US 2414628 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Janyzl, 1947. f H'. T. BATTTN 2,414,628
BUILDING STRUCTURE Filed Dec. 11, 1943 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Sam ` wf? 15 K f 0% J .5. F'ff 1'7'9' l INVENTOR,
f/ #dat 7 Bazuin.
A TTORNE Y.
Jan 21, 1947- H. 'i'. BATnN Y BUILDING STRUCTURE Filed Dec. 11, 1943 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 ,W i. E,
/IamozaL 'aa'n, MM I i ATTORNEY.
Jan. 2l, 1947. H. T. BATTIN y 2,414,628
` BUILDING STRUCTURE Fiied Dec. 11, 1943 s sheets-sheet s A y *s if m'l '/'l 22a f, l mr; I. xq\
111.41.91 @sin Patented Jan. 2 1,v 11947 iJNlTEo STATE s PATENT o1-rica BUILDING STRUCTURE narcis .'r. nuttin, mamma, N. J. 'Application December 11, .ma-serai Nc. 51am l This invention relates to building structures of the class commonly known as pre-fabricated,"
coating or layer or s ome light but tougher material than that of some body covering and cemented to oneI (as the outer) or each broad face of the body; the channels are formed of some ""materiahas a plastic, .fiber or metal, having a `high degree of strength.
My principal and intimate object is to use such panels in theyforming of building walls'and to use 'them withthe following particularly in mind: A primary or' skeleton frame is to be vconstructed whose parts are desirably light in weight (and hence readily assembled or disassembled) but so wanting in strength that, whereas each is strong enough to serve its purpose in such mere skeleton frame, existing alone, they have not the strength to resist the loads and other stresses to be imposed on them in the inished wall.l Given.
such skeleton frame with a'n element thereof be-A tween the channels of two adjoining panels, the
panels are to exist interlocked and desrably so interlocked under binding strain that the channels and element of the skeleton frame .between them together constitute a unitary part of the ultimate or permanent frame of the wall-strong enough to withstand, permanently, all stresses.
imposed on the completed wall. In all aspects of my inventiom however, I do not wish to be limited to `tlive'fprresence of the skeleton frame.
It will be advantageous to construct the wall eso that, the skeleton frame being more orv less complete, any panel may be assembled with or disassembled from said, frame by movement in a direction'through rather thanby movement in coincidence withthe plane ofthe wall. For this it is another purpose of my invention to provide.-
The aforesaid interlock may be accomplished as between laterally adjacent panels in a single tier (or ofcourse adjoining, as superposed tiers) thereof by aA bar between and paralleling the channels of such panels, and, as one expedient panels by movement in a direction .through the wall, resort to a coupling appliance enterable to or retractive from its operative position in a direction crossing the axis of the bar` may be had;
other expedientev to the same end may be resorted to, as will appear. Y
In the drawings, in which the invention isillustrated by reference to ari-'upright wall of whose skeleton frame the' element between adjoining panels is termed an upright,
Fig. 1 shows a, fragment of a. wall or myinvention in horizontal section;
Fig, 2 is a side elevation of an upright and the interlocking. means, showing how the anchoring section, may be to the foundation, appearing in effected;
Fig. v3 is a longitudinal vertical section of the wall and foundation, illustrating a modined form of the interlock and the anchoring;
-2o Fig. 4 is an isometric view of a broken away: Fig. 5 is a horizontal section showing a modincation of the type of interlock appearing in Flai:
Fig. 6 is a side elevation of the lacking bar cf Fig. 5;
Fig. 'l is a View like Fig. 5 but showing the interlocking means including the mentioned cou" pline appliance:
Fig. 8 is an isometric view of such appliance;
Fis. 9 is a. schematic longitudinal verticm section of the wall, foundation and a beam supported by the wall, with the locking means of Fig.,3;
Fig. 10 is a similar view showing a modification of such means; e
Fig. 1 1 is a horizontal sectional View von about the line .'cof Fig. l0; and
Figs. 12 and 13 are horizontal sectional views of a wall embodying other modifications of the invention, the panel in Fig. 13 being partly displaced'from its normal position.
, A panel of the type preferably and usually tol be used comprises at least the 'compressed' molded body l, as of cellular and preferably insulating material, as paper or rubber or other plastic, and the channels 2 formed of thin metal or other light material, as compressed ber or plastic substance, having their grooves lld by and being rmly cemented to the body so as to be in eflect integral therewith, as 'by aconite or urea formaldehyde; and desirably there will also be layers 3 of laminated plywood or other. light material.,
f tougher than the body, covering and securely permitting the assembling or disassembling of the cemented 4to its broad faces and to the channels, the union by cementing or otherwise of the chanpanel, partly nels and both panels being such as to withstand stretching strains tending to part them in those l erally to pass its eyes through the ducts and into s the other passage, whereupon a locking bar I9 `is applied as already indicated and shown by Fig. 7.- In this operation the series of eyes exist anchored to that channel against which the flangesl I6 bear; and they may undergo tension incident to taper ofthe bar. l
Sincein each of the forms described an upright, 4 or 5. exists between each two panels, -to accommodate the mentioned eyes it is provided with apertures 20 to registerywith those of the '-Wpanel channel or channels.
.crease their resistance to bending strains, without much increasing their weight, the uprights and hence'their grooves may be wider than the channels 2, as shown by Figs. 5 and 11`at 5.
The panels and uprights, including specificallythe panel channels, are to be seated on the-sill or foundation z and the wall they go to form is usually, yto be conned thereto against lateral displacement if not anchored thereto and the elements of such wall interlocked, as will appear. As for the interlocking,y whereas it may of course in some instances exist as affecting two panels immediately adjoining each other, it is especially considered herein only in the'case where an upright is interposed between two panels. In any event, the channel 2 of at least one of two adjoining panelsis provided with a vertical series of apertures and the body I thereof formed ,with a vertical groove in -registry with the apertures and which, with the channel, forms The passage is to receive a locking a passage. l bar thrustwise entered thereto downwardly thus to enter devices extending through theapertures and-in some way anchoredl to the other panelchannel. Thus:
In one form (Figs. 1 and 4) 6 is the mentioned series of apertures in a channel of one panel and 1 the vertical groove or passage in its Ibody I and hence inward of the channel. The channel' of the adjoining panel has portions 8 thereof in registry with the apertures 6 bent out of the channel to formeyes and entered through said apertures into passage 1; the eyes are here integral with the channel and in that sense anchored thereto.- 9 is the locking bar extending down through the keyes inward of the channel oi' the panel having'the passage.
g* In Fig. 5 the channels of both panels are' formed alike, or each-with the series of .apertures of each channel penetrate the apertures and extend into the passage of the other panel. I3 is i I0 and eyes II, I2 being the passage; the eyes The locking bar may be a plaincylindrical bar, u in which case it and the parts of the. charinelsl` between which it enters should as snugly as possible interiit so that the panels and upright will exist in substantially 'xed relation to each other. But the bar may be made to insure interlocking ofthe parts under appreciable binding strain, or be formed as follows: s l
In Figs. 5 and 6 the locking bar I3 is oval in cross-section and may have a flattened heard Ita whereby, with a suitable tool, to turn it to cause.
4itto bind the panels to the upright.
Or the bar, 2i, may be tapered, as in Figs. 3,
9, 10 and 11, Figs. 10 and .11 being more or less i schematic views. In these views an independent coupling device 22, generally like that already described, isshown. In Fig. \9 the bar is somewhat inclined and in order for itto exert uniform binding with respect to all the eyes 22a the latter are graduated accordingly in girth, the panels `and uprights inthis case being shown in all respects the same as in Fig. .7. In Figs.l 10 and 11 the locking bar is vertical and to insure uniformity of pressure vertically as between the channels and intervening upright that channel with which'the bar contacts may havel the portions 23 (Fig. 11) between its apertures bent off toward the bar and which successively decrease upwardly in .their protrusion from thechannel.
The locking baras shown in Figs. 3, 9 and l0] s may be anchored to the foundation if it is cylin-l drical or otherwise circular; in cross-section ,so` that it may be free to be-turned around its axis.A
the latter may be formed in a member 26, shown l in Fig. 3,. which is confined to the foundation tions vof an auxiliary coupling appliance distinct fromthe elements to be interlocked. Thus in Figs. 'l and 8 a strip I4 of strong sheet material, as metal, is slotted, at the same intervals as the apertures of the panel channels, transversely and then bent to longitudinally channeled form or generally U-shaped as viewed lengthwise to provide a unitary series of eyes I5 between the slots, the longitudinal margins or terminals of the strip providing exterior flanges I6, preferably existing as rolls; the strip is somewhat elastic. The channels of both panels are apertured at registering intervals, as at I1. each two registering apertures forming a duct,v and the' body of each panel formed with the vertical passage I8. In assembling in this oase, the panels being positioned as shown, the coupling appliance is entered downwardly into one passage I8 and then shifted latbyvoverhanging flanges 21 thereof against up-v4 ward and to limited rectilineal displacement horizontally, the mouth of the socket being chamfered, as at 28, so as to guidethe threadedend of the bar into the socket. f
- 'Ihe locking bar may in some instances, as in Fig. 5, simply be held to the foundation against lateral displacement. as by having a reduced lower terminal I3b in Fig. 6 vto be set .in the foundation.
In all the forms so far described, excepting that of Figs. '1, 8 to 10, the placement or removal of any panel must be effected in coincidence with the plane' of the wall. In the Fig. 'l form, because the eyes are independent of the panels, each channel maybe placed in' or removed from the wall in a direction through said plane. This tures t3 of the other. have been brought into a common plane bars. 45
cross-sectional contour of such flanged body, as is also true of the upright 3|. (32 designates the covering layers for the body.) At vertical intervals that portion v3 3 of one channel which connects its portions angularly related to the plane of the wall is formed at intervals with a vertical series of apertures 34. The corresponding portion of the other channel has the bent-out eyes 3E to register with and enter such aper, tures; and, in this example, the "upright has similar eyes 36 in laminated relation to the eyes 35. To accommodate such eyes the flange of the one body is formed with a vertical passage ncient strength, te sustain themed and einer vstresses imposed on the portion ofthe wall formed by such panels and element. f- 2. In combination adjoining wall elements havins' passages respectively extending through their adjoining portionsin substantially parallel rela- 3l. 38 is the locking bar, which in this example' has the cross-sectional circular form.
In Fig. 13 the panels 39 are formed, generally flanged, the same as in Fig. 12: but instead of the angular upright there shownv a cylindrical L upright or column 40 is used.4 That portion 3l of each-channel which connects its portions angularly related to the plane of the wall exists with a bend at 42 of semi-circular form so that such portions may embrace the column. At one tion to each other and each open at one end and a duct connecting the passages, and means interlocking said elements together, including a coupling appliance in the passage of one element and anchoredl thereto, said coupling having a vpart thereof extending through the duct toward the other element, said appliance being retractive from the latter element independently of the first-named elemente. locking member in the passage of the latter element and obstructing retractive movement of said part Vthrough the duct but `movable to free the saine, said appliance being elastic and generally U-shaped as viewed side of bend 42 each channel has a vertical series of apertures lill` and at the other side it is formed with a vertical series of. eyes 44. The eyes 44 of one panel are arranged to register with 4the aper- When the two panels such beams, as by the upper end of the bar penei trating the beam and being threaded and having screwed thereon a nut 41, whereby to tension the bar, assumed to be anchored to the foundation. l
In allthe forms shown, and in accordance with my invention, the load and other stresses are borne by the channels of adjoining panels and the element of thel skeleton frame between the channels, which channels on the one hand and said element on'the other would alone be too weak to withstand such stresses since they are to be light `and hence readily assembled and disassembled;
Having thus fully described my invention, what I claim is:
l. A building wall including adjoining panels,
lengthwise of said passages 'and having roll-V shaped terminals engaging the iirst-named element within the passage thereof and the firstnamed passage affording clearance to said appliance when moved in the directionto retractsaidpart from said other element. Y
3. The combination set forth in claim 2, char acterized by said locking member having that portion thereof which is in engagement with said parts oi' said appliance tapered in one direction of its length.
4. In combination, adjoining wall elements having passages respectively extending through their adjoining portions in substantially parallel relation to each other and each open at one end,
ducts connecting and arranged as a series extending lengthwise of said passages, means interlockingsaid elementsl together, including a coupling appliance in and extending lengthwise each panel including a body of light molded substance, an elongated load sustaining channel having sides embracing and rigidly secured to the adjoining margin of said body, an elongated load sustaining element to form a part of the skeleton frame of said wall and arranged between and parallel with both channels, said body of one panel having a passage wholly inward and extending lengthwise of the corresponding'channel,
the latter channel and said element having apertures arranged in series lengthwise of and open to such passage, the channel of the other panel having coupling devices anchored thereto and penetrating the respective apertures, and a locking member in the passage and engaged with the several devices and coacting therewith to clamp the panels and element together, each of the parts formed by the channels and said element having in itself insuiiicient strength, but such parts together and as thus clamped having sufof the passage of one element and having length- Wise disposed parts thereof extending through the respective ducts toward the other element, said appliance being retractive from the latter element independently of the first-named element, an elongated locking member in the passage of the latter element and obstructing retractive movement of said parts through the ducts but movable to free the same, the rst-named passage aording clearance to said appliance when moved in the direction to retractl said parts from said other element.
5. In combination, with a foundation and superstructure above the same, a building wall including panels arranged upright and to lie in a common upright plane, each panel including a body of light molded substance and an upright reinforcing channel seated on the foundation and supporting the superstructure load, said channel having sides embracing and rigidly secured to the adjoining upright margin of said body, an upright adapted to form a part of the skeleton frame of said wall and arranged between the channels and seated on the foundation and also supporting the superstructure load,- means wholly between the upright faces of the wall, including a. tensioned member tying said foundation and superstructure together and clamping together the channels, each of the elements formed bythe channels and upright having in itself insuilicient strength, but such elements together having suiilcient strength, to sustain the superstructure load and other stresses imposed on the part of the wall formed by such panels and upright.
6. In combination. with a.' foundation and su perstructure above'the sanie, a building wall lncluding panels arranged upright and to lie in a body.
commonl upright plane. each panel including a body of light molded substance and an upright reinforcing channel seated on the foundation and supporting the superstructure load, `said channel having sides embracing and rigidlyy secured to the adjoining upright'margin of said skeleton frame of said wall and arranged between the channels and seated on the foundation and also supporting the superstructure load,v means wholly between the upright faces of the wall, including a ,tensioned member tying said foundation and superstructure together and clamping to- Y gether the channels at vertically spaced intervals,
wall between said portions, one panel having a passage extending therethrough from one such portion to the other and an aperture leading from the passage to the surface of such panel adjoining the other panel, the latter panelv having a coupling device anchored thereto and'extending therefrom through the aperture and into the passage, and-means in the passage engaged with said device and tying said portions of the frame together.
8. In combination, with spaced portions ofthe frame of a building, adjoining panels forming a wall between said portions, one panel having a passage extending therethroughA from one such portion to an upright adapted to form a part of the the other and apertures arranged -in series extendinglengthwise of the passage and whichlead from the passage to the surface oi such panel which adioins the other panel, the latter panel having coupling devices anchored 'thereto and extending therefrom through the respective apertures and into the passage, and an elongated locking member extending lengthwise of and in said passage and engaged with said devices and tying said portions of the frame togethenand said locking member having that portion thereof which engages said devices tapered in one direction of its length.
9. A building wan including adjoining panels.. each panel including a body of light molded substance, an elongated load-supporting channel having 1sides embracing and rigidly secured tothe adjoining margin of said body, an elongated loadsupporting element adapted to form a part of the skeleton frame of said wall and arranged between and parallel with both channels, said body of one panel having a passage wholly inward of and extending lengthwise of the corresponding channel,
the latter'channel and said element having apertures arranged in series lengthwise and open to such passage. the channel of the'other panel having coupling devices anchored thereto and pene'- trating the respective apertures, and a locking member in the passage and engaged with the several devicesand coacting therewith to clamp the panels and element together.
l0. The combination set forth in claim 9 characterized by said locking member having the Dor- -tion thereof which is in engagement with each ot the several devices tapered in one direction of its length. s l HAROLD` T. BAA'I'I'IN.