US 2406859 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 3, 1946. E. w. SMITH COMMUNICATION IN PIPE LINES Original Filed Jan. 10, 1934 Patented Sept. 3, 1946 UNITED. STATES PATENT OFFICE.
COlVlIVIUNICATION IN PIPE LINES Original application January 10, 1934, Serial No.
706,159. Divided and this application August.
12, 1936, Serial No. 95,567
10 Claims. 1 The present invention is a division of my copending application serial No. 106,159 filed January 10, 1934.
The present invention relates to communica- 2 transmission of messages and signals along a pipe line, it may also be applied to other methods of communication along a continuous metallic conductor as, for instance, a railroad rail.
tion along pipe lines or other mechanical con- 5 In the present invention a two-way communiductors by means of sound or compressional wave cation may be established over the same line and vibration. it is also possible to signal in one direction only At the present t e pipe lines have been extenand to receive compressional wave vibrations sively used for the transportation of both oil and from that direction. The communication may These p p lines e t q e t y for a be by telegraph or code signals or speech may be great distance, So eti es Over 100 es d 11- impressed over the line for telephonic communiy are u t in Su a y t at a Continuous cation. It will be appreciated, of course, that due mechanical connection is made for the whole disto the fact that sound or compressional Wave tance. Such lines are usually called all-welded ibrations are transmitted at a much lower velines when the joints between sections of the 15 locity than that of electromagnetic waves, that P p s are Welded together. a two-way communication will not be spontane- O her n in m n how may be ous, but that considerable time may elapse beused, but in practically all cases a close metallic tween the transmission of speech or a message connection is made between sections of the line one way and the other way. For instance, if t all pe two stations are situated miles apart upon In P p lines for the use Of Oil and it is the line, it will take approximately 8 seconds for customary to place p p Stations at s a c s the sound to travel the distance of 25 miles, between 25 and 50 miles in order to boost the which means that the sender at one end must Pressure for the transmission of the Oil 0 s wait approximately 16 seconds until he receives along the i n o er t op r te these pu p- 25 the message transmitted from the other end. ing stations satisfactorily, it is necessary to pro- This, however, is not objectionable under the vi e communicating means between he v i special circumstances, as it undoubtedly would S a s and t s b heretOfOre e e be in commercial telephonic communication. Pushed y the use Of telegraph, p o e 0 The operators at the various stations appreciate Wireless Communication that such a delay is necessary and their opera- Means f omm nic ion l e the lines h s tion of the transmitting stations at either end been found to be quite essential and while some ill be governed accordingly. delay in the means O Co unication may be The present invention will best be understood tolerated, still it is essential to be able to transmit from the following description with reference to messages relative to the transmission of the oil 5 the accompanying drawings in which Fig. 1 or gas and the operation of the prior station on shows the invention as applied to a pipe line; the line in order to operate the whole system Fi 2 shows a side view looking from the left setisfeetorilyof Fig. 1 with the top cover removed; while Fig. e Systems e p at the Present e for 3 is a diagrammatic illustration of the applicam nic i n u in me m ntione ove tion of the invention to the pipe line showing are both expensive to install and to maintain complete sending and receiving stations and indiwith the possible exception of some forms of eating the manner in which they are connected wireless communication against which there are, to the line, however, certain definite objections. Not only In the modification shown in Figs. 1 and 2 the has wireless communication between stations pipe is shown as 99. Pipes for the transmission proved to be expensive, but it is also apt to interof oil may be 3 inches in diameter and one quar fere with local broadcasting and communication ter inch thick and are frequently made of fusion and not always to be dependable under certain welded pipes with joints butted and ld t d fficu t transmission eehditiOnS- gether throughout their entire length. In places In the present invention, communication isv there may be certain valves used and, if such is accomplished by means of the line itself which the case, an all metallic welded connection may is made to act as a transmission line not for be made around the valves to allow efiicient electromagnetic energy, but for the energy for sound transmission. As pipes for this purpose compressional wave vibration. While the sysare usually of the dimensions describedabove. tem is primarily to be used in connection with it has proved to be highly essential to employ bility and the supersonic range. It is possible, however, to bring the frequencies down to valuesof 10,000 cycles but frequencies much" below this will demand apparatus of considerable size which will be difficult to mount and'operate successfully in the positions required.
Referring now to Figs. 1 and"2"the pipe 99 is provided with a split collar'lM-formed. inTtWO-v parts I 06 and H11, as shown: in: Fig. 2; Each: of."
these, as shown by the sectioned portion of Fig. 1, comprises a heavy mass having a surface sub stantially normal to the. pipe, the opposite side I of the collar being tapered from its outer peripherrtowardfthepipe; The general external shape of the collar is therefore substantially that of a truncated'cone'. The inner-'surf aceofthe collar isribbed 'a's indicated-at 96* to makea good contact with the pipe surface, The two halves of I the collar are clamped together by means of the" bolts; 9 I passing through radially extending ribs land 93 in the'upper and lower halves of thecollar respectively. Each half of the collar is provided with'an annular recessed portion Nil Z in which pezo-electric crystals (02, preferably of 'theiRochelle salt type, are placed endwise' therein; EIectrodes'IB S' are'provided at opposite faces of the crystal' an-d"electrical energy is impressed between these faces 'to produce a longitudinafvibration of 'thecrysta'l, which vibration is transmitted'to the pipe; The recessed portion in whichthe crystals are by a cover Ifl l and' the, crystals may be, entirely sealed in'a liquid'such as oil or any other suitable. meanslwh'erebypthe vibrations of the' crystals may be conveniently transmitted to the system; These crystals, being aperiodic in character, may be excitedf at a high frequency; for instance, 15,000 or 2 0,000 cycles per second; which frequency. may be modulated by speech waves producing so-called carrier. bands a-numbe of thousand cycles. on either side, of the carrier wave. At' the receiving end the carrier Wave may beleliminated and the speech reproduced in the usual manner. V v
. IntFig. 2 there is shown aside view looking into therecessed portion I02 ofone half 'of the collar. It"Wil1.Lb'e. noted that the crystals are" preferably arranged. in IOWs J05, J85, etc, andit may be also. mentioned that these. crystals may bacon:- nectedin series or in parallel series combination, whichever is desireditomatch the imped'an ce of the, circuit with which the device operates;
In Fig. 3 there is diagrammatically illustrated the layout of"the'entiresystem, Blland 6| ill us trating the sender and 'receiver'or transceiver; as it maybe called at different stations. amplifiers are indicated at.62"and63',' respectively, andfflthereceiver amplifiersxat 64 and 65, re'- spectivel'y; When thesystem is used'for sending at tlie 'left; theswitch 661s. thrown to the. right and in this co s diti'cmthe key 61 is operated. to transmit; compressional" wave. impulses over the. linein the direction. of thearrow 68; When the switchpfislis' thrown tothe left;,the station" may,
be"used forireceiving and the operator listening with the phones 69' will'pick up the sound vibrationstransmitted over the line;
placed may be covered The power translated The 4 system connected with the transceiver 6| operates in a similar manner, the switch 10 being thrown to the right for sending and to the left for receiving.
Having now described my invention, 1 claim:
1. A means for'transmittlng vibrations along a metallic pipe comprising a, collar formed on the pipe and a Rochelle salts oscillator formed in part with said collar for transmitting and receiving compressional wave vibrations.
2. A means for transmitting vibrations along a metalliclpipe'comprising a pipe section providediwithen'external projecting flange having a surface substantially perpendicular to the pipe,
w a.plurality of;piezo.-electric elements mounted in said: flat surface; means for exciting the same andmeans for-covering the surface to completely enclose the said elements.
3. A means for transmitting vibrations along a metallic pipe. comprising, a pipe section provided with an externally projecting fiangei'ta pered at one end substantially to the external pipe size and being, provided with a' flat surface" substantially perpendicular to the pipey a p lu rality of "piezo-electric elements mounted in' said flat surface and means for exciting said elements;
4. A means for transmitting vibrations along a metallic pipe comprisinga pipe sectionhaving rigidly'fi'xedthereto an external mass and piezoelectric means mounted in said mass for vibrating the same. i i 1 y 5. A means for transmitting vibrations along a metallic pipe comprising a collarformed'in'at least'two parts, means clamping the collar to the pipe, a"pluralityof piezo electric crystals mounted in said collar and means" for exciting; the same'. v i
6. Means for transmitting vibrations alonga pipe line comprising means forming a mass about saidpipe and having a surfaceprojecting normally'from the aXis ofthe pipe, a plurality of piezo-electric crystals mounted inradial rows in said surface and means" adapted to set the crystals iIltQl'VlbIELtiOII. v V
7', Means" for transmitting vibrations along a pipe?- line 7 comprising, means" f orming' a mass and a; surface projecting" normally from the'aXis" of the pipe. and. art annular recess in said surface;
= ed 'on one side of said collar and adapted to be vibrated in a; direction longitudinal with" said pipe and'means' forming a casing'with'saidtcoL lar.for enclosing saidcrystals. H
9". Means for transmitting vibrations along a pipe line comprising, a hollow annular-mass surroundingfand fixed to said pipe, Rochelle salt crystal means mountedwithin said mass adapted to bevibrated in adirection parallel tothej axis of saidfpipe and" a1 sound c'on'd'ucting liquid filling. residual space in said hollow mass notoccupied by; said crystal'means; V
I 10. Means" forttransmitting speech alon a pipe line comprising aiheavy collar surrounding said pipe,. a plurality of'Rochelle' salt crystals mountedin. said collar; saidf crystals "being; adapted'to vibrate in a directionparallel'to the'axisof "the pipe and means for vibrating said crystals" at a high frequenc modulated byspeech' waves:
EDWARD W: SMITHZ