US 2414160 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
J. M. Moon TRANSPORTATION OF MERCHANDISE Jam 14, 1947.
I Filed July 5, 1943 2 shaets sheei 1 v pk 2 m a g N e 5 N m 3 I II u .ffim.
mai ed Jan; 14, 1941 TRANSPORTATION MERCHANDISE John M. Moon, Evanston, Ill., assignor to Signode Steel Strapping Company, Chicago, Ill., acorporation of Delaware Application July s, 1943, Serial No. 493,56l
3 Claims. (01. 105-369) My invention relates to the transportation of merchandise. It is particularly, although not exclusively, applicable to the retention in railway box cars of load units consisting of merchandise in crates, cartons and other relatively light and 5 fragile merchandise packages.
The load retaining arrangement illustrated in the J. B. Frear Patent No. 2,226,373 is satisfactory under many conditions, but situations ex- Thus the locaor behind the front or doorway end of a load unit makes it necessary to anchor the binder straps to the car side walls before the loading in one end of the car is completed. In order not to interrupt the work of the loading crews, it
is'usually the better practice to anchor the binder straps before any of the load is moved in. In the loadln f kn wn numbers f uniforml 12 d g o o 0 y s e The length of the beam should be such as to extend across the car and, when the final assempackages, the foregoing procedure may be wholly satisfactory but where the packages vary in size v or the load units differ in quantity, it may not be readily possible always; to insure that the binder anchorages are behind the face of the load- -at least not without using unnecessarily long binder sections-so that the binder tension exerts force inwardly, i. e., toward the end of the car.
- 3 One of the objects of my invention is to provide for: the anchorage of the tensioned binder to the car walls in front of the outeror doorway face of a load unit. Because of this capability my invention is especially applicable to the 3 transportation of miscellaneous packages, and to stowage in less than carload lots, such as in the case of so-called pool cars or stop-over loads.
A further object is to increase the resistance 40 Other objects and advantages will hereinafter appear.
Two embodiments of the invention are shown in the accompanying drawings,wherein Fig. 1 is a perspective of the interior of one end ofa box car showing one of my load-braces or gates as preferably applied. For sake of clarity, the load behind the brace has been omitted.
Fig. 2 is an enlarged perspective of one end of the brace or gate, showing in greater detail its attachment to the car side wall and the binder anchorage;
Fig. 3 is a section on the line 3-3 of Fig. 2, showing how the ends. of binders are, in effect, anchored-to the car side walls;
Fig. 4 is an enlarged perspective of the reaction and anchoring bracket used in the brace or gate illustrated in Figs. 1 to 3;
Fig. 5 is a perspective similar to Fig.2 of a modified arrangement; and
Fig. 6 is a perspective of a reaction bracket suitable for the modified gate shown in Fig. 5.
Referring first to Fig. l, the load in one end of the box car fills the interior space out to the cross-beam III, which is preferably made of wood. The size and rigidity of the cross-beam may depend upon whether or not an intermediate strut or other trussing device is employed. Other factors being'equal, the rigidity of the beam ordinarily should be greater if the strut is omitted.
bly is completed and the binder-sections are tensioned, preferably snugly to fit against the 5 wall brackets to be now described.
The opposite ends of the cross-beam III are anchored, at least against inward or rearward movement, to the two car side walls A and B by ineans of reaction and binder anchoring brackets 0 ll. These brackets are adapted to be fastened to the car side walls in advance of the front or doorway face of the load so that they may be positioned after the unit they are to assist inretaining has been positioned. Referring par- 5 ticularly to Fig. 4, each bracket, which is preferably made from a single piece of sheet metal. has a wall attaching flange [2 and a beam abutment flange l3 at right angles to each other. When in position, flange 12 extends forwardly of the load unit and lies along and is attached to the adjacent car side wall A or B", as the case may be. This flange may be provided with holes M for the reception of the nails or screws whereby it is fastened to the car side wall. Flange l3 forms an abutment longitudinally as to the car and against which the adjacent end of the crossbeam In lies or maybe forced so that, when the brackets have been anchored to the opposite car walls, the extent to which the ends of the cross-beam can be moved in toward the load is limited. In this manner the creation of excessive pressures at the corners of a load unit during the tensioning of the binders is avoided. If desired, abutment flange l3 may be provided with holes II for receiving nails, or screws or 3 other appropriate fastenersto attach the associated end of cross-beam l thereto. Of course, the cross-beam and brackets are thus fastened together only when the second method of application hereinafter described is employed. That is, when the brackets, cross-beam and binder sections are assembled into a unit prior to application to the load. Flange [2 has a binder receiving opening I! therethroughand in alignment therewith abutment flange 43 has a similar opening l8 therethrough, preferably substantially at the angle between the two, flanges. Opening l8 causes flange l3 to have a binder bearing portion or shoe l9 over which a binder-section may be trained. And if, as shown, this hearing surface or shoe is located to the rear or inside of the front face of flange l3, the tensioning of the binder will serve to pull the associated end of the cross-beam back toward and tightly against the abutment flange l3 of the bracket as will hereinafter appear. If desired, the attaching flanges of the brackets may be provided with pointed prongs 20, struck therefrom or attached thereto in any appropriate manner, for piercing the car side walls and assisting the nails or screws to anchor them in place.
To complete the assembly at one end of the brace or gate, a binder section 25, which preferably has been pre-cut to the desired length, is anchored at one end to a bracket 1 l and thereby .to a car side wall when the associated bracket is fastened in place. The anchorage is preferably effected in the manner shown in greatest detail in Fig. 3. Thus one end of the binder-section has a portion a trained to lie'between the end Q 1 strain of tension and shock in transit. As a matter of fact, for load units of relatively light packages or objects, these joints may frequently be omitted and the snubbing action alone depended upon-to afford adequate anchoragei If the length of the cross-beam is made such that it would snugly fit across the car from wall to wall, the thickness of the attachment flanges of the two anchor brackets will cause the beam to be slightly over-size when fitted between the two brackets,
' and result in its taking a slight outward bow.
Under such conditions, the tensioning of the binder sections will cause the beam to straighten and not only bear'flatly against the face of the load, but also to exert considerable outward pressure against the bracket attachment flanges to assist the nails or other wall anchorages to retain the bracket in place.
In preparing a' load unit for shipment, the
packages are placed in the car, preferably as compactly as manual handling will permit. Whenthe unit is completed, the gate may be applied thereto in various ways. Thus, for example, the two brackets of a beam, with binder sections threaded. therethrough, may be set with the bracket attachment flanges l2 against the car wall and abutment flanges l3 against the outer corners of the load and'as closely thereto as can conveniently be done by hand. The atof the beam and thebracket attachment flange 12;. it then is passed through the-opening l8 bent around bearing surface 19 toward the front and by a portion 25b trained along the outside-of flange [2 to the end of that flange; it is then reversely bent toward the rear, threaded from front to back through bracket opening l1 and by portion 250 again trained along the attaching flange l2 between'the portion 25b and' the flange; it is next again bent forwardly aroundbearing surface l9 and rethreaded through opening l8 and by portion 25d trained along between portion 25a and the attaching flange l2 of the bracket, If
the strongest anchorage is desired, the extreme end portion 25e may be laid along beside the body of the free strap section and securely attached thereto by a suitable seal-joint 26. By similar procedure one end of a like complemen tary strap section 21 may be anchored to the bracket ll for the opposite end of the cross- ,jecting strut-or struts29 may be associated with the cross-beam and the tensioned binder trained over the outer ends thereof as shown in Fig. 1.
,The brackets act to snub and thereby to increase the effectiveness of the anchorages for the outer ends of the tensioned binder. As a result the joints 26 may be relieved of much of the If extra inward pressure .is
taching flanges are then secured to the car side walls by nails, screws or other appropriate fas- I teners. Then the beam is set across the front face ofthe unit and the free ends of the binder sections brought together, the sections passing over the cross-beam stiffening: struts if such are used. Tension is then applied to the binder sections. When the cross-beam I0 is placed across the front or doorway face of a load unit, it will usually be impossible to position-or at least not feasible initially to force-the ends of the beam back against the bracket flanges [3. At one or both ends the beam will lie somewhat in advance of its final position, This may be due to the fact that the transverse mid portion of the load unit is not as compact as along the car walls, or because it is easier to push the. small .brackets back beyond the overall face of the load than is .the .case with the beam throughout-its length. However, noharm, wilLbe' done-in fact a better load may be produced-because the binder tension can 'pull the cross-beam endsbackagainst the bracket flanges l3 with the result that the unit as a whole is more firmly compressed. The tension serves to pullthe ends of the cross-beam inwardly or rearwardly relative to the length of the car against the abutment flanges of the brackets, but such flanges limit the movement so that undue strain cannot be put upon the outer cornersiof the front row of packages. And
there the beam is tightly held. When the desired tension has been attained, the free ends of the binder-sections are permanently joined. Another method of applying the gate is to as: semble the cross-beam, the two brackets and the two lengths of binder strap as a unit and position it as such to the front face of the load. The use of nails or screws through the flange holes l5 and into the cross-beam, and the anchorage of the binder ends to the brackets by the sealjoints 26 will enable the assembly to be handled as a unit. When the assembled unit is fitted snugly against the face of the load unit, the attachment flanges of the brackets are nailed or screwed to the car side walls, and then the free .ends of the binder sections are brought together,
tensioned and Joined as before. In either event,
pull of the binder under tension and. shocks in transit is in the main not away from the car wall, but parallel to it. This reduces the tendency to pull out the bracket fastening with resultant loss of bracing eifect and possible injury to the car. In the region where the binder is subject to the greatest shearing stresses, viz., at the anchoring brackets, it is of double thickness and as a result, the same effects with lighter strap can be attained. Of course, it will be understood that if the height of the load requires, several such braces or gates may be placed across the front face at different levels.
'Although the modification shown in Figs. '5,
and 6 acts and effects the same results, in general, as previously described, it differs in some respects and is more readily susceptible to still a different method of application which may under some conditions be deemed desirable. In this modification, the angular wall brackets are not depended upon to anchor the outer or wall ends of the tensioned binder; they serve only as cross-beam abutments. As most clearly shown in Fig. 6, each bracket has a flange 35 forming an abutment for the cross-beam 36 and a bifurcated attaching flange 31. The anchored or wall ends of the load binder pass between the prongs 38 and 39 of the attaching flanges 31 of wall brackets associated with opposite ends of the cross-beam. Instead, however, of flange 31 being directly applied against and secured to the car side wall, it is fastened to a'cleat 42, preferably of wood, which in turn is attached to the car wall only in front of the face of; the load unit. Holes 43 may" be provided in the cleat for nails, screws or other appropriate wall fasteners. When properly positioned, the rear end 42a of this wall cleat should lie well to the rear of the front face of the load. The anchored end of the associated load binder section 44 is passed between the prongs 38 and 39 of flange 31, then rearwardly between the end of cross-beam 36' and cleat 42, back in the portion 44a over the rear end 42a of cleat 42, forwardly in the portion 44!) between the cleat and the car wall and around the front end of cleat 42 where its exi treme end portion 44c is secured to the cleat by nails or screws 45. Of course, the opposite end of the cross-beam is associated with a like bracket, cleat and binder section.
In a manner similar to that already explained, the tensioning of the free ends of binder sections 44 creates a rearward pull upon cross-beam 36 to compress and tightly hold the load unit therebehind, notwithstanding the fact that-the anchoring cleat is positioned after the load is in place and is secured to the-car wall only in front of the face of the load unit. The crossbeam and its associated brackets, cleats and binder sections may be applied in either of the ways heretofore explained. They, however, lend themselves particularly well to another method of application. Thus, the cross-beam may be secured to the brackets, the brackets may be attached to the associated cleats, the outer ends of the binder sections anchored thereto and the inner or free ends of the binder sections joined together (or, if desired, a single binder section anchored at both ends may be used) before any part of the gat assembly is positioned. The binder length between brackets should be only slightly greater than the length of the crossbeam. With the load unit in place and the gate thus assembled, the cleat on one side of the car a is (applied by inserting its rear end between the load and the car wall and, when the beam is against the front of the load, there anchored to the car wall by nails or screws driven through its forwardly extending end. Then the rear end of the cleat on the opposite side of the load unit (it may betermed the loose cleat or anchorage) i inserted between the car wall and the load and pushed back, preferably by means of an appropriate tool. As the loose cleat isforced back, it pulls rearwardly upon the binder, which is fixed to the opposite car wall, and serves thus to tension it and thereby force th end of the crossbeam tightly against the load. When the desired binder tension is attained, the loose cleat is anchored to the car side wall in front of the forward ordoorway face of the load unit. This methodof application permits of the creation of inward or backward pressure toward the end of the car. i
The attachment of the anchoring brackets to the car side walls in front of or beyond the doorway end of a load unit affords important advan tages undersome conditions. Thus, for example, in cases where the packages tobe loaded are'of varying sizes or the number desired to constitute a load unit is not known in advance, better bracing without waste of binder material may be insured because of the ability to defer attaching the brackets until after the load is in place. Relocation of anchorages because load units have not filled a car end to the extent expected isobviated. Frequently only partial car loads of varying dimensions are loaded at different shipping points and it is necessary to complete a full car by succeeding additions. Or the reverse may be the case, viz., that the contents of an initially full car mustb unloaded by increments at different way stations. Both of these shipping problems are simplified by being able to brace each increment or sub-unit of load successively afterit has been positioned and also successively to remove the several sub-loads without disturbing the remainder. The several sub-divisions of 45 load for each end of the car are readily segregated both in loading and in unloading and shock is rather effectivelydistributed instead of being concentrated upon the end packages. An-
other advantage isthat the vertical location of the cross-beam which is best for a particular load can be deferred until after the load is in, and its most effective position, considering the disposition, strength and character of the objects, can be determined.
Having illustrated and explained the nature and typical embodiments of my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by United States,
Letters Patent is as follows:
1. A brace for retaining a load unit in one end of a box car comprising a cross-beam extending across the car from side to side in front of the load unit, a metallic bracket for each end'of the beam, each bracket having two angularly related flanges one of which lies along and is for attachment to the car side wall in advance of the load unit and the other of which lies substantially perpendicular to the car side wall and forms an abutment for one end of the cross-beam and each bracket having a pair of aligned binder receiving 70 openings, one in the attaching flange and the other in the beam abutment flange, the latter forming a binder bearing surface to the rear of the rear face of the cross-beam when the beam is against the abutment flange thereof, and a 7 pair of flexible metallic binder-sections, each having one end anchored to a car side wall by being passed between an end of the beam and the attachment flange of the bracket, through the bracket opening forming the binder bearing surface, between the bracket attaching flange and the car wall, outwardly through the opening in the bracket attaching flange and then returning back between the car side wall and attaching-flange again through the opening in the abutment flange and then forwardly between the end of the beam and the attaching flangeof the bracket, and means for securing the return end of the binder-section to the body thereof to secure the anchorage thereof to the bracket and car side wall so that the other ends of the two binder-sections can be brought together in front of the load, tensioned and joined.
2. A gate for retaining a load unit in position in a box car comprising a cross-beam extendin across the car from side to side in front of and against the face of the load'unit, a flexible tensioned binder extending across the car in front of the cross-beam, and a wall anchorage for each end of the binder for securing the ends of the binder immovably to the car walls, each of said anchorages having a portion extending forwardly of the load unit for attachment'to the car wall in front of the load unit and a portion lying to the .rear of the front face of the cross-beam and over which said portions the associated end of the binder is trained and further trained over said anchorage portion lying to the rear of the front face of the cross-beam in overlappedrelationship with respect to the first portionof the binder end,'after passing between the end of the beam and the anchorage.
3. A brace for retaining a load unit in one end of a box car comprising a cross-beam extending, across the car from side to side in front of the load unit, a metallic bracket for each end of the beam, each bracket having two angularly related flanges one of which lies along and is for attachment to the car side wall in advance of the load unit and the other of which lies substantially perpendicular to the car side wall and forms an abutment for one end of the cross-beam and each bracket having a pair of aligned binder receiving openings, one in the attaching flange and the other in the beam abutment flange and forming a binder bearing surface to the rear of the rear face of the cross-beam when the beam is against the abutment flange thereof, and a pair of flexible metallic binder-sections, each having one end anchored to a car side wallby being passed between an end'of the beam and the attachment flange of the bracket, through the bracket opening forming the binder bearing surface, between the bracket attachingflange and the car wall,
outwardly through the opening in the bracket attaching flange and then returning back between a the car side wall and attaching flange again through the opening in the abutment flange, and means for securing the other ends of the two binder-sections together in front of the load in tensioned relation.
JOHN M. MOON.