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Publication numberUS2406268 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 20, 1946
Filing dateAug 13, 1943
Priority dateAug 13, 1943
Publication numberUS 2406268 A, US 2406268A, US-A-2406268, US2406268 A, US2406268A
InventorsCornelius F Terhune
Original AssigneeCornelius F Terhune
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Windmill
US 2406268 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

c. F. TERHUNE 2,406,268

WINDMILL Filed Aug. 15, 194.3l zsneets-sheet 1 gunna/nicmar `darn elias I.' l'erhu ne,

awww@ Aug. 20, 1946.

Filed Aug. 13, 1943 C. F. TERHUNE wINDMILL' E I E Colr-ne ius I." er'hune,

Patented Aug. 20, 1946 UNITED STATES .PATENT OFFICE WINDMILL Cornelius F. Terhune, Kansas City, Mo. Application August 13, 1943, Serial N0. 498,553

This invention relates to windmills and it includes a number of improvements on the windmill disclosed by United States Patent No. 2,247,- 929. granted to me on July 1, 1941.

An important feature of the present invention resides in means whereby operation of the mill wheel is rendered more constant and less responsive `to frequent and comparatively slight fluctuations in the force f the wind, by permitting one or more vanes to turn edgewise to the wind when the latter attains a speed above a, predetermined point, thereby stabilizing and insuring -steadier operation which renders the mill wheel especially desirable for driving an electric generator as well as other machines which operate more eflciently when driven at approximately constant speed.

Another important feature of the invention re-V sides in a positive automatic means for restoring` weight 74 to an upright position through the mechanism of a ratchet-bar operating over a stationary cam.

Another important feature of the present invention resides in means whereby the broad sides of the vanes of. the rotary mill wheel are presented to the full force of the wind twice during each revolution, thereby increasing and prolonging the power output for the operation of pumps and other machinery to a greater extent than if the broadsides were presented to the wind but once during each revolution.

Other features will hereinafter appear and in order that the invention may be fully understood, reference will now fbe had to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic View with some parts in section.

2 is a horizontal section of the mill wheel taken on line 2 2 of Fig. l.

Fig. 3 is an enlarged cross section taken on line 3-3 of Fig. 1.

In carrying out my invention I provide a rotatable vertical shaft 2 journaled at its upperportion in bearings 4 and B and at its lower end in a bearing 8, The upper portion of the shaft 2 is provided with a mill wheel comprising hubs 22 and 23 spaced one above another upon the shaft 2 to which they are fixed, any desired number of upper and lower horizontal arms 24 and 24a fixed to and extending radially from the respective hubs, and circumferential upper and lower frames 25 and 25a, respectively, the former of which unites the outer ends of the upper arms 24 and the latter the outer ends of the lower arms 24a.

A plurality of vanes 26 are swingably disposed Claims. (Cl. 170-2.6)

between the upper and lower frames Z5 fand 25a and mounted upon vertical spindles 278 `carried by said frames. The -vanes l2t are held by verti- -stops 34 broadside `to the wind at that side of the mill wheelwhich is turning with the wind, and by Vertical stops Sta at that side of the mill wheel turning against the wind, as shown by Fig.

2. Each stop t@ is operably mounted in guides if* and fixed to the upper and lower associated 24 and 24a, respectively, and yieldably held in the path of the associated vane 26 by a coil spring 4Q interposed between the .stop and one Aof tfe associated guides 38.

Cables 42 are provided for simultaneously pulling the stops 34 out of the path of the respective vanes 2B when the lspeed of the wind becomes excessive, so that the vanes will be free to swing' and present their edges to the wind. Each cable l2 is attached at its upper end to the assoelated stop 34 and at its lowerend lto a slide .43 comprising an upper ring 43a, -an intermediate 43h, a lower ring 4d, vertical bars 45 connecting the rings 43a and 43h, and vertical bars 45a connecting the -ri-ngs 43o and 44. The slide 3 is splined to Vthe shaft 2 and operably mounted upon a guide 52 xed upon the shaft. The lower ring i4 of the slide has a brake wheel 41 fixed to rotate therewith and adapted to frictionally engage a stationary brake-wheel 49 xed upon a support 5l. A band 53 is Yfreely mountedy upon ie lower ring 44 and pivotally connected to a hand lever which, when manually pulled upward, applies the brake and through the medium of the intervening parts above described simultaneously pulls the stops 34 out of the path of the respective vanes 25. Ordinarily the hand lever 55 is free to swing up and down to prevent interference with the automatic operation of the stops 34 but when desired the lever may be secured in raised position `to hold the stops out of the paths or" the `vanes bi1-suitable means such as a pin (not shown) adapted to be placed `beneath the lever and -insertedi-n a hole 5t of an associated sector Si.

lA -cable Eattached to ythe intermediate ring 43h of the slide, extends beneath a guide sheave 56 and is attached at its lower end to a weight ends to the weight tively. The oscillatory lever is pivotally connected at its inner upper l mill wheel'arms 24a and provided at its outer end with a counterweight i guidesheaves 18 and l of the lower arms 24a, l the lever 10 moves inward it will take'up the l Slack in the cable 12 and restore the weight 58 l to its inward, raised position and 10 swings outward it become slack, so that Vto respond to centrifugal force.

,resides in means for restoring the lever .and arranged concentrically tion of the shaft 2. Toavoid undue friction the:

stored to its inward, raised position, Fig. l, by `the inward movement of an oscillatory lever 10 which takes up slack in a cable 12 attached at its 58 and the lever 10, respecend to one of the lower 14. The cable 12 runs over 18 on a bracket 19 and one respectively, so that when when the lever will permit the cable 12 to the weight 58 will be free Sudden movement of the lever 10 is prevented by a retarding 3 device 84 pivotally connected at its upper and L, lower ends'to an arm g tively. Y As the weight 58 is restored'to inward, l raised position it contacts and lifts the free end of the clamping member 66, thus releasing the slide 24 and the lever 10, respec- 43 which is then pulled upward by action of the l springs 40.

The` foregoing parts maybe similar in construction and operation to a number of parts in my patent above referred tothe majority of which bear corresponding reference numerals to' the parts above described. Y

plunger 98 is provided at its lower forked terminal with a conical roller |08 which travels in a circuit upon the cam |04. As the ratchet-bar Referring now more particularly to the newV features of the present invention, 34a designates a set of stops whereby the vanes 28 are presented rto the wind a second time during each revolution and while traveling against the wind, Fig. 2.

c The stops 34a are associated with the upper and lower circumferential frames 25 and 25a, respectively, and guided and controlled in approximately the same manner as the stops 34, as is evident by similar` reference numerals with exponents a, excepting that the cables 42a are attached to the stops 34a to which they are directed by sheaves 80 and 8| associated withthe lower circumferential frame 25a and the arms 24a, respectively. l

Another new feature of the present invention 10 and weight 14 to outward, raised position soY as to leave sufficient slack in 58 to respond to centrifugal force. Such means includes a vertical ratchet-bar 88 operably mounted in a guide 90 xed to the bracket 19 and a bracket 9| clamped to the shaft 2. The ratchetbar 88 is adapted to automatically restore the lever 10 and weight 14 to raised position through the instrumentality of a cable 92 attached at its ends to the lever 10 and the ratchet-bar 88 and operating around guide sheaves 94 and 96 associated with the guide 90 and adjacent lower arm 24a, respectively, of the mill wheel. The ratchetbar 88 is raised step by 'step by means of a vertical plunger 98 operating in the guide 90 and provided at its upper end with a pawl |00 which successively engages the ratchet-teeth |02 toraise the ratchet-bar one step at each upward stroke` of the plunger 98.

Y The plunger 98 is actuated by a stationary cam |84 fixed upon suitable supporting means 99 with the lower porthe cable 12 to'permit weight` weight ||8 will be Vtaneously,

88 is moved upward its teeth are successively engaged by a pawl |08 and thereby prevented from moving downward at each downward stroke of the plunger 98. The pawl |08 is/ spacedabove the plunger 98 and pivotally mounted inthe guide 90. The pawls |00 and |08 are yieldably pressed against the ratchet-bar 88 by springs ||9 and ||2, respectively. When the speed of the windmill increases sufciently to cause the weight 58 to respond to centrifugal force, said weight will withdraw and hold the pawls |08 and |08 from engagement with the ratchet-bar 88 by means of a cable ||4 running over aguide sheave ||8 to both ofthe pawls. The ratchet-bar then drops by gravity until checked by a lip l |1 on its upper end contacting the lower end of a vertical slot ||1a in the guide 90.

Another new feature of the present invention relates to means for controlling the speed of the mill wheel by automatically throwing one or more vanes 28 out of gear when the speed of the wind exceeds a predetermined point. In the present instance such means includes a weight ||8 suspended from an arm |20 secured to the shaft 2, so that when the mill wheel is in operation the force and swing outwardly should the speed of the wind become abnormal. On swinging outwardly the weight I8, through the instrumentality of a cable |22 operating around a guide sheave |24 and attached to the adjacent cable 42, withdraws an associated stop 34 from the path of theassociated vane 28, so that the latter may swing edgewise to the wind.V

VI have shown but one weight I8 and one cable |22, but it is to'be understood that any desiredV number of weights may may be connected to more desired. When a plurality of weights ||8 and cables |22 are employed, cables |22 of different lengths to provide different amounts of slack are preferably provided to effect `release of the associated vanes 26 one at a time instead of simuland thereby prevent sudden changes in the speed of the mill wheel by releasing only the necessary number of .vanes to insure fairly constant speed of the mill whee1. Y

The operation briefly fstated is as follows: Assuming that the parts are in the position shown by Figs. 1 and 2, and that the wind is blowing in the direction indicated by the arrows, Fig. 2,

be employed and each than one cable 42 if the mill wheel will be driven in a clockwise direc; tion and the stops 34 and 34a will be held in active position by the springs 40 and 40a, so that those vanes 26 traveling with thewind will be held broadside thereto by the stops 34 while one or more vanes traveling against the wind will be held broadside thereto by the associated stops 34a. As the mill wheel rotates outward and upward movement of the lever 10 and counter- 4,3 is pulled downward by the cable 54. andau- Y free to respond to centrifugal Y tomatically held in lowered position by the clamping member 66 which forces the slide into frictonal engagement with the guide 52. When the stops 313 and 34a are pulled out of the path of the respective vanes 26 as above stated, the latter are free to swing edgewise to the wind, so that little or no driving effect will be exerted on the mill wheel which is checked by the brake mechanism 41, di) when engaged on the downward movement of the slide 43.

When the weight 53 responds to centrifugal force as above stated, the pawls lili) and |03 are disengaged from the ratchet-bar 88 which descends and permits the lever lo and its counterweight 'I4 to move downward and inward. However, the retarding device 34, which is proportioned to act as slowly as desired, retards the descent of the lever li) and counterweight l', for a predetermined period of time during which the wind may have subsided before the vanes 26 are again held broadside to the wind. As the lever 'i0 and counterweight 14 descend they restore the weight 53 to raised position through the instrumentality of the cable l2.

About the time that the lever 'Iii and counterweight 'I4 finally reach the end of their downward movement the pawls lil and mit engage the ratchet-bar 8E, which is then operated to restore the lever 70 and weight 'i4 to raised position. Should the velocity of the wind still be excessive the foregoing operations are repeated until the wind subsides whereupon the windmill resumes normal operation. Whenthe speed of the wind is reduced to a predetermined point the weight 53 is drawn upward and inward by the lever l and disengages the clamping member t6 from the slide 43, which in turn is drawn upward and releases the brake mechanism. The slide i3 is drawn upward by the action of springs 40 and fida as they move stops 34 and 34a, respectively, into the path of the vanes 2E to hold the latter broadsideV to the wind.

From the foregoing description taken in connection with Fig. 2, it will be understood that when the wind is blowing in the direction indicated by the arrows it will act on the vanes 2t at that side of the mill wheel turning with the wind for approximately a one-half revolution and act on the vanes traveling against the wind for approximately one-fourth of a revolution, thereby increasing the power effort cf the mill wheel.

While I have illustrated and described a preferred embodiment of my invention, it will be apparent by those skilled in the art that further embodiments and improvements may be made falling within the scope of my invention as claimed.

Having thus described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is:

l. In a windmill, a vertical rotatable shaft, a mill wheel fixed upon said shaft and including a plurality of freely mounted vanes, stops mounted on said millwheel for automatic engagement with the respective vanes, means associated with the shaft and the mill wheel for withdrawing the stops from engagement with the vanes, a weight associated with the shaft and adapted to be swung outwardly to active position by centrifugal force or moved inwardly and upwardly to inactive position, means connecting said weight to the means for withdrawing the stops, a lever swingably mounted on the mill wheel for inward and outward movement, a cable connecting the weight and the lever whereby when the latter moves inward it moves the former inward and upward to inactive position, means for moving the lever outwardly comprising a ratchet-bar, flexible means connecting the lever to said ratchet-bar, and means associated with the shaft for actuating said ratchet-bar.

2. In a windmill, a vertical rotatable shaft, a mill wheel xed upon said shaft and including a p-lurality of freely mounted vanes, stops mounted on said mill wheel for automatic engagement with the respective vanes, means associated with the shaft and the mill wheel for withdrawing the stops from engagement with the vanes, a weight associated with the shafty and adapted to be swung outwardly to active position by centrifugal force or moved inwardly and upwardly to inactive position, means connecting said weight tothe means for withdrawing the stops, a lever swingably mounted on the mill wheel for inward and outward movement, a cable connecting the weight and the lever whereby when the latter moves inward it moves the former inward and upward to inactive position, means for moving the lever outwardly comprising a ratchet-bar, means connecting the lever to said ratchet-bar, reciprocatory means for actuating the ratchetbar, and means associated with thel shaft for operating said reciprocatory means.

3. In a windmill, a vertical ro-tatable shaft, a mill wheel fixed upon said shaft and including a plurality of freely mounted vanes, springpressed stops mounted on said mill wheel and normally projecting into the path of the respective vanes, means associated with the shaft and the mill wheel for withdrawing the stops from the path of the vanes, including a weight responsive to centrifugal force, a lever swingably mounted on the mill wheel for inward and outward movement, a cable connecting the weight and the lever whereby when the latter moves inward it moves the former inward and upward to inactive position, means for movingV the lever outwardly comprising a ratchet-bar, means connecting the lever to said ratchet-bar, reciprocatory means including a pawl for advancing said ratchet-bar, means for operating said reciprocatory means, and guide means whereby the ratchet-bar and said reciprocatory means are rotated with the shaft.

4. In a windmill, a vertical rotatable shaft, a mill wheel fixed upon said shaft and including a plurality of freely mounted vanes, stops mounted on said mill wheel and normally projecting into the path of the respective vanes, means associated with the shaft and the Imill wheel for withdrawing the stops from the path of the vanes, including a weight responsive to centrifugal force, a lever swingably mounted on the mill wheel for inward and outward movement, a cable connecting the weight and the lever whereby when the latter moves inward it moves the former inward and upward to inactive position, means for moving the lever outwardly comprising a ratchetbar, flexible means connecting the lever to said ratchetbar, reciprocatory means including a pawl for advancing said ratchet-bar, cam means for operating said reciprocatory means, and guide means whereby the ratchet-bar and rocatory means are rotated with the shaft.

5. In a windmill, a vertical rotatable shaft, a mill wheel fixed upon said shaft and including a plurality of freely mounted vanes, stops mounted on said mill wheel and normally projecting into the path of the respective vanes, means associated with the shaft and the mill wheel for said recip-` 1 withdrawing `including a' weight responsive to centrifugal i it will disengage starting point, and

7 l the stops from the path of the vanes,

force, a weighted lever swingably mounted yon the mill wheel for inward and outward movement, a cable connecting the weight and the le- :ver whereby when the latter movesy inward it moves theformer inward and upward to inacthe lever outflextive position, means for moving wardly comprising a vertical ratchet-bar,

l ible means connecting the lever to said ratchetbar, reciprocatory means including a pawl for` l lifting said ratchet-bar step by step, means associated with the reciprocatory means for actuv ating the same, a pawl for preventing accidental downward movement of the ratchet-bar, flexible means connecting the pawls to the weight whereand permit the latter to move by when the latter responds to centrifugal force the pawls from the ratchet-bar downward to its guide means whereby the u i ratchet-bar and the reciprocatory lifting means l are connected to the shaft to rotate therewith 6.V In a windmill, a vertical rotatable shaft, a

mill wheel fixed upon said shaft, a weighted lever l Y swingably mounted on the mill wheel for inward and outward movement, a' ratchet-bar associated with the lever to move vthe Vsame 'outv/vaidly,y reciprocatory means including a pawl for advancing the ratchet-bar step by step, Ya pawl for preventing accidental backwardv to rotate therewith and adapted to be moved outward by centrifugal force, flexible means con-` movement of the ratchet-bar, a weight associated with the shaft anism and the lever, a

ed on said mill wheelfor automatic engagement with the respective v-anes, means associated with the shaft and the mill wheel for withdrawing the stops from the path of the vanes, including a normally raised swingable member adapted to be swung downwardly and outwardly by centrifugal force, a lever operably connected to the mill wheel and adapted to swing in one direction to restore the swing-able member to raised position, means operably connecting the swingable memberand the lever, ratchet mechanism rotatable with the shaft for restoring said lever to normal posiflexible means connecting the ratchet mechplunger for actuating said ratchet mechanism, and a cam adjacent to the lower portion ofthe shaft and adapted to actuate said plunger. f

9. In a windmill, a vertical rotatable shaft, a mill wheelxed upon:l said shaft and including a plurality of freely mounted vanes, stops mounttion,

ed on said mill wheel for automatic engagement with the respective vanes, means operably mounted upon the shaft and the mill wheel for kwithdrawing the stops from the path of the vanes,

including a normally raised member pivoted to the shaft and adapted to be swung downwardly 'I and outwardly by centrifugal force, a lever pivnecting said weight to the pawls tov disengageU them from theratchet-bar on outward movement of the weight, and means connecting said weight to the lever whereby when the latter is moved outwardly it will move the former inwardly and upwardly,

7. In a windmill, Va vertical rotatable shaft, a mill wheel fixed Vupon said shaft and including a plurality of freely mounted vanes, spring actuated means, stops mounted on said mill wheel for automatic engagement with the respective vanes, means mountedupon the 'shaft and the l mill wheel and attached to the stops for withdrawing the latter from engagement with the vanes, a weight operably connected to the shaft and adapted to be swung outwardly to active position by centrifugalY force or moved inwardly l' and upwardly to inactive position, means connecting said weight to the means for withdrawing the stops, a lever swingably mounted on the mill wheel for inward and outward movement, a

cable connecting the weight and the lever whereby when the latter moves inward it moves the former inward and upward to inactive position,

reciprocatory ratchet means rotatable with the shaft, reciprocatory means rotatable with the shaft for actuating the ratchet means, means for actuating said reciprocatory means, and flexible Y means connecting said ratchet means and the 1ever whereby the latter is moved outwardly by said ratchet means. Y Y

8. In a windmill, a vertical rotatable shaft, a mill wheel fixed upon said shaft and including a plurality of freely mounted vanes, stops mountotally connected to the mill wheel and adapted to swing downward andrestore the pivoted .mem-

' ber to raised position, a cable connecting the lever and said member, a ratchet-bar mounted for rotation with the shaft and adapted to restore the Ylever to raised position, exible means connecting the ratchet bar and said lever', a reciprocating plunger, means interposed between'v the plunger and the ratchet bar whereby the latter is operatedl by the former, and stationary means surrounding the shaft and adapted to operate the plunger. l f Y Y Vl0. In a-'windmilL a ve tical rotatable shaft, a mill wheel fixed upon said shaft and including a plurality of freelymounted vanes, stops said ratchet-bar, :a reciprocating plunger associated with said ratchet-bar to actuate the latter, means for actuating the plunger, Va pawl on said plunger normally engaging the ratchet-bar, a second pawl associated with the first-mentioned pawl and normally engaging the ratchet-bar, flexible means connecting the pawls to the swingable member whereby when the latter responds to centrifugal force it withdraws the pawls from the ratchet-bar to permit the latter to return to initial position and allow the lever to move downward. e

CCRNELIUS F. TERHUNE.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4203707 *Sep 28, 1976May 20, 1980Stepp William JWindmill with automatic feathering control and storm protection
US4408956 *Nov 27, 1981Oct 11, 1983Price Sr William FFlip-flop turbine vane module
US4468169 *Aug 18, 1982Aug 28, 1984Williams Dennis LRegulated high torque flexible bladed wind wheel
US4834610 *Jan 29, 1987May 30, 1989Bond Iii Frederick WWind processing air turbine, and methods of constructing and utilizing same
US5057696 *Jan 25, 1991Oct 15, 1991Wind Harvest Co., Inc.Vertical windmill with omnidirectional diffusion
US5118255 *Apr 3, 1990Jun 2, 1992Angel MorenoMotor
US5391926 *Apr 25, 1994Feb 21, 1995Staley; Frederick J.Wind turbine particularly suited for high-wind conditions
US6191496Dec 1, 1999Feb 20, 2001Dillyn M. ElderWind turbine system
US6448669Feb 20, 2001Sep 10, 2002Dillyn M. ElderWater power generation system
US6981839Mar 9, 2004Jan 3, 2006Leon FanWind powered turbine in a tunnel
US8480363 *Jan 11, 2010Jul 9, 2013Thomas Mellus FenaughtySelf-starting turbine with dual position vanes
US20100310370 *Jan 11, 2010Dec 9, 2010Thomas Mellus FenaughtyTurbine with vanes and tethers that adjust to the wind
Classifications
U.S. Classification416/46, 416/139, 416/119
International ClassificationF03D3/00, F03D3/06
Cooperative ClassificationY02E10/74, F03D3/067, F05B2260/72, F05B2240/211
European ClassificationF03D3/06E6