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Publication numberUS2416510 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 25, 1947
Filing dateApr 23, 1943
Priority dateApr 23, 1943
Publication numberUS 2416510 A, US 2416510A, US-A-2416510, US2416510 A, US2416510A
InventorsFrederick J Binda
Original AssigneePolaroid Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Composite plastic sheet for use in the formation of light-polarizing images
US 2416510 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Feb. 25, 1947. -F. J. BINDA 2,416,510


BY A 5 Patented Feb. 25, 1947 ooiuroslra PLASTIC SHEET FOR USE IN THE FORMATION OF LIGHT-PQLARIZING A S f Frederick J Binda, Cambridge, Mass., assignor to Polaroid Corporation, Cambridge, Mass. acor- V 1 I poration of Delaware.

' App ication April 23, 1943, Serial'No. 484.200

. v 2 Claims.

This invention relates to acomposite plastic sheet or film adapted for use in the production of light-polarizing. material and stereoscopic images. comprising light polarizing material.

It has been proposed to'provide a composite sheet or film' 'for the 'above purpose comprising I a layer of polyvinyl alcohol; particularly molecularly' oriented polyvinyl alcohol, bonded securely to anotherlayer ofa transparent plastic-material offdiflerent physical properties, and particularly lose. I

. Itis'one object of the present'invention-to such a composite'sheet wherein thesecond-named layer'is resistant to forces or conditions disad vantageously affecting said first-named layer.

For example, said first-named layer may comprise .m'olecularly oriented' polyvinyl alcohol and said second-named layer may comprise substantially.

non-hydrophili'c material such as cellulose acetate havinglits molecules in their normal condition of heterogeneous orientation and having the surrace thereof adiacent'said polyvinyl alcohol layer at least partially converted to regenerated cellu- {provide new and improved composite plastic sheets and fllmsof the above'type, and particularly anew and improved bond between said poly- 7 vinyl alcohol layer and said second-named layer.

' generated to hydrophilic material and superim- Another object of th'e'invention is to provide a composite sheet for use in the formation of light-polarizing images comprising a sheet of substantially non-hydrophilic material such as cellulose-acetate or cellulose acetatabutyrate and having at least one surface thereof partially reposed upon each such surface and integral with the sheet a'pluralitycf layers of polyvinyl alcohol,

eachsuchhutermos't layer of polyvinyl alcohol I having. its molecules in a substantially oriented conditionand'each such inner layer of polyvinyl alcohol adjacent said sheet having its-molecules heterogen'eousiy arranged.

I 'Aiurther object is to provide new and improved products and particularly a composite plastic sheet or film of the above type characterized by r J the strength of-the bond between said polyvinyl alcohol layer and said, supporting layer.

Other objects and advantages will in part be apparent and in part be pointed out in the course of the following description of one or more embodiments of the invention, which are given as non-limiting examples, in connection with the accompanying drawings ,-in which:

Figure 1 is a diagrammatic view in perspective,

partly brokenaway, showing a composite sheet constituting anembodiment of the invention;

, surface of. a sheet of suitably molecularly oriented (c1. ss---c) 2 Fig. 2 is a ,view similar toFig. posite sheet constituting another embodiment of the invention; j

Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic View in perspective showing a sheet similar tothe type shown in Fig. 2 and having a pair oi formed therein;

Fig. 4 showsdiagrammatically.apparatus suitablefor use inregenerating a surface layer of the supporting sheet;.and I Fig. 5 shows diagrammatically apparatus suit- .able for laminating the various parts ofthe composite sheet.

It has recently been formed byapplying a dichroic dye or stain tothe transparent plastic such as polyvinyl alcohol.

Similarly, dichroic stereoscopic images maybe produced by forming each image byapplying a dichroic dye or stain to a separate molecularly other surface.

oriented sheet of polyvinyl alcohol and then superimposing the two sheets with their directions of molecular orientation at right angles to each other. Alternatively, there, may first be provided a sheet of plastic material whose outer surfaces comprise polyvinyl alcohol molecularly oriented in the proper directions, and the images may then be superimposed'by printing one on one'surface oif'the sheet and the other on the Preferred results are obtained if the molecular orientationbe brought about by stretching the sheet ,to two or more timesits original length before applying the dichroic stain thereto. but difflculty has been encountered with such sheets by reason of the fact'that they tend Y to shrink after stretching, which results in curling and other undesirable effects.

It has been discovered that improved results are obtained if, the sheet ofmolecularly oriented polyvinyl alcohol, is laminated toa. second sheet of a transparent plastic of different physical properties, and the present invention is concerned with the production of such composite sheets.

For example, Fig. 1 of the drawings herein shows a composite sheet Iii comprising a molecularly oriented polyvinyl alcohol layer L2 bonded to a layer [4 of a difierent plastic material such as cellulose acetate. Layer I2 will preferably first be stretched, for example in the direction indicated by arrow l5, and layer M will preferably I not be stretched and hence be in its normal condition of heterogeneous molecular orientation.

Inthe preferred embodiment of the product of the present invention, if layer i2 comprises 1 showings. comdichroic images discovered that dichroic light polarizers-and dichroic. images may be.

stretched polyvinyl alcohol, layer l4 will comprise unoriented or otherwise differently oriented material which is substantially less hydrophilic than polyvinyl alcohol, for example cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate butyrate, polyvinyl acetal or the like. As is indicated in Fig. l, stretched layer I! should be relatively thin, for example .0005 to .002 of an inch in thickness. and layer l4 will be substantially thicker, for example .005 of an inch. It is to be understood, however, that these relative dimensions are given merely as illustrative of a suitable combination, and the invention is not to be construed as in any way limited thereto.

Considerable dimculty has been encountered heretofore in obtaining a satisfactory bond between a hydrophilic material such as polyvinyl. alcohol and non-hydrophilic material, and one object of the present invention is to providea method for eflecting such a bond. Reasonably satisfactory resuEts have been obtained by first treating the surface of a sheet of non-hydrophilic:

material to convert it at least partially to hydrophilicmaterial, as is indicated by the stlppling at "in Fig. 1. v This may be done, for example, in the case of cellulose acetate by treating'the surface with a suitable hydrolyzing ordeacetalating agent, such as sodium hydroxide, which will convert the surface of the sheet to regenerated cellulose. A sheet of polyvinyl alcoholmay then be readily bonded to the converted surface of the cellulose acetate by means either of water or a water solution of polyvinyl alcohol. In accordance with the present invention, however, it has been discovered that greatly superior'results are obtained if the convertedsurface of sheet l4 be above. On the contrary, any similar material may be used which will bond to polyvinyl alcohol or which may have its surface converted to hy'-' drophilic material to which polyvinyl alcohol will more readily .bond.' Examples of ,such suitable materials include other cellulose esters and ethers such as cellulose nitrate and ethyl cellulose, de-

, ing axis at right angles to the axis of the image formed in layer22, as will be explained in greater .detail in connection with Fig. 3.

Fig. 3 shows diagrammatically a composite sheet of the type'shown in Fig. 2 and having a dichroic stereoscopic image formed therein.

In Fig. 3.sheet "comprises a pair of layers 32 and 34 of molecul'arly oriented polyvinyl alcohol bonded to a center layer 33 which corresponds to double central layer i4, 24 in Fig. 2. For example, layer 31 may ,comprise cellulose acetate which has both surfaces converted to regenerated cellulose,. or it may comprise a pair of layers each having onesurface regenerated to hydrophilic material and having their unconverted surfaces bonded together. Layer 32 is represented as having been stretched in the direction indicated by arrow), namely, at 45 degrees to the edges thereof, and layer 34 is represented as having been stretched in the direction indicated by arrow 36, namely, at 90 degrees to the direction of .InFig. 3, polyvinyl alcohol layer 31 is represented as having formed thereon an image 38 constituting one image, for example the righteye image, of a stereoscopic pair. Similarly, layer 34 has formed thereon an image 39 representing the left-eye image of a stereoscopic pair. Images 38 and 30 may-be formed in layers 32 and 34, respectively, by means of any suitable dichroic dye or stain, such for example as a polyiodide stain or a suitable direct cotton dye or dyes.

When, therefore, sheet III is viewed through suitrivatives of polyvinyl alcohol such as the acetals and ketals and organic esters of polyvinyl alcohol, and polymerized esters of acrylic and methacrylic acid and-their derivatives. v

Particularly satisfactoryresults for the pur' poses of the-invention may be obtained with a sheet of polyvinyl acetal which has one surface at least partially converted to polyvinyl alcohol by means of a suitable hydrolyxing agent such asa dilute solution of a mineral acid such as sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid. Many similarly useful materials and modifications will assembled and the images maythen be formed doubtless be apparent to those skilled in the art coming within the to composite sheet I O-shownin Fig. 1 a similarcomposite sheet comprising a layer 22 of polyvinyl alcohol and alayer 24 of non-hydrophilic plastic material having a partially regenerated surface, as is indicated by stipplingfl. If, for

example, layers l4 and 24 comprise cellulose able analyzers, one eye of the observer will see only image I8 and the other eye will see only image 34, and a three-dimensional effect will accordingly be produced. It is to be understood a that images 30 and I! may be formed in layers in Fig. 4. Plastic sheet or film 40 to be converted is passed from supply roll 42 and guided by means of rollers 44 over drum 4!, which dips into tank 44 containing hydrolyzing solution 48. Drum 45 is preferably provided with a surface coating of porous material which is adapted to take up terial forming the body of the sheet.

condition is brought about, it will be found that 'abette'r bond is obtained when a sheet of hydrosolution 48 but which will not be, aflected thereby. The 'size and'speed of rotation of said drum may determined and controlled by the'time necessary to" regenerate a sufficient amount of material'on the surface of sheet 40; This time is in turn dependent upon the temperature and concentration of solution 48.

The'extent' to which the surface of sheet 40 is I converted should be controlled rather carefully.

It has been found that preferred results for the purposes or the invention are obtained if the conversion be only partial. In other words, the preferred product of the conversion process of the invention isa sheet of substantially nonhydrophilic material having part'of the material on one surface regenerated to hydrophilic material but with the regenerated portions or areas interspersed in substantially mosaic fashion with the unreger'rerated portions or areas of the ma- If this phllic material is laminated to the treated surface, for it appears that the unconverted surface 4 material bonds integrally to the converted portions. and that the latter in turn bond to the additional sheet. It is to be understood, however; that this condition is merely one which appears preferred, and that the invention is not to be construed as limited thereto.

It will be apparent that control of the con-' version process of the invention to bring about the above preferred results depends both upon the materials being treated and upon the hy- 'drolyzing'solution being used- Two examples j will be given, but it is'to be understood that they are given 'only by way of illustration and that the invention is in no way limited thereto.

If sheet 40 is composed of cellulose acetate, a suitable hydrolyzing agent is a solution of ten parts by weight of sodium hydroxide and twenty pants by weight oi. water. To this there may be added, if desired, one part by weight of methanol, and with such a solution a sufilcient time of treatmentis approximately one minute at room temperature. If sheet 40 is composed of polyvinyl acetal, a suitable hydrolyzing agent is a solution of equal parts of concentrated sulphuric acid and water, and in this case a sufllcient time of treatment is approximately ten minutes at room temperature,

When regeneration of a sufficient layer on the surface of sheet 40 is completed, the sheet should be thoroughly washed, and atthe same time any I of .the hydrolyzing solution remaining thereon 1 should be neutralized.- "Convcnient apparatus for this purpose is indicated in Fig. 4 as comprising tanks 52 and 54, through which sheet 40 is guided by. means of idler rolls 50, Tank 52 will preferably contain a solution adapted to neutralize the hydrolyzing agent used intank 46. For example,

in the case of cellulose acetate, a satisfactory neutralizing solution will be a 2% solution of sulphuric acid, and in the case of polyvinyl acetal, tank 52 may contain a 5% solution of sodium bicarbonate. Tank 54 will preferably contain water through which sheet may be passed for washing before reaching take-up roll BI. It will be apparent that if desired there may be provided additional washing means and/or suitable drying means such as oven 56 or ventilating means between tank 54 and roll 55. Such modiflcations will be apparent to those skilled in the art, and are to be construed as coming within the scope of the invention.

when the sheet of non-hydrophilic material has completed the treatment outlined in connection with Fig. 4, the next stepof the process of range is one partof polyvinyl alcohol to form five to ten parts of water. The solution may be applied in any convenient manner, preferably depending upon its viscosity. For example, it may be applied by means of apparatus similar to drum 45 and tank 46 in Fig. 4. If both surfaces are to be coated as for use in the preparation of a sheet such as sheet 30 shown in Fig. 3, the coating may be applied by dipping in polyvinyl alcohol solution. Alternatively, a spray method may be used, or if the solution is relatively viscous it may be applied by means of a doctor knife. It will be apparent that the more viscous the solution, the less time is necessary for drying. It will be apparent that-the latter operation will, be facilitated if desired by any suitable means such as even 56 orventilating means between tank 46 and take-uproll 55; It should also be pointed out that the thickness of the polyvinyl alcohol coating is not particularly critical. ,It should preferably be relatively thin, for example of the order of .0001 of an inch.

When a sheet of non-hydrophilic material has completed the treatment outlined above, it may then be laminated to a sheet of hydrophilic material such as polyvinyl alcohol in the manner indicated diagrammatically in Fig. 5. For example, element iii in Fig. 5 represents a roll of surface-converted and coated plastic such as cellulose acetate, and element 62 a roll of polyvinyl alcohol which has preferably already been subjected to the desired stretching operation.

just before they have passed between rollers 64.

As shown in Fig. 5, this may comprise a trough 6!! provided with a suitable'aperture 86 along its bottom edge and filled with a laminating solution 68. Laminated sheet 10 emerging from between rollers v64 may be considered as corresponding to sheet l0 already described and shown in Fig. -1.

In carrying out the laminating step illustrated in Fig. 5, considerable latitude may be allowed in the choice of a laminating solution. For example, water alone may be used, or a water solution, preferably relatively dilute. of polyvinyl alcohol. Preferred results are obtained, however, by using a solution of water and some non-solvent of polyvinyl alcohol, such for example as meth anol. The proportion of the latter to the water in the solution may also be varied to a considerable extent, with the preferred range being of the order of 40-60% methanol to 60-40% water.

outer polyvinyl alcohol layers being molecularly oriented with the directions of molecular orientation in said layers at right angles to each other whereby to possess the property of absorbing and orienting dichroic dyes and stains used in the production of dichroic light-polarizing images of the character which oppositely polarize light, and each of the other of said polyvinyl alcohol layers having its molecules heterogeneously arranged.

2. An image-carrying element adapted to have images, designs and the like formed therein and having an outer layer possessing the property of absorbing and orienting dichroic dyes and stains used in the production of light-polarizing images, comprising in combination, a flexible support formed of a sheet of cellulose acetate, and, structurally integral therewith, at least two flexible layers of polyvinyl alcohol positioned in superimposed relation to each other on at least one surface of said cellulose acetate support, the surface of said cellulose acetate support adjacent the superimposed layers of polyvinyl alcohol cornprising a predetermined amount of regenerated cellulose, the outermost of said polyvinyl alcohol layers having its molecules oriented substantially in parallelism whereby dichroic light-polarizing images in terms of dichroic dyes and stains may be formed in said layer and the other of said polyvinyl alcohol layers having the molecules thereof heterogeneously arranged.


REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date Re. 21,904 Land Sept. 23, 19 1 2,219,447 Groif Oct. 29, 19 2,284,590 Rogers May 26, 1942 2,263,249 Rogers Nov, 18, 19,41 2,158,130 Land May 16, 1969 2,276,151 Brandenberger Mar. 10, 1942 2,280,055 Andersen Apr. 21, 1942 1,768,795 Sheppard et a1 Jul 1, 1930 2,289,715 Land July 14, 1942 2,315,373 Land Mar. 30, 1943 2,237,567 Land Apr. 8, 1941 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 494,929 British Nov. 3, 1938

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2906036 *Mar 27, 1956Sep 29, 1959Domeshek SolField mask for stereoscopic projection on monocular projector
US3015989 *Jan 27, 1958Jan 9, 1962Polaroid CorpLight-polarizing film materials and process of preparation
US3058393 *Mar 27, 1958Oct 16, 1962Polaroid CorpLight-polarizing film material and the process of preparation
US3376135 *Sep 26, 1963Apr 2, 1968Allen E BotneyNegative and positive view from a polarized film structure
US5004327 *Nov 30, 1988Apr 2, 1991Svecia Antiqua LimitedLight-polarizing material in the form of sheets or of a web and a method for the manufacture of the material
US20090096962 *Apr 9, 2008Apr 16, 2009Eastman Chemical CompanyCellulose Esters with High Hyrdoxyl Content and Their Use in Liquid Crystal Displays
US20130120676 *Dec 17, 2012May 16, 2013Fujifilm CorporationStereo image print and method of producing the same
US20130169896 *Dec 17, 2012Jul 4, 2013Fujifilm CorporationStereo image print and method of producing the same
U.S. Classification359/465, 156/102, 359/487.2, 359/487.5, 359/486.2, 359/487.6
International ClassificationG03C9/04
Cooperative ClassificationG03C9/04
European ClassificationG03C9/04