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Publication numberUS2405273 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 6, 1946
Filing dateJul 29, 1943
Priority dateJul 29, 1943
Publication numberUS 2405273 A, US 2405273A, US-A-2405273, US2405273 A, US2405273A
InventorsSmith Arthur D
Original AssigneeBarium Steel Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Ice manufacturing apparatus
US 2405273 A
Images(4)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

mg. si? m@ A. D.' SMITH ICE MANUFACTURING APPARATUS 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR.

Filed July 29, 1945y ART/wf? o. SMN-H Afro/ww@ L4 A. D. SMITH ICE MANUFACTURING APPARATUS Filed July 29, 1945 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR..

ug, E9. A. D. SMITH ICE MANUFACTURING APPARATUS Filed July 29, 1943 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Lf LLL ALL# INVENTUR. ART/w@ o. SM/ TH Ww/Ew A numerous other accessories and piping.

Patented Aug. 6, 1946 ICE MANUFACTURING APPARATUS Arthur D; smith, canton, ohio, assigner to Barium Steel Corporation, Canton, Ohio, a corporation of Delaware Application July 29, 1943, Serial No. 496,565

The invention relates to the manufacture of ice and more particularly to apparatus for making blocks of ice for commercial use of any desired size and weight convenientl for handling and use` Heretoiore, a large number of special cans filled With water and suspendedl in a largetank in which cold brine is circulated have been usedand required in the common practice of making blocks of ice (11" x 22 x 43") for commercial use ordinarily weighing about 300 pounds. Compressed air is forced through the water in the cans while the freezing progresses from the outside inward to eliminate air Ibubbles from the ice and to center impurities and the like in the center or core of each ice block. When the freezing is nearly completed, the impure water in the center or core of eachrice block is drawn oif and the center core is refilled with clean water after which the freezing of the blocks is completed.` The cans are then transferred from the large tank toV a ythawing station, where the ice blocks are removed from the cans and stored or shipped to the ultimate place of use.

The manufacture of commercial ice blocks in accordance with prior common practice involves a very large investment and a great deal of eX- pen'sive equipment, including large brine circulation tanks, ice cans, covers for the cans, compressed air equipment, overhead cranes, thawing dump equipment, core pumps, core suckers, core iillers, water and air filters, brine agitators, and Such equipment is in addition to the refrigerating equipment necessary for supplying brine at the proper temperature for circulation in the large tanks.

No satisfactory apparatus has ever been provided for the manufacture of commercial `ice blocks using direct expansion of the primary refrigerant and eliminating the use of brine as an intermediate or secondary cooling medium-or refrigerant.

Also, no satisfactory apparatus has even been provided for the manufacture of commercial ice blocks very rapidly and with a relatively small capital investment in equipment, as compared with the investment in equipment required in conventional practice,

Moreover, no satisfactory apparatus has ever been provided for manufacturing'commercial ice blocks in small plants at or near to the4 place of ultimate use of the ice, as distinguished from large central plants Where the ice is madeand stored and shipped at substantial cost to the place of ultimate use.

9 Claims. (Cl. 62-106) Also, no satisfactory apparatus has ever been provided for making commercial ice blocks in a portable or mobile unit'.

Finally, no satisfactory apparatus has ever been provided for making ice blocks of a desired or selected weight for any one installation, say any weight within the approximate range of 50 to- 300 pounds, by a relatively simple' or minor change in the design of an ice manufacturing unit.

In referring to commercial ice blocks herein, the term` includes blocks weighingany desired or selected weight within the approximate range of 50 to 300 pounds, as distinguished from ice cubes which are relatively diminutive in size.

Accordingly, it is a primary object of the present invention to provide apparatus for making commercial ice blocks Without using ice cans, and without using or requiring such auxiliary equipment as overhead cranes, huge brine circulating tanks, compressed air equipment, thawing dump equipment, core processing equipment and the like, which are required in the manufacture of ice in accordance with common practice.-

Another object of the present invention is to provide apparatus for` making commercial ice blocks which greatly reduce the initial plant cost, the cost of production, and consequently the cost per ton of ice manufactured.

Also, it is an object of the present invention to provide apparatus for producing commercial ice blocks of purer quality than ice produced in accordance with common practice.

Further, it is an object of the present invention to provide apparatus for making commercial ice blocks utilizing direct expansion of the primary refrigerant and eliminating the necessity of usingr and circulating a large volume of brine or salt Water.

Also it i's anobject of the present invention to provide apparatus for making commercial ice blocks free of air cells and foreign substances 'without the use of any core sucking or aeration processing equipment.

In addition, it is an object of the present invention to provide apparatus for making commercial ice blocks with materially less freezing surface than is required in accordance with common practice. Y f Y A `further object of the present inventionvisY to provide apparatus for freezing commercial ice blocks of a selected weight in materially less time, say one-quarter to oneveighth'ofA the time required in accordance with common practice to produce va 3 block of the same Weight with the same temperature of refrigerant.

Another object of the present invention is to provide apparatus for making commercial ice blocks, which may be operated intermittently without substantial power loss during shut-down periods by one man to produce ice required by a user of say 50 tons per day.

Also, it is an object of the present invention to provide apparatus for making a relatively large amount of ice, say 5 to l0 tons per day with a relatively small amount of component equipment and within a small space such as on a trailer or automobile truck.

A further object of the present invention is to provide apparatus for making commercial ice blocks under conditions for obtaining a maxfimum rate of heat transfer enabling quick freezing of the ice.

to a central hollow core in accordance with common practice.

Furthermore, it is an object of the present invention to provide apparatus for freezing commercial ice blocks by the use of which the water is constantly being agitated to form air free ice as the freezing progresses outward on growing cylinders of ice.

Also, it is an object of the present invention to provide apparatus for freezing commercial blocks of ice `by the use of which pure ice is 4continuously being formed from water containing impurities or precipitates as the freezing progresses outward on growing ice cylinders rather 'than being trapped in the core as freezing progresses from the outside inward in accordance with common practice.

Also,it is an object of the present invention to provide apparatus for making commercial ice blocks of any desired weight. Such desired weight may be selected for any installation within the range of say approximately 50 'to 300 pounds. The time of freezing the blocks may be approximately constant, other conditions being the same, irrespective of the selected weight.

Moreover, it is an objectof the present invention to provide apparatus Afor making commercial ice blocks in any desired time for any installation selected within the range of say approximately two to eight hours, irrespective of the selected weight of block, other conditions being the same.

And finally, it is an object of the present invention to provide apparatus for manufacturing ice, the operation of which is radically different from common practice, and the operation of which is much quicker, more economical, and produces purer ice in much less space, at amuch less cost of equipment and of ice-produced therein and with much less labor, attention, power, equipment and overhead than in accordance with common or conventiona1 practice.

These and other objects may be attained by the apparatus, parts, combinations, and sub-combinations, embodiments of whichare hereinafter described in detail by way of example, and which are set forth in the appended claims. A

Embodiments of the improved apparatus are illustrated, by Way of example2 in the accom- Vpanying drawings forming part hereof, in which Figure 1 is a diagrammatic view illustrating an installation of the improved apparatus for carrying out improved methods of ice manufacture, and the like;

Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic view of parts of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1, illustrating the connections and arrangement for thawing ice blocks made by the improved methods and apparatus;

Fig. 3 'is a fragmentary diagrammatic View further illustrating the arrangement for thawing ice blocks manufactured by the improved apparatus;

Fig. 4 is an end view of the freezing apparatus shown in Fig. 1;

Fig. 5 is a fragmentary longitudina1 sectional 'view 'taken as on the line 5-5, Fig. 6, illustrating the improved freezing apparatus;

Fig- 6 is a sectional View taken on the line 6-76, Fig. 5; and

Fig. 7 is an enlarged view of one of the freezing pipes illustrating a portion of a block of ice formed thereon;

Similar numerals refer to similar parts throughout the drawings.

Referring first to Fig. l wherein improved ice manufacturing apparatus embodying the present invention is illustrated diagrammatically, the freezing unit is generally indicated at 8, represented by dot-dash outline. The installation may also include a motor or prime mover I6 driving a gas compressor I I having a hot compressed gas discharge line I2 and a gas intake line 28. The compressor is vcooled preferablyY by water introduced to a cooling jacket through a water intake line 29 supplied by main supply SI and discharged through the water outlet pipe 38.

The hot compressed gas passes along liner I2 through a heat exchanger I9 for a purpose to be hereinafter described, and thence through an oil trap 2| to condenser coils or tubes I2 in the evaporative-condenser generally indicated at 9 from whence the condensed liquid refrigerant collects in a receiving tank 34.

The condenser 9 has a pit maintained filled with water to a level 3d', 'supplied from main Water supply 3| and drained at 3 I. The water level 30 in the pit is maintained in the usual manner by a neat valve indicated at I6. A water circulating pump I5 is located in the condenser pit and supplies lwater from the pit to the discharge spray pipes I5' for spraying and dropping on and around the coils or condenser tubes I2 to assist in absorbing the heat from the hot gas being condensed therein.

The condenser 9 is also provided with an incoming air duct I8 and an outgoing air duct II, each of which may be provided with a fan or blower operated by a motor 31 for circulating air through the condenser 9 around the condenser tubes I2' to carry away the heat Aof 'condensation of the refrigerant.

The level of the liquid refrigerant in receiving tank 34 may be observed by sight glass 35 and the condensed liquid refrigerant normally -passes from the receiving tank 34 to the freezing unit 8 through liquid refrigerant line 'I3 and 'automatic expansion valve I4 to freezing unit connector 54. A by-pass line I3 equipped with a valve also coinmunicates between receiving tank 34 and freezing connector 54 for a purpose to be later described.

Expanded or spent refrigerant Ygas leaves lthe freezing unit 8 through a, similar connector 54a and passes through gas return line 24 to an accumulator 2l' equipped with baffles 36, wherein entrained refrigerant liquid is separated from the gas and collects in accumulator J2'I and the liquid may be returned to the freezing unit B through by-pass line 25. The level of liquid in the accumulator may be observed by gauge or sight glass 26. The refrigerant gas returns from accumulator 21 through line 28 to the compressor I I.

Referring particularly to Figs. 4, 5, 6 and '1, wherein the freezing unit generally indicated at 8 is shown in detail, the freezing unit 8 may include supports 56 for bearings 52, in which theholloW shaft 41 is journaled. A sprocket 54' may be xed to one end of shaft 41, and the sprocket 54' may be driven by chain belt 55, speed reducer 62, belt 63 and motor 64 for rotating hollow shaft 41.

Shaft 41 maybe provided near each end with a partition 5I and with openings 48 adjacent the outer side of each' partition. A refrigerant inlet pipe 48 insulated at 5I may be mounted within one end of the hollow shaft 41 and a similar refrigerant gas outlet pipef48" insulated at V5I'y may be mounted within the other end of hollow shaft 41. Inlet connector 54 and outlet connector 54a are mounted on and connected respectively to inlet and outlet pipes 68 and 48" by stuffing boxes 53.

The freezing unit 8 further preferably comprises an outer preferably cylindrical stationary shell or drum 8a comprising side and end walls formed by outer sheet metal Walls 51, inner sheet metal walls 53 and intervening insulationmaterial 59.

Referring particularly to Fig. 5, shaft 41 is adapted to rotate within the aperture 59a formed.

in the left hand or inlet end wall of the stationary outer drum 8a. The outlet yend of shaft 41 is provided with a circular header 4I surrounded by another circular header 46 for a purpose to be later described, which headers 46 and 4I are rotatable along with shaft41 within enlarged aperture 592) provided in th'e inlet end wall of outer drum 8a.

The freezing unit 8 also includes a rotatable multi-side evaporator drum 8b mounted on `shaft 41 within the outer drum 8a; and the multi-sided evaporator drum 8b includes end walls formed by outer plates 51', inner plates 58 and intervening insulation material 59. The side walls of the multi-sided drum 8b are formed by flat plates 41. The polygonal cross sectional shape of the multi-sided evaporator drum 8b is shown as being octagonal or eight sided, but-the polygon may have more or less sides if desired.

Each plate 41' is formed with' a number of groups of holes 49, and hollow freezing tubes 46 are connected to each plate 41 communicating with each hole 49 and project outwardly at right angles to each plate 61 generally radially of hollow shaft 61.

Referring particularly to Fig. 7, each freezing tube 46 may be mounted in any suitable manner on the drum plates 41'. As shown, the tubes 4S are preferably inserted in holes 49 and welded to the plates 41 as at 65. The outei` end of each tube 46 may be closed in any suitable or convenient manner, as by threaded plugs 46. The freezing tubes 46 are shown as being and preferably are cylindrical tubes. Y used as a secondary refrigerant as later explained, they may have any other desired shape n cross section, as for instance they may be square, rectangular or oval in shape. Also, the tubes 46 may be slightly tapered from their inner to their outer ends.

However, if brine is Furthermore, the tubes 46 are preffr erably made of copper or brass for obtaining the.

maximum rate of heat transfer through the walls thereof.

The at drum walls 41 are provided at their outer faces where they meet the next adjacent fiat drum wall 41 with' longitudinal double channel members 66, and with spaced peripherally ex- .tending channel members 61. Members 66 and 61 form a series of shallow rectangular projecting ledges around and segregate each group of freezing tubes 46. The outer surfaces of the channel members 66 and 61 are preferably covered with insulation material 56. Thus, the channel members 66 and 61 form a series of circulation passages diagrammatically indicated in Figs. 2 and 3 as ingoing passages 42, cross passages 42 and outgoing passages 43. The center flange or partition 43 of each longitudinal double channel 66 serves .to form the passages 42 and 43 within each double channel 66.

Referring to Fig. 5, each flat drum plate 41' has a number of groups, such as 4, 5 or 6 groups (or more or less) of freezing tubes 46 mounted thereon; and each group of freezing tubes serves -to form one block of ice, as will be later described. The several groups of freezing tubes located longitudinally on one fiat drum wall 41 are referred to as a bank of groups.

Now referring to Figs. 3 and 4, each bank of groups has a separate circulation system within passages 42, 42 and 43. An inlet tube 68 (Fig. 3) connects the ingoing passage i2 of each bank through inlet valve 44 With circular inlet header 66; and an outlet tube 69 connects the outgoing passage 43 of each bank through outlet valve 45 and circular outlet header 4I.

Warm liquid such as water or other heat transfer medium, may be drawn from heat exchanger I9 through warm liquid supply line 22 by liquid circulating pump 39 to flexible pipe 22', detachably connected at 14' (Fig. 2) with' a valve coupling communicating with circular inlet header All).` Another flexible pipe 23 is detachably connected at 45 with a valve coupling of circular outlet header 4I and leads to warmliquid return line 23, also connected with heat exchanger I9. The level of liquid in heat exchanger I9 may be observed in sight glass 26.

The numeral I4' in Figs. 1 and 6 indicates the approximate level of liquid refrigerant in rotatable multi-sided evaporator drum 3b during operation; while the numeral 66 indicates the approximate water level within the outer drum 8a of the freezing unit. Water is4 supplied to the drum 8a through pipe 36 communicating with the main water supply 3|, and the drum may be drained at 32. rEhe level 66 is preferably maintained by an overflow opening 33. f

The ice blocks which form on each group of freezing tubes are diagrammatically indicated at 66 in dot-dash lines, and may be removed in a manner to be hereinafter described by opening air-tight hinged cover 8', whence they may be transferred to a place of storage, shipment or use along chute 6I.

In operation, the cold liquid refrigerant, which may be ammonia or other refrigerant at the usual temperature of approximately 14 F. is introduced into the interior of the multi-sided drum 8b to maintain a liquid refrigerant levelr I6 approximately as shown in Fig. 6. Water'is maintained in the outer drum 8a at the approximate level 60. The multi-sided drum 3b is rotated and during rotation the banks of groups of freezing tubes 46 on each flat drum wall 41 successively dip down into, pass through, and emergefromthe water in thelower part of the outer drum 8a. Meanwhile, the liquid refrigerant flows into and lls the interior of the freezing tubes 46 as each bank of groups f tubes passes through the lower approximate quarter arc of rotation of the multisided drum and as the banks `of groups swing through the upper left hand quarter arc of rotation, the liquid refrigerant flows out of the freezing tubes and drains back into the interior of the multi-sided drum, accompanied by evaporation of some of the liquid refrigerant.

Thus, as any one freezing tube 46 completes one revolution, the liquid refrigerant flows or circulates in and out of the tube; and ideal conditions for a maximum rate of heat transfer are established because the liquid refrigerant is flowing and because the small streams thereof present a relatively large liquid surface for evaperation.

As a result of these operations, a thin iilm of ice commencesv to form as a tube around the outer surface of each freezing tube 4E, under ideal conditions of heat transfer. As each tube 46 dips into the waterl bath and emerges from the water, a further film of water is carried out of the water bath on the outer surface of the ice forming on each tube 46, which further film or added layerin turn freezes as the multi-sided drum continues to rotate. Thus, the ice freezes progressively outwardly from the surface of each freezing tube 46 by the successive freezing of thin films of water to be added frozen layers on the outside of the growing core or cylinder of ice.

Operation of the unit is continued until each ice cylinder grows in size to meet the ice cylinder on and fill out the space between adjacent freezing tubes 46 of the group, to finally form a block of ice on each group of freezing tubes 46, substantially as shown in dot-dash lines at 60 in Figs. 5 and 6. The shallow projecting ledges around each group of freezing tubes 46 formed by'members E6 and 6T, serve to segregate and separate each'block of ice from the next adjacent block of ice in each bank on one flat drum wall 41 and to also segregate the blocks of each bank from the blocks of the adjacent banks.

Meanwhile, the continuous movement of the freezing tubes 46 through the bath of water serves to agitate the water, with the result that no minute air bubbles are contained Within the thin film of water successively picked up by each freezing tube 46. Accordingly, cloudy ice is avoided and clear ice is formed on the freezing tubes, eliminating the necessity of using special equipment for removing entrained air from the water being frozen, as is necessary in the ccmmon practice of making ice.

Moreover, as impurities dissolved in water lower its freezing point, the thin film of ice formed on each tube 46 during that part of its revolution when above the water is washed by the water on its immersion during the balance of the revolution and the impurities rejected to the surface of the film are washed off and concentrate in the water. trated in the water as to exceed their solubilities the excess impurities precipitate to the bottom of the water bath.

If desired, a sterilizing lamp may be mounted within the outer drum 8a to sterilize the water therein and enable the formation of sterile ice.

When the freezing of the ice blocks is completed, the expansion valve I4 is closed, the compressor Il is stopped, and valve 28'V is closed.

When the impurities become so concen- Gate valve in by-pass line i3' is then opened up wide permitting a relatively large volume of warm refrigerant liquid to flow by gravity from receiving tank 34 into the interior of multi-sided drum 8b. The liquid refrigerant in receiving drum 34 is normally at a temperature of between to F., and as it flows into the interior of the multi-sided drum 8b, it will warm the liquid refrigerant therein and in turn be cooled by the cold liquid'refrigerant therein. Some evaporation will also take place accompanied by some lowering in temperature. However, gas pressure within the multi-sided drum 8b will be built up, because the gas return line 28 is closed and no gas can leave the interior of the drum. The result is that the liquid refrigerant in drum 8b will reach a temperature above freezing.

Meanwhile, rotation of the multi-sided drum 8b is continued and the warm refrigerant liquid now contained therein, in circulating back and forth through the freezing pipes 46, warms and gently thaws the ice immediately contacting the outer surface of freezing tubes 46.

When such thawing operation has progressed to -a sufficient degree, the rotation of the drum 8b is stopped. One fiat drum wall 41 and the bank of blocks kof ice Se thereon are located opposite to hinge cover 8 of the outer drum 3a, as shown in Fig. 6 when the drum is stopped.

The door 8a is then opened, and inlet and outlet flexible pipes 22 and 23' are connected respectivelyv at 44 and 45v with the circular inlet and outlet headers 40 and 4i. Also inlet and outlet valves 44 and 45 for the particular bank of ice blocks opposite door At are opened. Circulation pump 39 is then started and the warm thawing liquid from heat exchanger I9 is circulated through pipe 22 and passages 42, 42 and 43 for the particular bank, an back through pipe 23 whereby each ice block is warmed slowly and gently to thaw the ice nlm immediately around the corner of the block adjacent the shallow rectangular projecting ledge formed by members 66 and 61.

When the contacting surfaces of the ice blocks with freezing tubes 46 and plates 41 have'been sufficiently thawed, the blocks 60 are removed from the' freezing tubes 46 through the door 28 and may be handled down chute I6I to a place of storage, use, or transportation.

Thereafter, the next bank of blocks is moved to a position opposite door 8 and the thawing operations just described are again carried out to harvest the blocks of ice on the next bank of themulti-sided drum 8b. These operations are repeated until all of the blocks of ice have been harvested, `whereupon pump 39 is stopped, flexible pipes 22' and 23 are disconnected, and a new freezing cycle is commenced.

As previously stated, if the freezing tubes 46 are sligh'tly tapered, the thawing time for removing or harvesting the ice blocks from the freezing tubes will be shortened.

As indicated in the foregoing description, the present invention enables the manufacture of commercial ice blocks by using direct expansion of the primary refrigerant and eliminates the use of brine as an intermediate or secondary cooling medium. However, it is to be understood that the other features and advantageous results of the present invention (including rapid freezing, elimination of separate aerating equipment, purer ice formed, etc.) may be obtained, even though a brine or secondary refrigerant system is used in'which the primary refrigerantV is ex- 9.. panded to cool the brine and the brine is then passed into and circulates within the interior of the multi-sided drum 8b and the freezing tubes 46. In event that brine is used, the liquid level of the brine refrigerant within the multi-sided drum would have to cover tube 41 so that the outgoing brine would flow out of the multi-sided drum.

While the spacing of the tubes of each group is not critical, the tube spacing is important from the standpoint of production, or rate at which it is desired to produce ice. Obviously, the closer the freezing tubes -46 are to each other, the more tons of ice per day can be produced in a unit of given size. However, the spacing must not be too close, because the ratio of hole volume to ice in any block produced may be too high for some particular usefor the ice.v

'I'he presence of the holes in the ice, where the freezing tubes 46 were located during formation of the ice blocks, does not detract in any manner from the usefulness of the ice, and in fact it may be benecial in connection with certain uses for the ice. Thus, a great deal of ice is used in relatively small quantities at isolated places, such as for packing and shipping fish and vegetables. In such instances, the ice is usually crushed or broken up in small pieces and the presence of the holes in the ice blocks will assist in enabling the ice to be readily crushed or chipped.

If the tubes are spaced, say two inches apart, four times as much ice per day can be made in the same unit under the same conditions as could be made if the freezing tube spacing were four inches apart. This is because the rate of freezing is inversely proportional to the square f the thickness of ice frozen.

Accordingly,.the production desired from any particular unit and the frequency with which the ice may be harvested, determines to a large extent, the spacing between the freezing tubes. With any given spacing of freezing tubes, the size of the block of ice formed in a given time by any group of tubes may be increased simply by increasing the number of tubes in the group while maintaining the same spacing.

The freezing tubes 4S are preferably cylindrical tubes in order to provide vthe necessary strength to withstand the pressure of direct expansion refrigerating medium introduced within the tubes for freezing successive tubular ice films thereon. These tubes may be approximately 35" long where it is desired to form a standard block freezing apparatus may be operated in accordance with the present invention, for say eight or twelve or sixteen hours a day to produce the desired quantity of ice, and the unit may be shut down for the remaining time of a twenty-four hour period or over week-ends without substantial power loss during the shut-down period, in contrast with the normal operation of commercial ice plants in accordance with conventional practice, where it is difficult to shut-down the freezing equipment without substantial power loss, and where a freezing cycle for freezing the ordinary 300 pound commercial ice blocks is approximately forty-two hours with 14 F. brine.

It is pointed out that the ability to confine primary direct expansion refrigerant within jthe multi-sided drum, the ability to use small round freezing tubes with thin walls which will withstand the internal pressure of the expansible refrigerant, and the ability to use the liquid refrigerant under different conditions of Vtemperature and pressure for both freezing and sufficient thawing to release the formed ice blocks; enables the use of direct expansion of a primary refrigerant in the manufacture of commercial ice blocks, which has heretofore been believed and considered impossible.

Accordingly, the present invention provides for direct expansion of the primary refrigerant; provides for the rapid manufacture of commercial of ice, although the tube length may be much` shorter, say 8" to 10" in length if it is desired to form ice blocks of other sizes.

The tubes may have an internal diameter of from l/i," to 1" tubes having a, 1/2 internal diameter being preferable. The tube wall should be as thin as possible for the particular metal from which it is formed in order to lcut down power loss,` but the tube wall must be thick enough to supplythe necessary strength for resisting pressure. I have found that l/z" internal diameter tubes with a ,-e" wall thickness 35 long and spaced 2" apartV are preferable in the ordinary installation for rapidly making commercial ice blocks. In every instance, the tubes having dimensions within the approximate ranges specied may be characterized as "slender or "fingerlikeV tubes because of their relatively small diameter with respect to their length; and the tube arrangement or grouping may betermed a porcupine arrangement.

It will -be further understood that the improved ice blocks with a relatively small capital investment; provides for the economical manufacture of commercial ice blocks in small plants atv or near to the place of ultimate use of the ice, or in portable or mobile units; provides for the manufacture of ice blocks of any desired or selected weight for any one installation; eliminates the necessity of using ice cans and attendant crane, circulating tank, compressed air, thawing, and core processing equipment and the like; provides for the manufacture of very pure ice free of air cells and foreign substances without auxiliary equipment for eliminating air and foreignsubstances; provides for the intermittent manufaci ture of commercial ice blocks without substantial power loss during shut-down periods; and eliminates much of the equipment, labor attention, power, and overhead required for the manufacture of ice in accordance with common or conventional practice.

The new and improved apparatus for the manufacture of ice shown, described, and claimed herein, carries out the improved methods claimed in my copending application entitled Ice manufacture, filed of even date herewith, Serial No. 496,564?. l Y

Having now described the features of the invention, preferred embodiments used in carrying out the improved methods, the advantages and results obtained by the use of the same, and the prior art difliculties eliminated; the new and useful apparatus, parts, combinations, and subcombinations, and reasonable mechanical equivalents thereof obvious to those skilled in the art, are set forthl in the appended claims.

I claim:

l. In refrigeration apparatus and the like, a hollow body having an exterior and an interior and including a group of spaced tubes, each tube having a closed end, vmeans containing a bath of liquid adjacent to said tube, means for moving the hollow body for intermittently immersing portions of the tubes and their closed 'ends in'said bathvof liquid to pick up successive lms of liquid entirely surrounding the exterior portions of the tubes, and means operatively-associated with the-interior of theV body for internally refrigerating theY tubesand freezing the successive iilms of liquid to form a frozen solid entirely around each tube progressively outward from the outer surface of each tube until the frozen solid formed on the group of tubes merges into one block.

2. In refrigeration apparatus and the like, a hollow body having an exterior and an interior and including a group of spaced tubes, each tube having a closed end, means containing a bath of liquid adjacent to the hollow body, means for intermittently immersing -portions of the tubes and their closed ends in said bath of liquid to pick upv successive iilms of liquid entirely surrounding the exterior portions of the tubes, means operatively associated with the interior of the body for internally refrigerating the tubes and freezing the successive iilms of liquid to form a frozen solid on each tube progressively outwardv from the outer surface of each tube until the frozen solid formed on the group of tubes merges into one block, and the tubes being arranged to permit stripping of the block-therefrom.

3. In refrigeration apparatus andthe like, a hollow body having an exterior and an interior and including a plurality of groups of spaced tubes, eachtube having aV closed end, means containing a bath of liquid adjacent to the hollow body, means for intermittently immersing portions of the tube and their closed ends in said bath of liquid to pick up successive films of liquid entirely surrounding the exterior portions of the tubes, and means operatively associated with thev liquid to form a frozen solid on each tube progresl sively outward from the outer surface of each tube until the frozen solid formed on each group of tubes merges into'one block.

4. In refrigeration apparatus and the like, a hollow body having an exterior and an interior and including a plurality of groups of spaced tubes, each tube having a closed end, means containing a bath of liquid adjacent to the hollow body, means for intermittently immersing portions of the tubes and their closed ends-in said bath of liquid to pick up successive films of liquid entirely surrounding the exterior portions of the tubes, and means operatively associated with the interior of the body forinternally refrigerating the tubes and freezing the successive films of liquid to form a frozen solid on each tube progressively outward from the outer surface of each tube until the frozen solid formed on each group of tubes merges into one block, and the tubes of each group being arranged to permit stripping of the block therefrom.

5. In refrigeration apparatus yand the like, a hollow body, a group of spaced tubular lingers upon the body, said fingers communicating with the interior of the hollow body and being closed at their outer ends, means containing a bath of liquid adjacent to said hollow body, means for moving the hollow body for intermittently immersing exterior portions of the tubular fingers in said bath of -liquid to pick up successive films of liquid entirely surrounding the tubular fingers, and means for refrigerating the interior of the Y hollow body and tubular fingers for freezing the successive liquid films between successive immersions to form a frozen solid on each tubular iin.- gerprogressively'outward from the outer surface oilA each tube until the frozen solid` formed on the group of tubes merges into one block.

67.*In refrigeration apparatus andthe like, a hollow body, a group of spaced radially disposed tubular fingers upon the body, said iingerscommunicating with the interior of the hollow body and being closed at their outer ends, means containing a bath of liquid adjacent to said hollow body, means for rotating the hollow body for passing exterior portions of the tubular fingers into.v and out of said bath of liquid to pick up successive films of liquid entirely surrounding the tubular fingers, and means for refrigerating. the interior of the hollow body and tubular 1ingers to freeze the successive films of liquid and form a frozen solid on each tubular finger progressivehf outward from the outer surface thereof until the frozen solid formed on the group of tubes merges into one block.

'll In refrigeration apparatus and the like, a hollow body, a group of spaced tubular ngers upon. the body, said fingers communicating with the interior of the hollow body and being closed at their outer ends, means containing a bath of liquid. adjacent to said hollow body, means for moving the hollow body for intermittently immersing exterior portions of the tubular fingers in said bath of liquid to pick up successive films of` liquid entirely surrounding the tubular ngers, and means for evaporating liquid refrigerant in the interior of the tubular fingers to freeze the successive liquid films between successive immersions to form a frozen solid on each tubular iinger progressively outward from the outer surface thereof until the frozen solid formed on the group of tubular fingers merges into one block. 8. In refrigeration apparatus and, the like, a hollow body, a group of spaced radially disposed tubular iingersupon the body, said lingers communicating with the interior of the hollow body and-being closed at their outer ends, means containing a bath of liquidadjacent to said hollow body, means for rotating the hollow body for passing exterior portions of the tubular ngers into and out of said bath of liquid to pick up successive films of liquid entirely surrounding the tubular fingers, and means for flowing a refrigerant into and out Yof the interior of the tubular fingers as the hollow body is rotating to freeze thesuccessive films ofliquid and form a frozen Vsolid on` each tubular linger progressively outward from the outer surface of each tubular 1inger until the frozen solid formed on the group of tubular fingers merges into one block.

9. In refrigeration apparatus and thelike a hollow body, a group of spaced tubular fingers upon the body, said lingers communicating with the interior of the hollow body and being closed at their outer ends, means containing a bath of liquid adjacent to said hollow body, means for intermittently passing exterior portions of the tubular fingers into and out of the bath of liquid to pick up successive films of liquid entirely surrounding exterior portions of the fingers, and means operatively associated with the interior of the hollow body for internally refrigerating the hollow body and tubular fingers to freeze successive lms of liquid and form a frozen solid on each iinger progressively outward from the outer surface of each tubular linger until the frozen solid formed on the group of tubular iingers merges into one block and the tubular fingers being arranged to permit stripping of the block therefrom, Y

ARTHUR D. SMITH.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2590499 *Jan 18, 1949Mar 25, 1952Jr James W BraswellIce-making machine
US2648956 *Jan 19, 1950Aug 18, 1953Carrier CorpIce maker
US2723534 *Sep 29, 1952Nov 15, 1955Eugen WilbushewichMethods and machines to produce ice, and iceblocks obtained thereby
US2746263 *Dec 13, 1951May 22, 1956 Field
US2747379 *Apr 9, 1952May 29, 1956Flakice CorpLaminae freezer
US2900804 *May 21, 1957Aug 25, 1959Rising Henry CApparatus for making ice cubes
US7992322 *Nov 5, 2008Aug 9, 2011Daewoo Electronics CorporationDryer having intake duct with heater integrated therein
Classifications
U.S. Classification62/233, 62/349, 62/342, 62/512, 62/78, 62/345, 62/305
International ClassificationF25C1/08
Cooperative ClassificationF25C1/08
European ClassificationF25C1/08