US 2407929 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
- Sept, 17, 1946;. N. c. .nsczKEL CATHETER Filed April 29, 1944 2 Sheets-Shet -1 W70/Mfrs cATHETEn W Filed April '29, 1944 2 sneets.sheet 2" Patented Sept. 17, 1946 CATHETER NormanC. Jeckel, Glens Falls, N. Y., assignor to United States Catheter & Instrument Corp., a corporation of New York Application April 29, 1944, Serial No. 533,281
'I'he present invention relates to the braiding art and more particularly to improved tubular and tapered braided products, such as may be used for catheter tubes, various forms of ducts, wire and line coverings, etc.
This application is a continuation in part of my copending application Serial No. 429,603, filed February 5, 1942, now Patent No. 2,354,212, issued July 25, 1944. As explained in that application, braided tubes have heretofore been made with tapered portions but in most instances the resulting product is not entirely satisfactory or the cost o-f production is unduly high. 1n one of the methods heretofore proposed the taper `is effected by braiding a plurality of threads over a tapered core or other object to be covered. In this core covering method the mesh of the braided material is coarse and much looser over the larger portions of the core than over the smaller portions thereof. This coarser mesh at the larger portions tends to spread apart, especially if the product is bent. i
According to another method heretofore proposed the taper of the braided tubing was formed by utilization of a` tapered mandrel over which the braiding is effected. To produce different sizes of tubing or tapered tubing the position of the mandrel is varied at the point where the threads come together in the braiding operation. In this way the size and taper of the braided tube is controlled by the relative positioning of the mandrel. The tapered tubing produced by the mandrel method, however, has the same objectionable feature of the tapered core method previously mentioned of producing for the larger portions of the tubing a much coarser or looser mesh than that produced at the smaller portions of the tubing. i
'I'his feature of the tubing produced by either the core method or the mandrel method is particularly objectionable where such tubing is used for catheter purposes. Fabric tubing or coarse mesh is capable of considerable stretching and, when the tubing is coated with a thin layer of varnish or other lacquer, the coating alone must resist any longitudinal tension placed upon the tube. A small amount of longitudinal tension on such a construction is apt to cause the varnish to rupture, thereby permitting the tube to elongate and break away parts of the coating.
Another method heretofore proposed for producing a taper during the braiding of tubes involves the substitutionA of heavier for lighter threads, or vice versa, as the case may be. This interchanging of threads f different Size not 01115 13 Claims. (Cl. 87-11) requires the close attention of a skilled attendant but also involves considerable machine stoppage and greatly increases the cost of manufacture. Moreover, a nonuniform appearance of the braiding results.
It is one of the objects of the present invenf. tion, therefore, to provide braided tubular and tapered products whichY overcome the objectione able features of the prior `art hereinibefore dis. oussed and which may be made at less cost than the better of the prior art products.
Another object of the invention is tov provide new braided products of varying diameter with a consistently tight or close mesh for the diiierent sizes of the braided products.
Another object of the invention is to provide a braided product having alternate cylindrical and tapered portions in which the mesh is swbstantially the same for both portions.
Still another object of my invention is to provide an improved braided tubular and tapered product having hollow, cylindrical and tapered portions wherein the cylindrical portion is adapted to resist longitudinal tension substantially the same as the tapered or smaller portion of the tube.
An additional object of the invention is to provide an improved braided tubing for catheter tubes, comprising a hollow tubular braid 4merging into a tubular braid having a solid core.
A still further object of the present invention is to provide a braided tubular and tapered product wherein threads withheld from the braiding operation to form the tapered portion are maintained inside the tapered portion and form a core therefor.
The above and additional objects and advantages of the invention are obtained by making the tapered and smaller portions of the braidedtubing by changing in step-like order the number of threads entering into the braiding operation. This changing of the number of threads is carried on without stopping the machine and does not require as close attendance by the operator as is required by the existing types of machines. A method and forms of a machine that is particularly adapted for use in producing the new products of the present invention are disclosed in my U. S. Patent No. 2,354,212 and. in my copending application Serial No. 533,280, led April 29, 1944, now U. S. Patent No. 2,388,693.
More particularly the braided product is produced having hollow cylindrical andtapered portions by withholding in step-dike order a num- 'bei' of the threads used in the braiding of the larger cylindrical portion until the desired small size is reached and thereby insuring a substantially equal degree of tightness of braiding or mesh throughout the length of the tube. Advantageously, the product is produced as a continuous length of braided tubing made up of alternate cylindrical and tapered portions. When the product is so produced, the braiding of the tubing back to the desired larger cylindrical diameter following a reducing tapering operation will be eiected by returning the withheld threads, in step-like order, into the braiding operation. In this way a taper or portion flaring in the opposite direction as compared with .the reducing taper is formed until the former cylindrical size of tubing Vis reached, or, if desired, the operation may be stopped when a cylindrical size `oi intermediate diameter is attained. The braiding is then continued with the same number of `threads until the desired cylindrical length is obtained and `then the cycle is repeated.
The `resulting tubing having alternate cylindrical and tapered Iportions is Ythen-cut into desired lengths. In `the `case of catheter tubes, the vcutting may be performed in the mid-sections-of the cylindrical tubular portion and at themid-sections between the adjacent tapered portions. Any unbraided portions of the threads which were withheld on the -outside of the tubing are then trimmed and the resulting tubular lengths can be coated by a suitable lacquer and used for catheterv purposes.
The product of'rny invention is further characterized by a uniformly tight and even weave, as a result of V'maintaining the threads under tension during the braiding operation. The large or cylindrical portions fof the tubing are formed with a tight or fine mesh and this mesh is continued into and throughout the tapered portions. The taper is effected by the step by step withholding Aof a number ofthe threads from entering into the braiding operationl and byA maintaining tension on the withheld threads. When the withheld threads are returned to the braiding operation, lengths of threads corresponding to the length of the tubing braided during the withholding of the threads eXtendfrom the points 4 ging the end or sealing it off by some other method.
When threads withheld from the braiding operation are maintained outside of the tubing being braided, these external unbraided portions will normally lie alongside the tubing. Advantageously, these external `unbraided threads are trimmed closely adjacent the tubing at the time the tubing is out into lengths of desired size.
A.A form of machine suitable for manufactur- "ing the braided product according to my invenof their removal from the braiding voperation/to the Vpoints where they are returned.`
Depending on the product desired, the'cylindrical portions of the tubing may be of any desired length andthe degree of taper as well as the length thereof may be varied, as desired. The `taper may be continued until the tubing reaches -solidcord size and the cord size continued for any desired length. From cord size the product may be ared into a tubing again by returning in step-like order the threads previouslywithdrawn lfrom the braiding operation.
The threads withheld 4from the braiding operation may be maintained either Vinside or outside the tubing being braided, or certain of the withheld threads may be maintained inside of vthe tubing while others ofthe withheld threads may be maintained outside ofthe tubing.
When the threads withheld from the braiding operation are 'maintainedi-nside ofthe tubing being braided'they lie inside the tapered portion in vsubstantially parallel relationship, and form a stranded core'for the smaller diameter braided portions. No trimming is necessary for these internally Withheld threads. `The core remains in the catheter or other product and has the purpose of closing and reinforcing the tapered end of the tube, eliminating `the necessity for plugtion may comprise a base structure defining intersecting paths along which a plurality of bobbin carriers are adapted to travel.v The machine .may lbe provided with any suitable power driven means to drive the bobbin carriers along the paths to perform the braiding operation. Adjacent the paths of trave1 I provide stationary supporting means for the bobbin carriers when the threads supported thereby are to be withheld from the braiding operation. rIhe bobbin carriers are provided with foot members vwhich are maintained in the basestructure for continuous travel along the paths provided vtherefor and the bob4 bin carriers are removable `from the foot members and may be placed on the stationary supporting means -When it is desired to withhold the threads carried by them from the braiding operation. The foot members.k however, maybe formed as parts of the driving means or l-theynnay cornprise vseparate elements adapted to ride .upon the base plate and be guided therealongby slots in the base plate or in slots defined by guides secured to the base plate. Y
Thus, when it is desired Cto produce a taper in the tubular productbeing braided, the 'bobbin carriers are selectively withdrawn in step-like order from the foot members and held stationary on the stationary supporting means without, however, severing the thread carried thereby. As the tubular product is gradually withdrawn by a draw spool .or equivalent means,y as the braiding proceeds, the thread tensioning means of the bobbin carriers cooperate therewith in maintaining lunder tension all of the threads that are still participating in the braiding operation as well as those that have been withdrawn therefrom. In this 'way a tight and uniform mesh is insured.
For a more detailed disclosure of a machine-and processes suitable .for manufacturing the braided product, reference ism-'ade `to my U. S. Patents Nos. 2,354,212'and2,388,693. l
The product produced by my invention issuperior to those products wherein the same threads are 'utilized in both the large and small or tapered portionsofthe product. Further, the product of my invention is less expensive to produce than the tapered products wherein threads vare interchan'ged for other threads of Y heavier or lighter weights, as the case may be. 'Themanufactureof the improved braided article of my invention 'does not `reduire as close attention or as highly Yskilled operators, nor does it linvolve .f frequent' stoppage v`of the machinefor re-thre'ading or tying-in of 'threads of different weights.
l When the 'tubular product vof `my vinvention is cut into' desired lengths for catheter tubes and any vexternal unbraided lthreads trimmed, Vthe rosulting tubing is strong, retains its shape and resists longitudinal tension l`with Aa minimum of stretching. The cut lengths each of which, .ac-x
cording to the embodiment described, .comprises a cylindrical portion and atapered portion may then be coated with a varnish, lacquer or other suitable coating. The resulting product has the smooth and flexible characteristics desired for catheter tubes.
It will be understood that my braided tubular product having tapered portions is not to be limited to catheter tubes, the catheter tube product being selected for the purposes of illustrating my invention. Besides catheter tubes, the tubing, tapered in accordance with my invention, may be used for many other purposes.
For a further understanding of my invention, reference may be had to the following detailed description which is to be read in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is an enlarged longitudinal cross sectional view through a braided product according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, in which the threads withheld from the braided relation are disposed inside of the tube;
Figure 2 is an enlarged elevation of a modification, in which the threads Withheld from the braided relation are disposed outside of the tube;
.FigureB is an enlarged longitudinal cross sectional view of a further modification, in which the threads Withheld from the braided relation arg disposed some inside and some outside of the tui e;
lFigure 4 is an elevation of a larger portion of the tubular product shown in Figure 2, before it is cut into short lengths;
Figure 5 is a similar View Vof the modification shown in Figure 3;
Figure 6 shows the tubular product of Figures 2 and 4 with the unbraided threads trimmed;
Figure 7 shows one type of catheter formed from the tubular product of Figure 6 in which the cord-like end has been trimmed olf and an eye opening has been formed therein adjacent the tip, and finally the whole has been coated with a suitable lacquer; and
Figure 8 shows the product of Figures 3 and 5 formed into a catheter, a part of the tip portion being broken away to better show the core reinforcement of the tip portion.
The tubular product of cylindrical and tapered. portions prepared according to the methods of my Patent Nos. 2,354,212 and 2,388,693 aforesaid, is particularly desirable for continuous production of alternate, hollow cylindrical and tapered portions for use in the manufacture of catheter tubes. Such a continuous tubing is shown in Figures 4 and 5. The cutting of the product for catheter tubes may take place along lines A-A and B-B, that is to say, the cylindrical portions 14 are cut at their mid-portions and the tapered portions 12 are cut at their smallest or mid-sections 70.
Such tubing may have its unbraided threads on the inside or on theoutside, or both, with respect to the tube being braided, depending upon whether the bobbin carriers are placed on the internal supports or the external supports of the braiding machine. The form shown in Figure 1 has all of its unbraided threads 30 on the inside. The form shown in Figures 2, 4 and 6 has all of its unbraided threads 40 on the outside, while the form shown in Figures 3, 5 and 8 has part of its unbraided threads 39 on the inside and the remainder of its unbraided threads 4l! on the outside.
Each section 'i5 thus severed, as illustrated in `Figures 6 and '7, is trimmed of any external untaper are maintained inside the tapered portion and form a solid core Il tightly' embraced by the smaller cylindrical or cord portion I8.` Also, in Figure 8, those threads that are withheld from the braiding operation and maintained inside the tapered portion as shown at I1 serve to provide reinforcement of the tip portion, which in this case is extended -for a considerable length by a cord-like braiding about the threads of the core l1. When the tubular product is to be used in forminga catheter, the cord-like tip portion will be trimmed off to form a tip of the desired length andan eye opening 2U will be cut or otherwise formed in the hollow portion of the tube adjacent the tip portion. Finally the product will be coated inside and out with a suitable lacquer or varnish 16 to vprovide desired smooth flexible surfaces both for the outside and inside of the tube which will protect the threads from contact with fluids and which also serve to give the tube a desired amount of stiffness coupled with the desired ilexilbility. In the core type of catheter such as shown in Figure 8, the lacquer coating on the inside of the tube adjacent the tip portion serves to embed the unbraided threadsand fill the end of the cavity adjacent the tip, and thus cooperates with the braided tip and core to furnish additional stiffness tothe tip for probing purposes.
From the foregoing it will be clear that I have invented a new braided tubular product having tapered portions and in which product the mesh is substantially the same throughout the larger and smaller portions thereof, that the product is strong and tightly braided, and that it is capable of resisting longitudinal tension with a minimum of stretching; and when coated with a suitable lacquer provides a smooth flexible tubing.
While I have shown and described the production of tubes of cylindrical and tapered portions being formed from threads. which enter into the braid of the cylindrical portion, and certain of said threads terminating in step-like order along the length thereof, the mesh of the: braiding being substantially uniformly tight throughout both the cylindrical and tapered portions.
2. A braided article having a cylindrical tubular portion and a conical portion, said conical portion tapering from said cylindrical portion and being formed from threads which `enter into the braid of the cylindrical portion, certain of said threads terminating along the length thereof, and the mesh of the braiding being equally tightl throughout both the cylindrical and conical portions.
3. A catheter tube comprising braided cylindrical and tapered portions, ,the tapered portion being formed from threads which enter into the braid of the cylindrical portion, certain of said threads terminating in step-like order along the length thereof, said portions being coated with lacquer to give the article smooth flexible characteristics, and the mesh of the braiding being substantially uniformly tight throughout both the cylindrical and tapered portions.
4. A braided catheter tube having a cylindrical portion merging into a tapered portion, said tube having a substantially uniformly tight and closely braided Weave throughout the length thereof and being free from tendency to collapse When subjected to endwise tension, said tube consisting throughout of threads of substantially uniform diameter, with certain of the threads terminating in the tapered portion in stepped relation.
5. A braided tubular article having cylindrical portions and converging tapered portions therebetween, said tapered portions being formed from Y threads which enter into the braid of the cylindrical portions, certain of said threads leaving the braid in step-like order along the lengths of the tapered portions and extending from one tapered portion to the other in unbraided relation, the mesh of the braiding being substantially uniformly tight throughout the cylindrical and tapered portions. y
6. A braided tubular article having cylindrical portions and converging tapered portions therebetween, said tapered portions being formed from 'threads which enter into the braid of the cylindrical portions, certain of said threads leaving the braid in step-like order along the lengths of the tapered portions, passing outside of the braided tube and extending'from one taperedv portion to the other' and outside thereof in unbraided relation, the mesh of the braiding being substantially uniformly tight Ythroughout both the cylindrical and tapered portions.
7. A braided tubular article =having cylindrical portions and converging 4tapered portions therebetween, said tapered portions being formed from threads which enter into the braid of the cylindrical portions, certain of said threads leaving the braid in step-like order along the lengths of the tapered portions, passing inside of the braided tube and extending from one tapered portion to the other and inside thereof in unbraided relation.
8.`A braided tubular article having cylindrical and tapered portions, said tapered portion being Y formed by threads which enter into the braid of the cylindrical portion, certain of said threads leaving the braid in step-like order-along the formed by threads which enter into the braid CTI of the larger cylindricalportiomcertain of -said threads leaving the braid in step-like order along the length of the tapered portion, passing inside the tapered portion in unbraided relation Vand extending along therewithin and throughA the smaller cylindrical. portion and forming a core therefor. f
10. A braided catheter tube having a cylindrical portion merging into a tapered portion, said tube having a substantially uniformly tight and closely braided weave throughout the length thereof and being free from tendency to collapse when subjected to endwise tension, said tube consisting throughout of threads of substantially uniform diameter, and certain of the threads Which enter into the braid of the cylindrical portion leaving the braid in step-like order along the length of the tapered portion.
11. A braided catheter tube having a cylindrical portion merging into a tapered portion, said tube having a substantially uniformlytight `and closely braided Weave throughout thel length thereof and being free from tendency toic'ollapse when subjected to endWise tension,4 said tube consisting throughout of threads of substantially uniform diameter, certain of the threads which enter into the braid of the cylindrical portion leaving the braid and passing inside the tapered portion in step-like order along the length thereof.
l2. A braided catheter tubehaving a cylindrical portion merging into a tapered portion, the tapered portion being formedl by threads which enter into the braid ofthe cylindrical portion, certain of said threadsV leaving the Hbraid and passing inside the tapered portionA in step-like order along the length thereof, extending along inside said tapered portion in unbraided relation and lling the smaller end thereof as aV core,`the mesh of the braiding being equally'tight` throughout both the cylindrical and tapered portions, and said portions being coated with lacquer to give the tube smooth and flexible characteristics.
13. A braided catheter tube having a cylindrical portion merging into a tapered portion, Said tube having a substantially uniformly tightand closely braided Weave throughout thelength thereof and being free from tendency to collapse When subjected to endwise tension, said tube consisting throughout of threads o-f substantially uniform diameter, certain of the threads Which enter into the braid of the cylindrical portion leaving the braid and passing outside the tapered portion in step-like order along the length thereof.
NORMAN C. JECKEL.