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Publication numberUS2417378 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 11, 1947
Filing dateDec 28, 1943
Priority dateDec 28, 1943
Publication numberUS 2417378 A, US 2417378A, US-A-2417378, US2417378 A, US2417378A
InventorsRobinson Marguerite G
Original AssigneeRobinson Marguerite G
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Splint-stretcher frame
US 2417378 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

March 11, 1947 w w. ROBINSON SPLINT-STRETGHER FRAME Filed Dec. 28. 1943 2 sheets sheet l March 11 1947. w, w ROBINSON 2,417,378

' SPLINT-STRETCHER FRAME Filed Dec. 28, 1943 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 WaZZace Wflofziwlsom Patented Mar. 11, 1947 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE SPLINT-STRETCHER FRAME Application December 28, 1943, Serial No. 516,289

16 Claims. 1

This invention relates to splint-stretcher frames for use in transporting an injured, collapsed or invalided person, and the present application is a continuation in part of my copending application Serial No. 398,905, filed June 20, 1941, and abandoned in favor of this application.

The principal purpose of the invention is to provide a compact, handy and easily portable litter frame which simultaneously-splints, stretcherizes and immobilizes th body by affording effective support for the muscle-padded regions at both sides of the shoulder and pelvic girdles and by bracing the head and the weight line of the lower limbs, while providing a relatively wide pressure-free zone along the spinal column, a1- lowing access to the supported body for treatment of injuries and dressing of wounds, and assuring that the victim or patient may be transported with a minimum of discomfort.

Another important object of this invention is to provide a body supporting frame having a pair of rigid, elongate side members pivotally connected at one end and separably connected at the opposite end thereof, so that the frame may be applied beneath a body by spreading or obliquely diverging its hinged sides, then closing or converging them beneath the torso along the lines of cleavage between the body and the ground or bed on which it lies, and finally locking the sides in parallel relation, without lifting, turn ing or rolling the body. This feature is particularly valuable in the external skeletal fixation of fracture cases, and more especially in spinal fractures, for it is well understood that any unnecessary movement or improper handling of the victim's body often aggravates the injury, frequently causes shock and sometimes results in a fatality which could have been avoided by immediate immobilization.

It will be apparent that such a frame may easily be displaced from the immobilized body after it has been placed on an X-ray or operating table or in bed, by separating one end and spreading the hinged sides to permit complete or partial withdrawal of the frame, thereby affording an opportunity for adequate diagnosis of the injuries before the position of the body is disturbed.

Another object of the invention'is to equip the litter sides with frame-like braces or auxiliary splints, particularly pelvic and leg braces, the latter being rotatably mounted on the frame sides in the preferred arrangements, so that they may be positioned inwardly or outwardly there .lin with the axis of th spine, while the body is carried either in supine or prone position; and, in an optional embodiment of the invention, a roller mounted on a removable extension at the foot or lower end of the frame, so that the frame and its burden may be readily wheeled while the head portion is elevated.

These and other advantages of the invent-ion will be described in connection with the recommended embodiments of the invention illustrated in the accompanying drawings, and will be pointed out in the appended claims. It will be understood, however, that the structural details of the splint-stretcher frame herein disclosed may be varied to suit particular conditions, without departing from the essence of this invention as set forth in said claims. In the drawings,

Fig. 1 is a plan view of a preferred form of the improved frame;

Fig. 2 is a side elevation looking to th left of Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is a plan view of the frame with the sides partially spread and partially extended in length, and the flexible head rest pushed upwardly;

Figs. 4 and -5 are enlarged sections on line 4-4 and 5-5 respectively of Fig. 1, Fig. 4 also illustrating an optional form of head rest;

Fig. 6 is a bottom view of the frame as shown in Fig. 1, showing the normal position of a supine Fig. '7.

In the preferred embodiment chosen ,for the purpose of illustration in Figs. 1 to 6, the improved frame comprises a pair of rigid, elongated, parallel side members ll having inwardly directed upper ends i2 and lower ends 13 whichare respectively connected in themannerhere inafter described. Th relatively narrow sides II are preferably made of metal pipe or tubing and hav extensible lower portions I4 also made of tubing enclosing metal rods I (Fig. 3) which telescope within the pipes of the sides proper H.

The extensions I4 are secured in longitudinally necessary to tighten the set screws when a body is on the-frame,,for the weight of the body will hold the telescoped sides in adjusted position.- The rods [5 serve to strengthen the tubes I4 and f are welded or otherwise fixed therein at the flattened ends of said tubes; and the tubes II are preferably reinforced by rods 17, similarly secured therein.

At one end of the frame, preferably the head or upper end, the sides are pivotally connected by a bolt I8 which passes through complemental holes in the flattened tips of the end portions I2 and is secured by a nut I9. The nut 59 may obviously be removed whenever occasion requires separation of the frame sides at the hinged upper joint; and a wing nut may be employed in place of the plain nut I9, to permit ease of detachment.

The opposite end of the frame is separably con- I nected by a bolt 20 and removable wing nut 2!; the bolt being attached to the flattened tip of one lower end portion l3 and passing through a hole 22 in the flattened extremity of the complemental end portion. Other suitable means may obviously be employed for pivotally connecting the side members at one end of the frame, and separably or detachably connecting them at the opposite end; and it will be evident that the separable lower joint may be used as a pivot when conditions require separation of the upper joint.

The sides I I are preferably formed with upwardly curved portions 23 which elevate the head or upper portion of the frame and which are adapted to support the shoulders of a person carried on the frame. These bends are'herein termed shoulder curves, and serve to brace the latter purpose, the end portion I 3 at the foot of the frame may also be elevated by bending the extension members It, as indicated a1; 25.

Asherein shown, the head rest 24 is made of canvas or other flexible material and is suspended by loops or hems 26 from the elevated portions of the side members I I. nasal opening 21 for use when the victim is carried in prone position. In the optional form of head rest shown in Fig. 4, the central portion 28 thereof is removably attached to the looped side portions 29by snap fasteners 3t, so that the relative small piece 28 may easily be slipped under the head (either in prone or supine position) and subsequently attached to the looped side portions braces, formed'of wire loops or other frame-like members, are preferably attached to the frame' sides to support the torso and lower limbs more comfortably and prevent lateral displacement of the supported body. .The inwardly directed rib braces 31 and hip and thigh braces 32, and the The head support has a upwardly with respect to the plane of the sides I I, and the use of such braces is highly desirable.

The leg braces 34 are preferably carried by sleeves,

35 rotatable on the rods l5 and adjustable in position by set screws 35 or. other fastenings, so that either of these braces may be swung inwardly or outwardly of the frame (Figs. 3 and 6) to permit either or both of the lower extremities to be abducted and internally rotated under traction,

as in the case of a fractured hip, and to support Y the legs in the most comfortable and advantageous position. It will be apparent,v however, that the leg braces may be suitably fixed in position, and that one set may project inwardly and another set outwardly relative to the respective side members. It will also be apparent that the braces 33 and 34 may be used as handles for carrying the stretcher frame, if desired.

It will be observed that the frame sides are relatively narrow and that the space between them is substantially wider than the width of either side member. That space ensures a pressure free zone for the spinal column, and should be of such width that the torso of a person in supine position is supported primarily at four critical areas: the right and left scapula bone areas of the shoulder girdle, and the right and left innominate bone areas of the pelvic girdle, as indicated in Fig. 6. These regions of the body are well padded with muscle tissue, and the skeleton of the torso is properly immobilized when supported in this position, With the torso thus supported by the frame, the weight lines of the respective legs, extending from the anteriorsuperior spinous process of the ilium to the second toe, diagonally cross the axis of the respective side members (in the full line position of .Fig. 6),

7 thus immobilizing the entire limb.

The use of narrow side members, widely spaced as aforesaid, and open loops for the auxiliary splints not OIllYaQffOl'dS correct torsa-l support for immobilization by external skeletal fixation, but also affords access to the body for the treatment of wounds, application'of tourniquets and aflixation of compression dressings, when indicated. The frame as a whole is also relatively light in weight, and easy to maneuver because its total width is less than that of the torso.

This form of the novel splintstretcher frame is quickly'and easily applied to a collapsed or injured person without the necessity of moving the body except to straighten the neck and converged. The flexible head'rest '24 may bepushed upwardly to the head end of the frame.

(Fig. 3) and then carefully slipped under the head, and each side member is slid under ..the shoulders and hips along the line of cleavage between the' body and the ground; floor or bed on which the victim or patient is lying. The length of the frame may be adjusted by sliding the extensions I4 to the desired position, before the sides are closed, so that the shoulders ofthe torso fit against the shoulder curves 23 and the gamers feet rest inside the lower end portions frame (Fig. 6

The torso is centered laterally on the frame and is thus supported at the four contact areas above mentioned, with the pelvic region braced by the inclined auxiliary splints 33 and the lower limbs resting on the frame sides and the adjustable braces 34. The frame may be conveniently grasped at the elevated end portions, and easily lifted and transported by two litter bearers; or it may be slid or skidded across the ground or floor by a single bearer, by lifting the head end and pushing or dragging the lower end. If the frame may be carried in a substantially horizontal position, no straps or binders are required to hold the stretcherized body on the frame; es pecially as the frame-like braces act as friction brakes to prevent the body from sliding longitudinally of the frame; but if it will be necessary to tilt the frame appreciably while the victim is being transported, suitable straps or ties may be easily attached to the frame sides, to hold the body securely in place. Leg traction may be utilized when necessary, with .or without binding the body, for the braces will hold the torso against traction, as aforesaid. The splint-stretcher may be applied and used in this manner by inexperienced persons, for the manipulation of the frame is very simple and a knowledge of anatomy is not l3 of the required in properly assembling th frame under the body,

In the modified embodiment of the invention shown in Figs. '7 and 8, the means for separably connecting the side members H at the lower end of the frame, comprises a U-shaped extension 9 member 4! having an end portion 42 formed of tubular metal and an elongate rod 43 extending through pipe 42 and providing parallel bars it which slide within the hollow sides H and are secured in adjusted position by the set screws 16. In applying this type of frame, the lower extension M is completely withdrawn from the frame sides, the latter are spread apart and moved under the body, and the extension is then replaced to close and lock the frame. The extension rods 44 may carry the rotatable leg braces 45 in the same manner as the braces 34 are mounted on the bars l5 of Figs. 1 to 6.

The transverse foot end of the extension 6! preferably has a roller 45 equipped with a ring 41 of rubber or the like at its center, to permit the frame to be wheeled more easily when the upper end is pushed or pulled as aforesaid. The roller 43 may revolve on the tube 42, or the wheel ring 41 may rotate on the roller 45, as desired.

A splint-stretcher frame constructed as herein disclosed is relatively simple and economical to manufacture and affords a compact, handy and easily portable litter frame admirably satisfying all the purposes and advantages ascribed to this invention. The frame may be safely and satisfactorily used in hospitals, convalescent homes, industrial plants and mortuary establishments, as well as in the fieldby civilian defense units and the armed forces. When employed by morticians, it is frequently desirable that the side members of the frame be completely detached from each other, as when the body occupies a narrow space. Such separation is conveniently accomplished, for the pivotal connection at the head end of the frame is also separable as aforesaid, and the careful and precise application which is characteristic of a frame hinged at one end is not essential when a lifeless body is to be transported.

For morticians use particularly, but also for 6 general use in lifting-and'transporting a prostrate body, the connecting bolt and nut at the foot end of the frame may be omitted, andthe litter bearer at that end of the frame may serve as the means for separably connecting the lowerends of the side members. In such case, as will be obvious without specific illustration herein, the inturned ends [3 of Figs. 1 to 3 may be straight or of any I the opposite ends thereof, and means pivotally connecting end portions directly to each other at one end of the frame, whereby the side members may be obliquely diverged and then converged to spaced relation beneath a prostrate body and whereby the frame and supported body may be lifted and transported by twobearers, one grasping the pivotally connected end of the frame and the other grasping the opposite ends of the respective side members.

2. A splint-stretcher comprising a body-supporting frame having a pair of elongated, rigid side members, said members being adapted directly to engage'the sides of the body and to support by themselves both sides of the shoulder and pelvic girdles, and said members having integral, inwardly directed rigid end portions meeting at the longitudinal axis of the frame at the opposite ends thereof, a head rest disposed between the side members at the upper end of the frame, braces projecting from the respective side members at the lower portion of the frame for supporting the legs of a body carried thereon, and means pivotally connecting one pair of said end portions directly to each other at the upper end of the frame, whereby the side members may be obliquely diverged and then converged to spaced relation beneath a prostrate body and whereby the frame and supported body may be lifted and transported by two bearers, one grasp-- ing the pivotally connected end of the frame and the other grasping the opposite ends of the respective side members.

3. A splint-stretcher comprising a body-supporting frame having a pair of elongated, rigid side members, said members being adapted directly to engage the sides of the body and to support by themselves both sides of the shoulder and pelvic girdles, and said members having integral, inwardly directed rigid end portions meeting at the longitudinal axis of the frame at the opposite ends thereof, means pivotally conneot ing one pair of said end portions directly to each'other at one end of the frame, and means separably connecting the other pair of end portions directly to each other at the opposite end of the frame, whereby after disconnecting said last named means the side members may be obliquely diverged and then converged to spaced relation beneath the body.

4. A splint-stretcher comprising a body-supporting frame having a pair of separable, elongated, rigid side members, said membersbeing adapted directly to engage the sides of the body and to support by themselves both sides of the tions meeting at the longitudinal. axis of the frame at the opposite endsthereof, means pivotally connecting one pair of said end portions directly to each other at one end of the frame,

and means separably, connecting the other pair of end portions directly to each other at the opposite end of the frame, whereby after disconnecting said last named means the side members may be swung obliquely diverged and then converged to spaced relation beneath the body, said side members being widely spaced when the frame is closed 'and the space between the sides being substantially greater than the width of either of said members to afford a pressure free zone in the region of the spinal column of the supported body.

5. A splint-stretcher comprising a body-supporting-frame having a pair of separable, elongated, rigid side members, said members being adapted directly to engage the sides of the body and to support by themselves both sides of the shoulder and pelvic girdles, and said members having integral, inwardly directed rigid end portions meeting at the longitudinal axis of the frame atthe opposite ends thereof, means pivotally connecting one pair of said end portions directly to each other at one end of the frame,

and means separably connecting the other pair of end portions directly to each other at the opposite end of the frame, whereby after disconnecting said last named means the side members may be swung outwardly at said pivot and then inwardly to spaced parallel relation beneath the body, said sides having framelike braces connected thereto and arranged in complemental pairs, and one pair of such braces extending outwardly of the frame sides and being inclined upwardly relative to the plane of said sides for supporting the pelvic areas at the sides of the supported body.

6. A splint-stretcher comp-rising a body-supporting frame having a pair of elongated, rigid side members, said members being adapted directly to engage the sides of the body and to support by themselves both sides of the shoulder and pelvic girdles, and said members having integral, inwardly directed rigid end portions meeting at the longitudinal axis of the frame at the opposite ends thereof, means pivotally connecting one pair of said end portions directly to each other at one end of the frame, and means separably connecting the other pair of end portions directly to each other at the opposite end of the frame, whereby after disconnecting said last named means the side members may be swung outwardly at said pivot and then inwardly to spaced parallel relation beneath the body, said sides having framelike braces connected thereto and arranged in complemental pairs, and one pair of such braces extending outwardly of the frame sides and being inclined upwardly relative to the plane of said sides for supporting the pelvic areas at the sides of the supported body, and another pair of such braces being disposed in position to support the legs of said body.

7. A splint-stretcher comprising a body-supporting frame having a pair of elongated, rigid side members, said members being adapted directly to engage the sides of the body and to support. by themselves both sides of the shoulder and pelvic girdles, and said members having integral, inwardly directed rigid end portions meeting at the longitudinal axis of the frame at the opposite ends thereof, means pivotally connecting one-pair of said end portions directly to each other at one end of the frame, and means 'separably connecting the'other pair ofend portions directly to each other'at the opposite end of the frame whereby, after disconnecting said last named means, the side members may be swung outwardly at said pivot and then inwardly to spaced parallel relation beneath the body, said sides having framelike braces connected thereto and arranged in complemental pairs, and one pair ofsuch braces extending outwardly of the frame sides and being inclined upwardly relative to the plane of said sides for supporting the pelvic areas at the sides of the supported body, and another pair of said braces being rotatably mounted on said side members so that each of them may be located to extend inwardly or outwardly of the respective sides for supporting the legs of said'bodyn 8. A splint-stretcher comprising a body-supporting frame having a pair of elongated, rigid side members, said members being adapted directly to engage the sides of the body and to support by themselves both sides of the shoulder and pelvic girdles, and said members having integral, inwardly directed rigid end portions meeting at the longitudinal axis of the frame at the opposite ends thereof, means pivotally connecting one pair of said end portions directly-to each other at one end of the frame, and means separably connecting the other pair of end portions directly to each other at the opposite end ofthe frame, whereby after disconnecting said last named means the side members may be obliquely diverged and then converged to spaced relation beneath the body, said side members having comp-lemental shoulder curves inclining upwardly from the central portion of the frame and whereby the head portion of the frame is elevated with respect to said central portion, and a head rest suspended from the sides of said elevated portion and adapted to support the head in line with the axis of the neck and spine.

9. A splint-stretcher comp-rising a body-sup porting frame having a pair of separable, elonadapted directly to engage the sides of the body and to support by themselves both sides of the shoulder and pelvic girdles, and said members having integral, inwardly directed rigid end portions meeting at the longitudinal axis of the frame at the opposite ends thereof, means pivotally connecting one pair of said end portions directly to each other at one end of the frame, and means separably connecting the other'pair of end portions directly to each other at the opposite end of the frame, whereby after disconnectingsaid last named means the side members may be obliquely diverged and then converged to spaced relation beneath the body, said side members having complemental shoulder curves support the head-in line with the axis of the neck and spine, said head rest having a central opening for receiving the nose of a person carried in prone position. V

10. A splint-stretcher comprising a body-supporting frame having a pair of separable, elongated, rigid side members, said members being adapted directly toengage the sides of the body and to support by themselves both sides of the shoulder and pelvic girdles, and said members having integral, inwardly directed rigid end portions meeting at the longitudinal axis of the frame at the opposite ends thereof, means pivotally connecting one pair of said end portions directly to each other at one end of the frame, and means separably connecting the other pair of end portions directly to each other at the op posite end of the frame, whereby after disconnecting said last named means the side members may be obliquely diverged and then converged to spaced relation beneath the body, said side members having, complemental shoulder curves inclining upwardly from the central portion of the frame and whereby the head portion of the frame is elevated with respect to said cen-- tral portion, and a head rest suspended from the sides of said elevated portion and adapted to support the head in line with the axis of the neck and spine, said head rest having a detachable insert at its center so that the insert may be removed and replaced, and means separably connecting the insert to the sides of the head rest.

11. A splint-stretcher comprising a body-supporting frame having a pair of elongated, rigid side members, said members being adapted directly to engage the sides of the body and to support by themselves both sides of the shoulder and pelvic girdles, and said members having integral, inwardly directed rigid end portions meeting at the longitudinal axis of the frame at the opposite ends thereof, means pivotally connecting one pair of said end portions directly to each other at one end of the frame, and means separably connecting the other pair of end portions directly to each other at the opposite end of the frame, whereby after disconnecting said last named means the side members may be obliquely diverged and then converged to spaced relation beneath the body, the sides being separable from each other at the point of pivoted connection as well as at the point of separable connection, and the separable connecting means at the opposite end of the frame also constituting a hinge connection so that the frame sides may be totally detached from each other and so that either end thereof may serve as a hinge.

12. A splint-stretcher comprising a body-carrying frame including a pair of elongated, rigid side members, each having inwardly turned portions meeting at the longitudinal axis of the frame at each end thereof, means pivotally connecting the portions at the upper end of said side members, detachable means locking together the portions at the lower end of said side members, whereby when said side members are unlocked at the lower end of said frame, each side member may be obliquely diverged and obliquely converged by hinge action at said pivotal connection, and intermediate portions of said side members obliquely passed beneath the opposite sides of the torso of a body at the line of cleavage between said torso and the ground upon which it lies, and the lower end of the side members locked together to form a rigid body carrying frame, said intermediate portions of said converged side members being arranged substantially parallel with each other and spaced apart and adapted to contact and sup-port four specific areas of the torso of said body when supine, namely, the right and left scapular bone area of the shoulder girdle and the right and left innominate bone area of the pelvic girdle.

13. A splint-stretcher comprising a body-carrying frame including a pair of elongated, rigid side members, each having inwardly turned portions meeting at the longitudinal axis of the frame at each end thereof, hinge-like means connecting the portions at the upper end of said side members, means locking together and unlocking the portions at the lower end of said side members, a head support securedto each side member near the inwardly turned portions at the upperend of said side members, a leg support secured to each side member near the inwardly turned portions at the lower end of said side members whereby, when said side members are unlocked at the lower end of said members, both sides may be obliquely diverged over a supine patient by the pivotal action of the hinge-like connection at the upper end of said side members and said side members respectively converged beneath each side of said patient until intermediate portions of said side members are arranged in a substantially parallel position and spaced apart to contact and support specific torso areas, namely, the right and left scapular bone areas and the right and left innominate bone areas, and said side members'locked together to form a body-carrying frame, with the head of the patient supported by the head support and the legs and feet of the patient supported by the leg supports.

14. A splint-stretcher comprising a body-carrying frame including a pair of elongated, rigid side members, each having inwardly turned portions meeting at the longitudinal axis of the frame at each end thereof, hingelike means pivotally connecting the portions at the upper end of said side members, detachable means looking together the portions at the lower end of said side members, said side members each having an elevated upper end portion, a headrest attached to said elevated upper end portion, said elevated upper end portion inclining downward from said headrest attachment a distance substantially equal to thedepth of the shoulder of a patient and curving forward to pass under said shoulder to form intermediate portions of said side members on a lower plane than said elevated upper end portion, said intermediate portions arranged substantially parallel with each other and spaced apart and extended in length sufficiently to contact, support and immobilize the torso of a patient and to contact, support and immobilize the lower limbs of a patient, when said inwardly turned portions of the lower end of said side members are locked together, whereby a rigid body carrying frame is assembled and when said inwardly turned portions of the lower end of said side members are unlocked each side member may be obliquely diverged and obliquely converged by the hingelike action at the upper end of said side members and said side members respectively passed beneath opposite sides of the torso of said patient and the lower end of said side members brought together and locked to complete stretcherization of the patient.

15. A splint-stretcher comprising a body-carrying frame including a pair of separable, elongated, rigid side members, each having inwardly turned portions meeting at the longitudinal axis of the. frame at each end thereof, and intermediate portions telescopically extensible, means pivotally connecting the portions at the upper end of said side members, detachable means looking together the portions at the lower end of said side members whereby, when said side members are unlocked at the lower end of said side members, each side member may be obliquely diverged and obliquely converged by hinge action at said pivotal connection at the upper end of said side members and said telescopically extensible intermediate portions of said side members adjusted to fit the length of a body, and each side member obliquely passed beneath opposite sides of said body and the lower ends of said side members locked together to form a rigid body-carrying frame, with intermediate portions of each of said side members arranged substantially parallel with each other'and spaced-apart and adapted to contact and support four specific areas of the torso of a supine body, namely, the right and left" scapular bone area and the right and left innomina'te bone area.

16. A splint-stretcher comprising a frame having 'a pair" of separable, elongated, rigid side members, said members being adapted directly to engage the sides of the body and to support by themselves both sides of the shoulder and pelvic girdles, and said members having integral, inwardly directed rigid end portions meeting at the longitudinal axis of the frame at the opposite ends thereof, means pivotally connecting one pair ofxsaid end portions directly to each other at the upper end of the frame, and means separably connecting the other pair 'of end portions directly to each other at the lower end of the frame, so that the sides are in parallel relation when connected at both ends, the separably connecting means comprising a lower frame extension having side bars telescopically received in the side members of the upper portion of the frame, and fastening means for locking the extension in adjusted position.

' WALLACE W. ROBINSON.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 524,824 Hiser Aug. 21, 1894 1,795,435 Melzer Mar. 10, 1931 935,056 Rheubottom et a1.' Sept. 28, 1909 1,164,828 Luria Dec. 2 1, 1915- 820,026 Stokes May 8, 1906 1,070,467 Heggen Aug. 19, 1913 2,141,100 Warden Dec. 20, 1938 2,198,997 Hickey Apr.'30, 1940 7 1,903,536 Skinner Apr. 11,1933 2,107,962 Sheasb y Feb. 8, 1938 975,996 Reed Nov. 15, 1910 2,328,047 Anderson 1 Aug; 31, 1943 FOREIGN PATENTS Number 7 Country Date 822,645 France Sept. 27, 1937 406,994 France Dec. 20, 1909 543,836 Britain NOV. 29, 1940 456,579 France Aug. 29, 1913 5 Sweden July 6, 1895 France Jan. 5, 1934

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Classifications
U.S. Classification5/627, 5/628
International ClassificationA61G1/003
Cooperative ClassificationA61G1/003
European ClassificationA61G1/003