to employ 720 coding relays each differently connecting the segments 2 to I of the distributor I'D to the tongues 23 of the tape transmitter TTR. With such an arrangement it will be appreciated that the possibility that any given character in a message will be represented a second time in the message by the same code combination is so extremely remote as to prevent deciphering of the message by unauthorized parties. In addition to this, the arrangement of the coding relays in each of the groups may be changed within the group and the groups may be changed with respect to each other, thus increasing the number of coding arrangements for which the system is adapted. In the group of coding relays shown in Fig. 1, each of the coding relays CR is connected in a different manner to the tongues of the tape transmitter, and it will be appreciated that if two or more of the coding relays are connected in an identical manner to the tongues, this will further increase the number of possible coding arrangements.

Furthermore, the cycle of coding and decoding operations may be repeated at more frequent intervals, if desired, by operating any of the switches of Figs. 1 and 2. If, for example, the switch 40 of Fig. 1 and the switch 9| of Fig. 2 were moved to the positions indicated in dotted outline on the drawings, the operation of relay GT4, Fig. 1, at armature 35 thereof switches the pulsing circuit by way of switch 40 and conductor 50 to the pair of counting relays C'I'II-CTIZ. In a similar manner, the operation of relay CY4, Fig. 2, at armature I8 thereof, switches the pulsing circuit by way of switch 9| and conductor to the pair of counting relays CYI ICYE2.

The coding relays CRI, CR2 and CR6 and the decoding relays DRI, DRZ and DB6 operate successively to code and decode the successive characters of a message according to the connections set up at the contacts of these relays, the code thus being altered three times before the cycle of operations just described is repeated.

The apparatus and circuits comprising the transmitting and receiving system of Figs. 5 and 6 respectively will now be described with reference first to the receiving printer shown on Fig. 7 and subsequently with reference to the stock quotation receiving and posting system of Fig. 8 wherein the stock prices are simultaneously displayed .on market quotation boards at a plurality of brokers ofiices.

Referring first to Fig. 5, there is shown there on a tape transmitter TTR having the tongues 92 thereof in electrical circuit with the armatures 93, 94, 95, 9B, 91 and 98 of the transmitting relay TR, the make contacts of this relay being connected to conductors IUI, I02, I03, I04, I05 and I96 respectively. The operation of the coding relays A2 to F2 connects these conductors toconductors I'II, I12, H3, H4, II5 and H6 in accordance with the particular coding relay operated generally in the manner of the circuit arrangement of Fig. 1. The group of conductors III to H6 are connected by way of break contacts of relays N and S to the radio transmitters RTI, RTZ, RT3, RT4, RT5 and RTE, each of which is adapted to transmit a radio signal superimposed upon a carrier wave, having a different frequency from the others of the radio transmitters, whenever a signal is impressed upon the signal control clrcuits connected thereto.

The operation of the coding relays A2 to F2 in successive order is controlled by the relay counting chain comprising the relays A to FI.

The impulse machine 1M comprises a motor 99 connected by the clutch I to a shaft IIO carrying a gear I01 which engages the gears I08 and I09 thereby operating the shafts I I8 and I I9 torotate the impulse cams I2I and I22 in accordance with the gear ratios of the gears I08 and I09. Thus the cams I2I and I22 may rotate at the same speed, or the cam I22 may make several revolutions while the cam I2I is making a single revolution, the cam I22 controlling the rate at which a message is transmitted and the cam I2 I controlling the frequency at which the code is altered. Thus, by the proper selection of the gears I03 and I09, the code may be altered after each character is transmitted or after a group of characters have been transmitted by the transmitters RTI to RTG.

The cam arrangement of Fig. 13 may be employed, if desired, with the impulse machine IM, wherein the single lobe cam I2I of Fig. 5 is replaced by a cam I2I having two lobes arranged to operate the impulse spring I39 at irregular intervals, for example, after one character has been transmitted and again after three characters have been transmitted by the transmitters RTI to RTB, thus providing an arrangement whereby the permutation code is changed at irregular intervals. For example, the cam I2 I may be employed to alter the code after two and six characters respectively have been transmitted by the proper choice of the gear ratio between the gears I01 and I09. It will be understood that the cam I2I may comprise more than. two lobes thereby changing the code three or more times during each revolution thereof and after three or more groups of characters have been transmitted, each group comprising a different number of characters. It will also be understood that the two lobes shown on Fig. 13 may be in such spaced relationship to each other that two and three characters respectively, or any other number of characters may be transmitted before the spring I39 operates. Regardless of the particular arrangement of the cam I2 I employed, the jockey wheel I prevents the cam I2I coming to rest in any position such that spring I39 is in electrical circuit with contact I45.

The clutch I00 is held in engagement by the clutch magnet CM which, when energized, attracts its armature and moves the clutch arm I23 to cause the clutch to operate and drive the shaft IIO by the motor 99. When the clutch magnet CM is deenergized the retractile spring I24 operates to disengage the clutch and bring the shaft H0 and impulse cams I2I and I22 to rest. The shaft H0 is provided with a jockey wheel I25 having protuberances thereon which coact with the roller I26 of the jockey spring I to prevent the cams I2I and I22 coming to rest with the lobes thereof in contact with any of their associated impulse springs.

The operation of the transmitting apparatus of Fig. 5 will now be described. The terminals I 27 are connected to a source of electrical power and the switch I28 is closed thereby setting the motor 99 in operation.

Assume, for example, that a copious supply of perforated tape I29 has been inserted into the tape transmitter 'ITR thereby causing the autostop control AC to close its contacts and, furthermore, that the gears I08 and I09 are so selected that the cams I 2| and I22 rotate at the same speed whereby the code is altered after the transmission of each character.

The closure of contacts I3I of the impulse ma- 10 chine IM applies batter to conductor I32, armature I33 and break contact'of relay AI, winding of relay A from whence the circuit is continued to ground thereby operating relay A. A-circuitis now completed from ground at the break contact and armature I34 of relay AI, conductor I35, armature I36 and make contact of relay A, wind ing of relay A2 and thence to battery thereby operating relay A2 which at the armatures. I40 thereof connects the conductors'IIlI, I02, I03, I04,

I05 and I06 to conductors III, H2, H3, II4, H5-

and I I6 respectively. The closure of contacts H0 of the impulse machine by the cam I22 applies battery to conductor I80 extending to the transmission relay TR to cause relay IR tooperate and connect the tongue contacts 92 of the tion of relay A2 from whence the circuit is continued by way of break contact and aifmature I31 of relay N, break contact and armature I39 of relay S to the radio transmitter RTI causing this transmitter to send out a radio signal of a predetermined frequency of oscillation. In like manner the conductors I03 and I05 are electrically connected by way ofconductors H3 and H5 and break contacts of relays N and S to the radio transmitters RT3 and RT5 thereby caus ing these transmitters to operate and send out a radio signal at their respective frequencies of 1 oscillation. Thus, in the example assumed, with coding relay A2 operated,the operation of relay TR causes a radio signal to be transmitted by the'conjoint operation of the transmitters RTI, RT2 'and RT3. When interrupter contacts I10 open, relay TR releases and the radio signal is interrupted.' v

When interrupter spring I39 is'operated by the cam I2I battery is removed from'conductor I32 and is applied to conductor MI. The r'emoval of battery from conductor I32 caused relay Al to operate over the following circuit: ground, winding of relay A, make contact and armature I42 of relay A, winding of relay AI',"

conductor I43, break contactand armature I44 of relay N and thence to battery. Theeng'agement of interrupter spring'l39 with contact I45 applied battery to conductor I4I, winding of relay S from whence the circuit is continued by Way of conductor I lfi make contact and armature I41 of relay A2 to ground thereby causing relay S to operate and atits armatures I38, I40, I49, I50, I5Iand I52 disconnect the transmitting stations RTI to RTE fromthe group of conductors I I I to I I6 and apply battery at conductor I53 to'the transmitterslRTl, RT2, R'ra; RTI! and RT5 to transmit a signal comprising the code units I to 5fmarkin'g and unit 5 spacing in character an'd cause the counting relay chain in the receiving station, Fig. 6, to step and preparethe apparatus thereat to receive the next message signal in a different code. The operation of relay S at its armature I54 removes ground from conductor I55, armature I56 and make contact of relay A2 and one end.

of the winding of relay A2, thereby causing relay A2 to release. Relay A2 is slow to release thereby maintaining ground, at its armature I41 and make contact thereof, on the conductor I46 for a sufiicient length .of time to hold relay S operated until after the counting relay chain at the receiving station has operated. When relay A2 releases, ground is removed from conductor I46 and relay S releases.

When impulse spring I39 again engages contact I 3| battery is applied to conductor I32, armature I33 and make contact of relay AI, armature I59 and break contact of relay BI and thence to the winding of relay B thereby operating relay B and thus causing relay B2 to operate and connect the group of conductors IUI to I96 to the conductors II I to H6 in accordance with the altered code arrangement employed. The first message signal and the code shift signal have now been transmitted.

.As the contacts I60 of the interrupter cam I22 close, ground is applied to conductor I51 extending to the tape step magnet TS thereby operating the magnet to step the next transverse row of perforations of the tape into the tape transmitter TTR. A cycle of operation for the transmission of a single character of a message has now been completed.

In a similar manner, the second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth characters are transmitted by the radio stations RTI to RTE in accordance with the wiring arrangement of the coding relays B2 to F2, a code change sign-a1 following each character signal. When relay F2 operates preparatory to sending the sixth coded signal, a circuit is closed from grounded armature I59 of relay F2 to one end of the winding of relay N which operates when the interrupter spring I39 is moved into engagement with contact I45. The operation of relay N at its armatures I31, IBI, I62, I63, I64 and I65 connects battery at conductor I53 by way of break contacts and armatures I38, I48, I49, I50, II and I52 of relay S to the transmitting station-s RTI, RTZ, RT3, RT4, RT5 and RTE thereby sending a signal comprising the code units I, 2, 3, 4,, 5 and B marking in charactor to normalize the receiving apparatus. The operation of relay N at its armature I44 removed battery from conductor I43 thereby releasing the operated relays of the counting relay chain. When armature I58 of relay F2 moves away from its make contact, ground is removed from the winding of relay N and relay N releases. The engagement of interrupter spring I39 with the contact I3I applies battery to conductor I32, armature I33 and break contact of relay AI and thence to the winding of relay A, thereby operating relay A and causing the coding relay A2 to operate and prepare the code connections for the seventh message signal to be transmitted.

Referring now to Fig. 6 of the drawings, the radio signals transmitted by the apparatus of Fig. 4 are received by the radio receiving stations RCI to RC6, each of which is adapted to respond to signals from the transmitting stations RTI to RTE respectively. The operation of receiving station RCI operates relay LI to battery on conductor I66. In similar manner the operation of receiving stations RC3 and RC5 causes relays L3 and L5 to operate. When relay LI operates, battery at conductor I6! is applied through break contacts and armatures I93 and I95 of relay L2 and L4 respectively in parallel to conductor I68, armature I69 and make contact of relay LI and thence to conductor I'II.

Relay RC2 of the counting relay chain is operated from battery at armature I l1 and break contact of relay ST, conductor I2 8, armature H9 and break contact of relay RCI, winding of relay RC2 and thence to ground. The operation of re-- lay RC2 at its armature lBI completes a circuit from ground at break contact and armature E82 of relay RCI to the winding of relay DCi, which operates and connects the group of conductors Iii to I26 to the group of conductors I83 to I 8S respectively thereby continuing the circuit including conductor I'II by means of the make contact an armature I89 of relay DCI to conductor I83 connected to slip connection I -9,I and thus applying battery to conductor I92 extending to the first selection magnet SMI of the printer PTR. Since the other end of the winding of this selection magnet is connected to ground, the selection magnet SMI operates to store the first unit of the character code signal. In like manner the selection magnets SM3 and SM5 are operated by the relays L3 and L5 to store the third and fifth code units respectively of the first character of the message. When the transmission of the character signal is terminated the relays LI, L3 and L5 release and at their armatures I63, I 24 and I95 remove battery from the conductors Ill, I23 and I15.

After the character signal is received by the receiving apparatus, the transmitting stations, it will be recalled, send out a stepping signal comprising the code units I, 2, 3, 4, and 5 marking and the code unit 6 spacing in character. The receiving stations EC! to RC5 respond to this stepping signal thereby causing relay LI to L5 to operate and at their armatures 59, I93, I94, I95 and I95 remove battery from conductor 63 thereby preventing the operation of any of the selection magnets of the printer while this signal is being received.

Relay ST operates over the following circuit: battery on conductor I65, make contact and armature I98 of relay Li make contact and armature I99 of relay L2, make contact and armature 2M of relay L3, make contact and armature 282 of relay L4, make contact and armature 293 of relay L5, conductor 224-, Winding of relay ST and thence to ground. The operation of relay ST at its armature 225 applies battery to conductor 226, slip connection 29?, conductor 298, printer contacts 299, which close whenever any of the selection magnets SM! to SMS have been operated, Winding of print magnet PM and thence to ground thereby operating the magnet PM and causing the printer to print the character having the code units I, 3 and .5 marking and the code units 2, 4 and 5 spacing in character.

When armature III of relay ST moves away from its break contact, battery is removed from conductor F3 thereby operating relay RCI over a circuit from ground, winding of relay RC2, make contact and armature 2II of relay RC2, winding of relay RCI, break contact and armature 2I2 of relay UL and thence to battery. The operation of relay RCI at its armature I32 removes ground from one end of the Winding of relay DCI thereby causing relay DCI to release. When the stepping signal has terminated, relay- LI to L5 and, ST release and relays RC4 and DC2 operate to prepare the apparatus to receive the second character of the message in accordance with the code altered by the coding relay B2, Fig. 5, and to decode the same and operate the printer PTR to print the decoded character.

The cycle of operations just described is repeated causing the relay counting chain to operate and control the operation of decoding'relays DC3 to DCB in successive order until the sixth character has been decoded by the relay DC'fi after which the stepping signal comprising the code units I to 5 marking is replaced by the release ignal comprising the code units I to 6 marking in character, the relays ST and UL operating in response to this signal as receiving station RC6 caused relay L6 to operate and at its armature 2I3 and make contact thereof close as circuit from battery on conductor 204 to the winding of relay UL and thence to ground. The operation of relay UL at its armature 2 I2 removed battery from conductor 2M extending to the relay counting chain thereby releasing the operated ones of the counting chain relays and the decoding relay D06. The release of the relays LI to L5 at the termination of the release signal caused relays UL and ST to release and relays RC2 and DCI to operate and prepare the apparatus and cir cuits of Fig. 6 to receive the next succeeding character of the message.

The apparatus for displaying stock prices and the like on electric display boards and the con.- trol apparatus therefor is shown in diagrammatic form on Fig. 8 of the drawings, the apparatus comprising, among other elements, a set of sending relays SRI to SR5 and a distributor D for controlling the receiving and selecting mechanism R over a single line wire 266 to post the close, open, high, low and last prices upon a selected group of stock indicating devices such as those selected by the relay designed W. The mechanism for selecting and actuating the electromagnetic digit indicators represented diagrammatically on Fig. 8 of the drawings by the rectangle designated R is disclosed in the copending application of Merton L. Haselton for Electrical indicatin means, Serial No. 310,719, filed October 6, 1928, now Patent No. 2,248,820, issued July 8, 1941.

In this embodiment of the present invention the printer PTR is disconnected from the group of conductors I83 to I38 and conductor 2&6 and the relay STR and sending relays SRI to SR5 are connected in any suitable manner such as by slip connections, switch contacts or the like, to the conductors 206, I83, I84, I85, I86 and I8! respectively. Thus, when a siganl is received by the relays L! to L5, Fig. 6, it is decoded by the operated ones of the decoding relays DC! to D06 into the original message signal comprising a five unit permutation code which is impressed upon certain of the conductors I83, I84, 85, I86 and IS? in combination to cause the relay SRI to SR5 to operate selectively and at theiir armatures 2I5 apply battery to certain of the segments I to 5 of the ring RI of the distributor D in accordance with the operated condition of the sending relays SR. The operated ones of the sending relays SR look by way of their make contacts and armatures 2I6, conductor 2II, armature 2I8 and break contact of release relay RR and thence to battery.

When the code shift signal is received by the relays LI to L5 causing relay ST to operate, battery at armature 2B5 thereof is applied to conductor 206 thereby operating the start relay STR, Fig, 8. The operation of relay STR at its armature 2I8 applies battery to the distributor start magnet DSM causing it to operate and set the distributor D in operation to transmit the signal stored in the sending relays SR to the receiving station R, the circuit therefor comprising the distributor brush DB, segment I of the ring R2 and theline 200. I The operation of relay STR at its armature 2I9 applies battery to conductor 22I, segment S of the ring RI, brush DB, segment I of the ring R2 and thence to the line 200 thereby setting the receiving station distributor in operation to receive the message signal during'the passage of the brush DB over the segments I to 5 of the ring RI.

When the brush DB engages segment 6 of the ring R! a circuit is established from ground at segmet 2 of the ring R2, brush DB, segment 6 of the ring RI, conductor 222, winding of rela RR and thence to battery thereby causing relay RR to operate. As armature 2I8 of relay RR moves away from its break contact, battery is removed from conductor 2I I and the relays SRI to SR5 are thus all restored to their unoperated positions.

Since the code shift signal persisted for a less period of time than that required for the distributor to complete its revolution, battery will be removed from conductor 206 releasing relay'STR and the distributor is thus brought to rest with the brush DB resting on segment S of the ring RI. The first character of the message compris ing the stock range signal has now been transmitted to the receiving station R. 1

'In similar manner, the stock selection and price signals are transmitted during succeeding revolu tions of the distributor'D until a complete. stock quotation has been transmitted, the receiving station R functioning automatically to select the stock relay, as for example the relay W, Fig. 8,

and to post the quotation upon the indicators of the selected stock, such as for example'a last price of 99% for the stockWestern Union corresponding to the relay designatedW. The line wireZIlIl may be branched as 223 whereby several receivingstations R may be operated simultaneous'ly by the distributor D. V

In Figs. 9, 10 and 11 of the drawings, there is disclosed a system for converting a telegraph message into a differently coded message, the system comprising a transmitting mechanism on which a message may be set up, a system of coding and counting relays for converting the telegraph signals set up by the transmitting mechanism into a plurality of diiferent codes a the telegraph transmitter is operated to transmit successive character signals and a telegraph printer for recording th characters represented by. the different coded signals received. More specifically, the transmitting mechanism comprises a set of key levers 224 pivoted at 24!] and arranged substantially like those of an ordinary typewriter which cooperate with a set of six permutation bars 225 arranged underneath and at right angles to the key levers. The permutation bars 225 have notches 226 differently arranged on their top surface in such a manner that they are positioned in one of two positions in various combinations representative of the actuated key lever. Extending beneath all the key levers is a universal bail 221, Fig. 9, which is adapted to pivot in a counter-clockwise direction whenever a key lever is actuated. The universal bail 221 cooperates with a hooked lever 228 and a three armed lever 229 pivoted at 230 to actuate a clutch throwout lever 23I whenever a key lever is depressed. The clutch throwout lever cooperates with a clutch operated by a continuously running shaft 234 and indicated in general by the reference numerals 232, to release a shaft 233. for one revolution at a time in a manner well known in the art.

Associated with each of the permutation bars 225 is a set of individual levers 235 each of which is pivoted at 236 and is associated with a contact actuating bell crank lever 231. The contact actuating levers 231 are pivoted .at 233 and each has an associated cam 239 on the shaft 233 in which are single notches such as 24! all in substantial alignment. With the permutation bar 225 in its right hand position as shown in solid outline in Fig. 10, the associated lever 235 is adapted to be in a position to restrain upward movement of the right hand end of its associated. contact actuating lever 23'! as the notch 24I in its associated cam 239 rotates into operative relation with the cam following projection 242. With a permutation bar 225 in its left hand position the upper end of its associated lever 235, as shown by the dot-dashed outline thereof, is pivoted out of operative relation with the right hand end of its associated contact actuating bell crank 23! and therefore as its associated cam 239 rotates, it being released as hereinbefore described, the bell crank 23'! is permitted to pivot a slight amount in a counter-clockwise direction by means hereinafter described.

In the normal position of the bell crank 23'! as shown, the associated contacts 243 are held in an open condition and when the bell crank pivots in a counter-clockwise direction as described, the contacts 243 are allowed to close. Thus, depending upon the settings of the permutation bars 2-25, the contacts 243 are allowed to close or remain open in a combination which represents the designation of the actuated key lever.

A seventh contact actuating bell crank 237a has an associated cam 239a which invariably operates to close its associated universal contact 243a on every revolution of the shaft 233. The cams 239 operate their associated contact actuating levers 231 during the first part of the revolution of the shaft 233 whereas the cam 239a operates its contact actuating lever 231a near the end of a revolution of the shaft 233. One of the springs of the contacts 243 is connected to positive potential and the others by conductors 244 to the coding relay system as shown in Fig. 9. One side of the universal contacts 243a is connected to a source of potential and the other through the coil of the stepping relay SP to ground in such a manner that the relay SP operates whenever the contacts 243a are closed.

The operation of relay SP at its armature 245 interrupts a circuit from positive source of potential by way of conductor 5a to the counting relay chain of the coding system to cause the operation of the next succeeding coding relay. As armature 245 of relay SP engages its make contact, battery is applied by way of conductor 246 to the printer contacts 209a and thence to the print magnet PM of the printer PTR from whence the circuit is continued to ground, thereby operating the print magnet to print the character stored in the selection magnets SMI to SMB. The coding system of Fig. 9 may be similar to the coding relay system of Fig. l, the conductors designated 244 corresponding to the group of conductors II to E5, the conductor 6a to the conductor 5 and the conductor Ila to 220. to the conductors I! to 22 respectively. The relay SP corresponds to the relay G of Fig. 1 and is operated by the closure of contact 24311 of the transmitting mechanism whereas in Fig. 1, relay G is operated by the brush B2 engaging segment 2 of the ring R3 of the transmitting distributor.

The connections between the conductors 244 and the group of conductors Ila to 22 are con- 16 trolled by the particular coding relay operated, for example, the arrangement according to Fig. 3 may be employed or it may be in accordance with the arrangement of Fig. i, as the case may be, or any other suitable arrangement may be employed.

Thus, by the system shown on Fig. 9, a telegraph message may be converted into a message in cipher, for example, by employing a coding system having the arrangement of Fig. 3, and the message in cipher will be printed by the telegraph printer PTR. This cipher may then be transmitted by a telegraph operator to a distant city and then received and set up on the keyboard of Fig. 9 which has associated therewith a coding system in accordance with the arrangement of Fig. 4, thereby automatically decoding and printing the message in its original form by means of the printer PTR.

To facilitate the rearrangement of the sequence of difierent codes or the employment of different code changes f or diiferent messages in the transmitting and receiving apparatus, the incoming lines Ll, L2, L3, L4, L5 and L6 corresponding, for example, to the conductors H to It, Fig. 1, may terminate on jacks 248 as shown in Fig. 12 and the contacts of the coding relays designated generally by the numeral 249 may be connected by means of flexible conductors 25! to plugs 252. Thus, by merely inserting the plugs 252 of any coding relay into a set of jacks 24% associated with the lines Ll, L2, L3, L4, L5 and L5, the operation of the coding relay will establish any desired relationship between the lines LI to L6 and the outgoing lines OLl to 0L5 corresponding, for example, to the conductors H to 22, Fig. 1. Whenever any such change in the coding arrangement of the transmitting station takes place, it will be understood that a corresponding complementary change is to be made in the coding arrangement of the receiving station by rearranging the plugs in the different jacks thereat, whereby the cipher message will be automatically decoded into its original form at the receiving station.

While the invention has been described with reference to certain preferred examples thereof which give satisfactory results, it will be understood by those skilled in the art to which the invention pertains, after understanding the invention, that various changes and modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, and it is my intention therefore to cover in the appended claims all such changes and modifications.

What is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent of the United States 1. In a system of the character disclosed, a source of permutation code signals respectively corresponding to the different characters of a message, means including a plurality of coding relays for converting the character signals into a plurality of different permutations, a counting mechanism for operating the coding relays in succession, an outgoing communication channel, distributor structure for transmitting the differently permuted character signals over said channel, and means included in said distributor structure for controlling the operation of said counting mechanism as the distributor operates.

2. In a system of the character disclosed, a

source of permutation code signals each representing a character of a message, said source comprising a plurality of transmitting elements,

a group of conductors in electrical circuit with said transmitting elements, a plurality of coding relays, means comprising a countingrelay chain for operating said coding relays in predetermined order, distributor structure comprising a plurality of transmitting segments connected to the contacts of said coding relays, means for setting up circuit connections between said group of conductors and the contacts of said coding relays whereby the operation of each coding relay connects the conductors of the transmitting elements of said source of signals to the transmitting segments of said distributor in any desired order, means operable at will for changing said setting up means to eflfect changes in said circuit connections thereby to alter the code, and means included in said distributor structure for controlling the operation of the counting relay chain.

3. In a system for the dissemination of a message in cipher, a first group of conductors, means for applying permutation code signals to said conductors in accordance with the different characters of the message, a second group of conductors, a plurality of coding relays each having a plurality of coding contacts to which said first and second groups of conductors are connected for selectively connecting the first group of conductors to said second group of conductors in different combinations to encipher the characters of the message, means including said coding relays and conductors for causing the coding relays to produce enciphered characters corresponding in number to the original characters applied to the relays whereby the encoded message contains but one enciphered character for each original character of the message, cyclic counting mechanism for causing said coding relays to operate successively in a predetermined sequence during a cycle of operation thereof, and switching means for varying the number of coding relays which are effective during said cycle of operation thereby to change the encoding system.

4. In a system of the character disclosed, the combination of a transmitting station having means for setting up coded signals representative of the successive characters of a message, relay coding means for converting said signals into cipher signals, a cyclic relay counting mechanism for operating said relay coding means, a channel of communication, distributor structure operatively connected to the relay coding means for transmitting signals including said cipher signals over the channel, means included in the distributor structure for controlling the operation of said relay counting mechanism a the distributor operates, and means operated by the counting mechanism when a cycle of operations thereof has been completed for causing the distributor to transmit a special signal over said channel.

5. In a system of the character disclosed, the combination of a transmitting station having means for setting up code signals in successive order representative of the characters of a message, means including a cyclic counting chain of relays for converting said signals into cipher signals, means for transmitting signals including said cipher signals to a receiving station, means including a cyclic counting mechanism at the receiving station responsive to the signals received for deciphering said cipher signals and posting the characters of the message represented thereby, means at the transmitting station operated by the counting relays for releasing the counting relays and for transmitting a special signal to is s the receiving station, and means at the receiving station responsiveto said special signal for restoring, said counting .mechanismto a predetermi ed os ni a. s 6. In, a system of the character disclosed; a n m t in tat cn"h i so c o c e i s s nalsrepresentative of the different characters of a message, means including a set of coding relays each operable in succession for converting the coded signals into a different code in accordance with the coding relay operated, a counting mechanism for successively operating said coding relays, a channel of communication, means including a transmitting relay for transmitting said converted signals over, the channel, and means for varying at will the number of characters transmitted by said transmitting station during a single operation of said counting mechanism.

7. In a system of the character disclosed, the

combination of a transmitting station having a source of coded signals representative of the different characters of a message, means including a plurality of coding relays each operable in succession for converting the coded signals into different codes in accordance with the coding relay operated, means including a counting mechanism for operating said coding relays in succession, a channel of communication, means for transmitting said converted signals over said channel, a receiving station having means for receivin and storing said converted signals, means controlled by said receiving means for decoding and posting the message characters represented by said converted signals, means at the transmitting station for varying at will the number of characters transmitted over the channel during a single operation of said counting mechanism, means operable when a predetermined number of converted signals have been transmitted in any one code for causing said transmitting means to transmit a special signal over said channel, and means at the receiving station automatically responsive to said special signal for controlling the decoding means to decode subsequent converted signals received by the receiving means and cause said posting means to post the characters represented by the converted signals.

8. In a system of the character disclosed,z the combination of a telegraph keyboard transmitter having a plurality of signal transmitting contact elements settable in code combinations in accordance with the characters of a message to be transmitted, a universal contact on said keyboard transmitter operable whenever any one of the key levers is actuated, a set of coding relays, a first group of conductors connected to said transmitting contact elements, a second group of conductors connected to said coding relays, a telegraph printer connected to said second group of conductors, means comprising contact members controlled by the coding relays for altering the relationship between the first and second groups of conductors as the coding relays are operated, and means controlled by the universal contact for operating the coding relays in predetermined order to cause the message printed by the printe to appear in. cipher.

9. In a system of the character disclosed, the combination of a telegraph printer keyboard having a plurality of contact elements settable in code combinations to represent the characters of a message in cipher, a universal contact on said mechanism adapted to operate whenever any one of the key levers is depressed, a set of decoding relays, a first group of conductors connected to.

19 said contact elements, a second group of conductors connected to said decoding relays, a telegraph printer controlled by said second group of conductors, means controlled by each of the dein succession, and means controlled by said universal contact for operating the decoding relays to decipher the message and cause the printer to print the original message represented by the coding relays for establishing a predetermined 5 cipher.

relationship between the first and second groups of conductors as the decoding relays are operated RAYMOND M. HICKS.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2725417 *Dec 5, 1949Nov 29, 1955Lawrence ConnellStep-by-step coordinate type printer and transmitter therefor
US2903686 *Dec 27, 1955Sep 8, 1959Zenith Radio CorpEncoding apparatus
US2913525 *Jul 12, 1949Nov 17, 1959Gen Dynamics CorpSecret communicating system
US4275265 *Oct 2, 1978Jun 23, 1981Wisconsin Alumni Research FoundationComplete substitution permutation enciphering and deciphering circuit
Classifications
U.S. Classification380/260
International ClassificationH04L9/38
Cooperative ClassificationH04L9/38
European ClassificationH04L9/38