US 2404441 A
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July 23, 1946. N. M. HOPKINS METHOD OF FENDERING A BOMB 'INACTIVE Filed Feb. 7, 1942 3 Sheets-Sheet l JT\. I
N M HopkinS Inven 2"01' J, Attorney y 1946- N. M. HOPKINS 2,404,441
METHOD OF RENDERING A BOMB INAC'IIVE Filed Feb. 7 1942 3Sheets-Sheet 2 11- I i .1 I MMHopkizis' ZTU'F 1 v I zVenzvI' July 23, 1946. N. M. HOPKINS METHOD OF RENDERING A BOMB INACTIVE Filed Feb. 7, 19 12 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 21. 111170 2211125 lizmnzor #arzzey Patented July 23, 1946 UNITED STATES METHOD OF RENDERING BOMBS INACTIVE Nevil M. Hopkins, New York, N. Y}. Raymonde B. Hopkins executor of said Nevil M. Hopkins, deceased, assignor to Raymonde Briggs Hopkins, New York, N. Y.
Application February 7, 1942, Serial No. 429,924
This invention pertains to apparatus (portable or otherwise), as well as to methods, ways and means, for rendering harmless, Without undue risk to the life and limb of the user, bombs and other infernal machines.
It is an object of this invention therefore, to provide an apparatus and a suitable substance therefor, as well as a method and a technique for comparatively safe and quick attack upon the timing mechanism, o the electrical contacts and/or the cell of battery, or the explosive contained within a package, or to attack all of. the foregoing enumerated parts of a bomb or infernal machine, to render the same inactive.
It is also an object of the invention to provide the apparatus and suitable substance therefor, in several convenient sizes for operation upon a small package, a travelling bag or suit case, a trunk, or large packing case for example.
It is a further object of this invention to stop a clock-work mechanism or a burning fuse in action, to render the electrolyte of a cell of battery inactive, and also to render an explosive substance insensitive to detonation, all by the perforation of a wall of the package containing such 25 elements, and the injection through such perforation of a suitable substance, in a suitable physical state, for the formation or an insulation upon, and/or for the sudden and drastic lowering of the temperature of, the such elements which are component parts of a bomb or infernal machine located within the package.
It is also an object of this invention to provide a suitable bomb-proof screen as a part of this equipment and through which a cutter may operate to perforate a wall of the package containing the bomb or infernal machine, and to conduct the temperature-lowering substance through said cutter into the package.
A further object of the invention is to provide a more or less remote control of the valve of a receptacle containing the substance to be injected into or on to the bomb, so that the human operator of this apparatus may not have to remain in close proximity until the bomb casing has been perforated, the such control being so co-ordinated with the perforating mechanism that said valve is opened substantially at the instant that the perforator has completely passed through the bomb casing, whereby there is no passage of said substance into the bomb casing until its use is required, thereby resulting in a saving of said substance.
With the foregoing enumerated objects in view, as well as certain other objects which will become apparent as the description proceeds. and the drawings are studied, the invention resides in thenovel parts and combinations of parts constituting the apparatus, as well as in the novel 5 steps and combinations of steps constitutingthe method of treatment, all with'a certain technique as will be disclosed'more fully hereinafter and particularly set forth in the claims. U
Referring to the accompanying drawmgs forming a part of this specification and in which like numerals designate like parts in all theviews: Fig. 1 illustrates partly in section and partly in elevation one form of apparatus that-may be used according to this invention; v
Fig. 2, is an elevational view of a plate upon which is mounted a portion of the control for the valve of the receptacle containing the substance to be injected into the perforated bomb casing,
said view taken .as on the line 2* of Fig, 5 and looking in the direction of the arrow y Fig. 3 is an elevational view of the reverse side of the plate shown in Fig. 2, said view taken as on the line 3 of Fig. 5 and looking in the directionof the arrow;
, Fig. 4 is a sectional view of the parts illustrated in Figs. 2 and'3, said View taken, as on the line 4-4 of Fig. 2 and looking in. the direction of the arrows; Fig. 5 is a foreshortened view of the receptacle perforated bomb casing, togethr with the valve control mechanism illustrated in Figs. 2, 3 and 4; Fig. 6. is a View. partly in section and partly in elevation, illustrating one manner of treating a small bomb with the apparatus illustratedin Figs.1to5;
Fig. 7, is a sectional View taken ason the line |'l of Fig. 6 and looking in the direction of the arrows;
Fig. 81s a view partly. in section and partly in elevation, illustrating a carrier for transporting a relatively smallbomb' toa bomb-treating station; and, H I
Fig. 9 is a sectional view taken as on the line 9-9 of Fig. 8 and looking in the direction of the arrows. 7
Referring to'Fig. 1 there lsindicated at ll] the top of a carrying case, orhousing for the apparatus, having a suitable handle II attached therecarrying casetofacilitateintroduction of and access to the apparatuscontained therein End walls of the housing are indicated at l3. and, andan intermediate wallv at lf5,,-the.walls l3 and 15 being P- 'QYi l Q a ar site-restless Witt ete;
containing the substance 'to. be injected into the to, while at I2 is indicated a hinged sideof the bearings such as It for the tubular shaft I! to which is rigidly attached the wide pinion I8. Also to the tubular shaft I! is secured the gear I9 whose teeth are enmeshed with the teeth of the long pinion secured to the shaft 2| of the electric motor 22. Surrounding the, shaft I1 is the spiral compression spring 23 one end of which bears against the pinion I8 while the other end thereof bears against the bearing I6 carried by the intermediate wall l5 of the housing, wherefore said spring urges said pinion and the tubular shaft in a direction from right to left as seen in Fig. 1. Hence, the pinion 20 is elongated or made wide to insure enmeshment with the gear I9 as the latter moves from right to left with said shaft.
The tubular shaft I1 is of a length such that its left end (as seen in the drawings) is always disposed externally of the housing, and the ends of said shaft carry externally the packing or supports 24 and 25 for the stationary tube or conduit 25 for a liquid to be used according to this invention, said liquid comprising a liquid gas, liquid air, liquid nitrogen, or a quick-drying lacquer or varnish. Said conduit is substantially coaxial with the tubular shaft I1 and receives said liquid through the valve 21 from a tank 28 disposed within the housing but having the filler opening 29 extending through a wall of said M shoulder BI for limiting the movement of the shaft inwardly of the apparatus (toward the right as seen in Fig. 1), and the shoulder 32 for abutting the exterior surface of the wall 33 of a package containing a bomb, or the casing of the bomb, when the hole has been cut therethrough.
A protective screen device is generally indicated at 34 (see Fig. 6) which may be of yielding characteristic, woven mat-work, soft wood, or rubber, for example. This screen structure of yielding design is equipped with an opening for the tubular shaft I'I and/or the crown drill cutter, and possibly for an auxiliary and similar shaft I I having a similar cutter 33'. The auxiliary shaft I1 is adapted to make possible an additional injection of the bomb-treating substance, or if the injection is to be only through the shaft I1 then the auxiliary shaft is adapted to make a return or relief vent in the wall of the package and/or bomb casing for taking care of any excessive expansion of the substance used, liquid carbon dioxide, for example. This auxiliary shaft I1 is journalled in bearings such as I6, and may be and preferably is revolved by a gear rigidly secured thereto and enmeshed with the wide pinion I8 carried by the shaft [1,
the spring 23' serving in the same manner as the spring 23 heretofore described. A stop collar such as 36 is provided on each of the shafts I1 and I1 for limiting their outward axial movement upon contact of said collars with the inner surface of the end wall I3 of the housing.
The ends of the auxiliary shaft I'I' carry internally the packing or supports 24' and 25' (similar to 24 and 25) for the tube or conduit 31 for the liquid to be used in treating a bomb, said with a source of liquid gas under pressure, liquid carbon dioxide for example, and this pipe 38 has a branch 39 adapted to extend coaxially substantially through the conduit 26 of the shaft II. Thus it will be seen that said liquid gas may be injected into and through either or both of the shafts I1 and I1 and through their cutters 39 and 30' into the bomb and/or bomb container.
Rigidly secured to a wall of the housing is a non-conducting support 59 for one end of a spring or yieldable electrical contact 5I the free end of which is adapted to be engaged by the free end of a flexible leaf-like electrical conductor 52 upon the upward flexing thereof, and likewise supported by a wall of the housing is another electric contact member 53 adapted to be engaged by said leaf-like conductor 52 upon the downward flexing thereof, said leaf-like conductor supported at its opposite end by a non-conducting block or other member 54 carried by a wall of said housing.
The leaf-like conductor 52 is mounted above the tubular shaft I1 and has upon its underside an extension such as thebutton 55 adapted to be engaged by the cylindrical collar 56 rigidly carried by said shaft, said collar having rounded ends as indicated so as to smoothly engage said button upon axial movement of said shaft. This construction is employed, and the button and the collar are so disposed relatively to each other, so that movement of theshaft to the right, as seen in Fig. 1, will cause the collar to'engage'said button and flex the leaf-like conductor 52 upwardly so that its free end will make electrical connection with the spring contact 5I and movement of the shaft to the left will cause the button to ride off of said collar and permit a downward flexing of said leaf-likeconductor to cause electrical connection with the contact member 53.
The fixed end of said leaf-like conductor 52 is connected as by the wire 51 to the fixed end of a similarly supported and similar leaf-like conductor 52' disposed above the other tubular shaft I1 and having a similar button 55" for like engagement with a similar collar 56' carried by the shaft I1. Likewise, the spring-like electrical contact 5i, and the other electrical contact 53 are duplicates in construction and function of the contacts 5I and 53 respectively, the fixed ends of the spring contact members 5| and 5i being connected as by the wire 58. Thus it will be understood that the leaf-like conductors 52 and 52 will be flexed simultaneously upwardly and/or downwardly by the simultaneous movements of the shafts I I and Il'"respectively to the right and/or to the left, to engage simultaneously the contacts 5I and 5! and/or the contacts 53 and 53' respectively.
The wire 51' is connected as by the wire 59 to the binding post 60 of an electrical storage battery 6| disposed within the housing. The wire 58 is connected as by the wire 62 to one side of a manually operable switch 63 disposed exteriorly of said housing, the other side of said switch being connected as by the wire 64 to one binding post of the electric motor 22, the other binding post of said motor being connected as by the wire 65 to the other binding post 86 of said battery. Hence, the circuit of said motor will be completed by the closure of the manual switch 63 when the shaft I'I and/or I1 is in its right hand position with the leaf-like conductor 52 and/or 52' flexed upwardly by virtue of the 4 shaft collar 56 and/or 56, and this is the position of said shaft II and/or II' when the apparatus (housing) is shoved up against the wall 33 of the casing containing the bomb; upon such closing of the electric motor circuit, the enmeshed gears will cause the cutter 30 and/or 39' to rotate and start cutting action through said wall 33. When both cutters have completed their passage through said wall, the compressed springs 23 and 23 will have caused axial movement of said shafts l1 and I1 to the left a distance sufficient to permit disengagement ofthe buttons 55 and 55' from their respective shaft collars 56 and 56', and such disengagement causes the leaf-like conductors 52 and 52' to flex downwardly out of engagement with the spring contacts 5| and 51' thereby opening the electric motor circuit and stopping rotation of said cutters.
Referring now to Figs. 2 to 5, there is indicated at Ill a carrying case or box for a cylinder or drum H of the usual type containing a liquid gas (carbon dioxide for example) under pressure, said cylinder having the usual valve 12 and lateral outlet pipe 13 for escape of the liquid gas, and according to this invention said outlet 13 is connected as by the flexible hose 14 to the pipe 38 shown in Fig. l and communicating through the tubular shafts I! and/or IT with the hollow or crown drills 39 and 30, said valve having a valve stem 15 of square cross section. Said cylinder is secured in place in its carrying case in any suitable manner to provide at one end of said carrying case a suflicient space to contain the control mechanism for the valve 12, said mechanism mounted upon the plate I6 secured as by the brackets Tl within the carrying case in close proximity to the valve stem 15.
The plate Hi has a central circular aperture constituting a bearing for the boss of a disk 18 having surface contact with the valve side of said plate as clearly indicated in Fig. 4, and upon the exposed flat surface of said disk are mounted two diametric pins I9 and 89 between Which is positioned the bar 8| having a central squared opening 82 within which closely fits the square shank of the valve stem 15 of the gas containing cylinder whereby, upon rotation of said disk, the pins will engage the sides of said bar and thereby cause a turning movement of the bar to open the valve.
The mechanism for rotating said disk is disposed on the opposite side of the plate 16 as clearly illustrated in Fig. 2. An operating lever 85 is rotatably mounted upon the boss of the disk 18, and said boss has a squared end upon which is fitted the ratchet 86 whose teeth are adapted to be engaged by the spring pressed pawl 81 mounted upon the face of said lever, a large headed bolt 88 securing said lever and ratchet to the boss of said disk, whereby the lever has free bearing with the boss, and the ratchet turns with the boss. The lever is double ended, one end such as 89 having secured thereto one end of a coil spring 99 the other end of which is secured to a pin 9| carried by the plate 16, and this same end of the lever carries a spring contact member 92 adapted to engage the companion spring contact member 93 carried by an insulated support on said plate and connected as by the wire 94 to the binding post 66 of the storage battery 60, said contact members being in electrical engagement as shown in Fig. 2 when the arm 89 of the lever 85 is under the maximum tension of the spring 99, but said contacts are disengaged when the lever is released and caused to rotate by said spring.
The release of said lever is accomplished as follows. The'end. of the. other'or diametric arm 95 of said-lever is adapted to 'be engagedfby :the tooth 9B of a detent 91 pivotally mounted on the plate 16,said arm being held .by said tooth by virtue of the coil spring 98, but an electro,- magnet 99 is disposed above said detent and when energized will attract the end of said detent to cause oscillation thereof about its pivot and thereby disengage the tooth 96 from said lever, whereupon the lever is free to rotate under the urge of its control spring 90, and the rotation of said lever will cause (through the pawl 8'! and ratchet 86) rotation of the disk 18 and the opening of the valve 12 of the gas container II. The electromagnet 99 is connected as by the wire I00 to-bothcontacts 53 and 53' as clearly shown in Fig. 1, and is connected as by the wire' H to the lever which, being made of metal, will convey the electric current to the spring contact member 92 carried thereby.
Thus itwill be seen that while the tubular shafts l1 and 11 are advancing the cutters 30 and 36' through the wall 33 of the bomb casing, the leaf-like contacts 52 and 52' will be in their upper flexed positions to close the electric circuit through the motor 22 but, when the cutters have passed through said wall, said leaf-like contacts 5 will be permitted to flex downwardly first to open the circuit of the, electric motor and then to close the circuit through the electromagnet 99 and cause, the opening of the valve 12, resulting in passage of the substance in the cylinder 1| through the cutters and into the bomb casing. Any suitable stop member may be provided for limiting the rotational movement of the lever 85, and in Fig. 2 there is shown a disk-like member I92 eccentrically pivoted as at [.03 to the plate 16 andag'ainst which the arm 95 of said lever may strike, the angle of movement of said lever being regulated through the eccentricity of the disk mounting, as indicated by the dotted line posi tion of said disk.
In setting this control mechanism for the valve 12, said valve is of, course closed when the cylinder time (such as indicated in dotted lines in Fig. 3) c to their intended and operative positions (shown I in full lines) abutting the sides of said bar. .The stop device such as N32 is adjusted for the proper throw of the arm 95. of the lever 85, in accordance with the amount of valve-opening desired for gas flow. This makes the control ready for automatic operation when the cutters havepenetrated the bomb casing, because further and valve-opening rotation of the disk 18 is caused by the pawl 81 when the lever 85 is released bythe actuation of the energized electromagnet. The valve 12 need only be opened aslight distance since the substance in the cylinder is under great pressure.
Coming now to Figs. 6 and 7 there is illustrated one manner of treating a small bomb with the apparatus heretofore described and particularly illustrated in Figs. 1 to 5. The small bomb is indicated at ll enclosed within a wrapping III of insulating material, corrugated card-board for example, the space withinsaid wrapping in communication with the tubular shafts l1 and H by virtue of pipes ortubes such as H2 of a size to closely fit th exterior surface of the crown drills. Outside of the wrapping Ill there is provided a 7 protection I I3 which may comprise wire-mesh fabric, in order to minimize accidents which may be caused (upon premature explosion) by flying fragments of the bomb, and a suitable casing I I4 may be provided surrounding the protecting material.
In Figs. 8 and 9 is shown a carrier for transporting a relatively small bomb to a bomb-treating station, said carrier being provided with wheels I20 if desired, attached to the box-like container I2I in the central portion of which is disposed a wrapping I22 of insulating material, corrugated cardboard for example, surrounding the bomb I23, the space within said wrapping adapted to communicate with a source of bombtreating substance as by the tube I24. Around the wrapping of insulation, and within a cylindrical wall I25, there is disposed a plurality of relatively closely spaced arcuately formed, and somewhat radially positioned deflector blades such as I 26 so that, upon premature explosion of the bomb, the fragments of the bomb will enter the spaces between said blades and, due to the blade curvature, will be deflected relatively smoothly into a circular path over the inner surface of the cylindrical wall E25, travelling in such circular path until their energy is dissipated through friction therewith. Any bomb fragments passing upwardly and/or downwardly are adapted to be caught by annular cup-shaped receivers such as I21 and their paths deflected by the spherical inner surface thereof to break the force of their travel and to change their direction materially in various paths also resulting in dissipation of their energy through contact and/or friction with other structural surfaces within the entire container This invention contemplates first the detection of a suspicious package, and then the treatment of such package to render inactive the bomb or infernal machine or other dangerous device thought to be contained in said package. Such packages are usually deposited in public places and therefore it is contemplated to install microphone and amplifier systems at check rooms in such public places to make known at once to an attendant if a bag, suitcase or other package contained clockwork in action. The microphones could be portable for hand exploration, or a plu rality of small standardized microphones could be installed in the bottoms, tops or sides of shelves of the check room or, in an alternate plan, radiant energy devices, radiographic means, fluoroscopy, or the like could be utilized for the detection of suspicious packages.
When a package with a moving clockwork system was detected, the balance wheel or the movement of such system could be immediately stopped by means of a strong fixed, or rotating, electromagnetic field brought into relatively close adjacency to such system, and the depositor of the detected package possibly apprehended before he could leave the check room. On the other hand a hole could be bored through a side, top or bottom of a package containing a moving clockwork system, and an atomized spray Or a chemical substance injected into the system. Various substances could be used ior this purpose such as nitric acid which would erode and eat various metallic parts to disconnect and make inefiective the vital parts of the bomb or the clockwork controlling the same. Shellac solutions such as gum shellac in alcohol, or certain alcohol ether cement solutions could be injected in atomized condition which would soon gum up the clock movement 8 and at the same time insulate the contact points of the electrical circuit controlled by the clock movement.
Onthe other hand and more particularly in line with a very practical embodiment of this invention, substances may be injected into the package which will so lower the temperature of the package and its contents as to render inactive, by freezing, the component parts of the vital mechanism of the bomb, and by the term package is meant any enclosing wall of the bomb proper, or the wall of any container such as a trunk in which the bomb structure was contained. Therefore, when a suspicious package such as a suit case, trunk or packing box, or other article is located, the portable protective screen or barrier such as 34 is immediately placed between such article or package and the men having charge of the bombdestroying equipment illustrated in Fig. 1. If the package is small or of light weight, one or more sand bags may be advantageously placed to prevent the package or the screen or both from movingunder the pressure of the electrically operated crown drill.
The drill is quickly operated to bore a hole through. the wall of the package after having first been passed through the opening in the screen, and when the cutter has passed through the wall of such package the substance to be used is forced, and/or permitted to pass, into the package. The weight of the housing and its contained equipment (illustrated in Fig. 1) should normally serve to insure the set position of the housing while the drill is operating.
If liquid carbon dioxide is used, the outlet 13 of the gas cylinder shown in Fig. 5 is connected to the pipe 38 as by the flexible hose 14. The valve I2 may be opened at the start of the drilling operation, or automatically thereafter as heretofore described, time being a very important factor in the treatment of bombs or other dangerous explosive devices. The liquid gas is supplied only in suflicient quantity, under its pressure, to practically insure the desired effect upon the bomb, after which the flow may be stopped.
Liquid carbon dioxide is confined in its steel cylinder under a pressure of approximately 900 pounds to the square inch, and when a stream of this liquid issues from a conduit, and expands within the bomb casing, it assumes a gaseous state and its pressure is reduced to that of the atmosphere with an enormous lowering of temperature to below F., in fact the low temperature of carbon dioxide is approximately -l00 F. to l10 F. With a stream of this liquid gas entering and expanding within a package, it can only expand by taking copious heat units from everything with which it comes in c0ntact. The fall in temperature is so sudden and so low that about one-third of the liquid gas is converted into the solid gas in the form of snow. As an alternative plan, the carbon dioxide may be provided in its solid state in more or less finely comminuted form, such as snow, and either blown, pushed or otherwise forcibly fed into the bomb casing or package in sufiicient quantity to provide within said casing a refrigerant capable of lowering the temperature of the activating element or elements of the bomb to a degree such that the heat exchange between the refrigerant and the activating element will render said element inactive and/or inoperative.
Such sudden and drastic super-cooling will stop a clock by congealing any moisture present, or stiffening oily bearings, an will render the electrolyte of a cell of battery inactive, and also render an explosive insensitive to detonation. Nitroglycerin and dynamite are quickly frozen and, contrary to general belief, are rendered diificult if not impossible to explode, Frozen dynamiteis only dangerous when being thawed out by hot water or steam. A so-called dry 'cell type of battery is rendered inoperative by the freezing of the moisture in its active paste component.
When liquid nitrogen is used instead of the liquid carbon dioxide, practical difficulties may be introduced, but a. temperature of -320 F. is quickly reached at which temperature'everything in contact therewith goes dead, the clock because its oil is solidified and its driving spring made brittle and inelastic, and a cell of battery is made as inert as a chunk of granite.
As an alternate plan, steam or finely atomized water may be introduced into the bomb package prior to the introduction of the liquid gas, the purpose of the water or steam injection being to highly humidify the contents of the package or in other words to deposit a thin film of moisture particularly upon the vital parts of the bomb. When the liquid gas is later introduced and expands. the low temperature caused thereby will quickly glaciate or freeze such moistened vital parts by turning the moisture into a thin film of ice with insulating value.
It is well known that when a liquid gas such as liquid carbon dioxide expands to assume the gaseous state, it can only do so by absorbing heat, and this heat is taken from the contents of the bomb package or the Various parts of the bomb. In the case of liquid carbon dioxide the quantity of heat absorbed is so great, and the space of time for its absorption is so small, that intensive freezing action results. A temperature of 100 below the freezing point of water may be obtained by the application of such liquid gas, and at this temperature clockwork is stopped, electrical cells of battery fail to supply current, many explosives become inert to the action of a detonator, and hence it would be comparatively safe to cut open a bomb so frozen and to examine all parts of its composition and structure for clues, finger prints, etc.
By constructing all tubular members, pipes, reservoirs, conduits, valves, and cutters, of steel I may use certain other liquids which may be sprayed into the casing of a bomb and eifect very rapid corrosion of any brass or copper parts. I have done a great deal of work with liquid nitrogen peroxide with the formula N204 which even when it contains small quantities of moisture does not affect iron and steel. Therefore liquid nitroen peroxide, which exerts a far lower vapor pressure than liquid carbon dioxide, may be utilized according to this invention.
It is appreciated that the clockwork, electrical contacts. batteries and explosive may be surrounded by or may be packed in with cotton or woolen material by the manufacturer of the bomb to deaden the sound of the clockwork and to afford certain protection against movement of the parts of the bomb, or to prevent shock to the explosive when the bomb is handled. roughly. However, it is desired pointed out that liquid nitrogen peroxide rapidly gasifies with high penetration characteristics, and within a short time the gaseous product will penetrate such cotton or woolen packing and, in the presence of the slight moisture naturally inherent on all parts of the bomb mechanism, will rapidly corrode brass and/or copper pivot points as in a delicate balance wheel, fine gear teeth; and the like. I have found that it takesvery little corrosion to stopa clock and even lessia watch and therefore by'supplying moisture, in the form of steam preceding the supply of liquid gas, concentrated nitric acidmay be condensed upon the variousparts of the bomb mechanism, whichacid is extremely rapid in its chemicalaction: 3
.'-'Also I propose to penetrate not only the bomb casingjbut'tlie cottonor woolen packing which may bepresent, by employing certainotherpenetrative gases, one penetrativegas followedby an;
other, the said two ,penetrative gases being 'capable of chemically reacting with eachother toform anew substance. with the desired new characteristics eitherto stop a'clock by, clogging itsmoving parts,.or..to insulate electrical contacts operated by saidclock. :In other wordsfI propose through the introduction of suitable chemical gases or vapors, inorganic 'ortorganic, to form a precipitate' or new compound within the heart of the bomb mechanism to serve as contact-insulation and clock-stopping media.
With this particular technique, which may be applied to the apparatus illustrated and described herein, I have a Wide field for producing not only electrical insulating precipitates but clockwork gumming precipitates; Whereas I am now conducting certain experiments with reacting gases, said gases containing suiiicient moisture to be chemically active, I ma elect to work With one liquid and one gas. To accomplish this I naturally supply to the tube 38 first one of the chemical substances and then the other in proper sequence.
A-concrete example of a clock-stopping solid precipitate resulting from the reaction of one gas upon another, is the rapid and prolific formation of solid ammonium chloride from ammonia gas and hydrochloric acid gas respectively. I may also elect to use certain organic vapors, orone vapor and one liquid spray, and thereby forma certain plastic-like solid; Bakelite varnish is made for example by the action of heated formaldehyde gas upon phenol. Or I may volatilize certain solids, thereby subliming them, and condensing the vapor to the solid state in my apparatus; a very simple illustration would be elemental iodine for example, and obviously a simple electric heating system, taking heating current from the storage battery illustrated for this technique, could be installed for the desired purpose. There are certain conditions underwhich it would be unwise to supply a cooling medium or a heating medium unless and until an insulating medium was first introduced, and by insulating medium I mean a product which would insulate electrical circuit-closing contacts. 7
Whereas I have many of the chemical reactions in mind, it is believed that the foregoing statements and examples Will be a sufficient disclosure at this time to form a basis for appropriate claims. 7
It is obvious that those skilled in the art may vary the details of construction and arrangements of parts constituting the apparatus, as well as vary the steps and ingredients comprising the method of this treatment, without departing from the spirit of this invention wherefore it is desired not to be limited to the exact foregoing disclosure 7 except as may be required by the claims.
What is claimed is:
1. The method of treating a bomb within a casing and having an activating element, which comprises perforating the casing; and injecting 11 through the perforated casing a fluid refrigerant capable of developing a temperature sufliciently low that the heat exchange between the refrigerant and the activating element will render such element inoperative.
2. The method of treating a bomb within a casing and having an activating element, which comprises perforating the casing; and injecting through the perforated casing a fluid refrigerant capable upon release within the casing of developing a temperature of approximately 90 F. to render such element inoperative.
3. The method of treating a bomb within a casing and having an activating element, which comprises perforating the casing; and injecting through the perforated easing a refrigerant capable of developing within the casing a temperature as low as -80 F. to render such element inoperative.
4. The method of treating a bomb within a casing and having an activating element, which com- 12 prises perforating the casing; and injecting carbon dioxide through the perforated casing at a pressure and temperature suflicient to refrigerate such element and thereby render the same inoperative.
5. The method of treating a bomb having an activating element within a casing which comprises perforating the casing; and injecting liquid nitrogen peroxide through the perforated casing at a pressure and temperature sufiicient to refrigerate such element and thereby render the same inoperative.
6. The method of treating a bomb disposed within a casing to render the bomb inoperative, which comprises perforating the casing, and ubjecting an activating element of the bomb to a medium of a character capable of freezing the element to render the element inoperative, the medium injected through such perforation.
NEVIL M. HOPKINS.