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Publication numberUS2418080 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 25, 1947
Filing dateApr 21, 1943
Priority dateApr 21, 1943
Publication numberUS 2418080 A, US 2418080A, US-A-2418080, US2418080 A, US2418080A
InventorsAndrew John P, Charles Ledin
Original AssigneeAndrew John P, Charles Ledin
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Removable cylinder
US 2418080 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

March 25, 1947. LEDIN T 2,418,080

REMOVABLE CYLINDER Filed April 21, 1943 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 CW4; 70 BY 0% W ATTORNEY c. LEDIN ETAL 2,418,080

REMOVABLE CYLINDER March 25, 1947.

Filed April 21, 1945 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 &

1 A m J/ 9 7 March 25, 1947. c. LEDlN ETAL 2,418,080

REMOVABLE CYLINDER W Filed April 21, 1945 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 ATTORNEY w V .m

Patented Mar. 25, 1947 OFFICE 2,418,080 I REMOVABLE CYLINDER Charles .Ledin, 1 Stamford, (161111;, andJohn P.

' Andrew, New Rochelle, N.

Application April 21, 1943., Serial No; 483,830

21 Claims. 1

This invention relates to a lock of the type in which a lock core is mounted within a core housin'g, the lock core being readily removable from the housing upon operation of certain key controlled mechanism. More particularly, this invention relates to a lock core and housing of the type discussed in the applications of Johnstone, Serial No. 474,805, filed February 5, 1943, and Serial 474,806, filed February 5, 1943, which have become Patent Numbers 2,391,832 and 2,391,833, respectively, dated December 25, 1945.

As one feature of our invention, we utilize tumblers mounted within the core for controlling directly; the removal of thelock core from the core housing. In this manner we distinguish from the Johnstone applications in which the tumblers control retaining mechanism and through the said retaining mechanism control the removal of the lock core from thecoreho'using.

It is a further feature of our invention that both locking and retaining tumblers are mounted in the lock core of our new lock, and both are set simultaneously by a key in the key way of the key plug, of the lock core. As a further feature of the invention the retaining tumblers are preferably set through the locking tumblers.

A further feature of our invention resides in the arrangement of the tumblers so that when the retaining tumblers are moved into release position, the locking tumblers remain in locking position, while when the locking tumblers are moved into release position theretaining tumblers are manitained in looking position.

Still a further feature of our invention presides in means ior'resisting the picking oftheiretainingtumblers into release position. 7

A still further feature of our invention resides in additional means for maintaining the lock core within the lock housing, and with said means being preferably adapted to so hold the lock core within the housing as to relieve the main retaining means or tumblers, where retaining tumblers are used, from any stress that might 'be "applied thereto in ordinary operation. A stillj'iurther feature of our invention resides in thearrangemen-t of the said additional means so that it"is operable by a special form of key that is used also to set the retaining tumblers intorelease position.

Still a further feature of our inventionresides' in the particular type of key utilized for releasing the tumblers and for actuating the additional retainer means.

We have thus described generally the more important'features of our invention i-nf-ordei'"that our 'c'entributionto-the art hieflSi-bhttii rapie ciated and in orderthatthe relation of our invention to the prior art may be better understood.

Naturally, those skilled in the art will readily appreciate upon reading the specification that follows, just how our contribution to the art may be embodied in structures different from that hereinshown. Therefore, it is important that the claims to be granted us shall not be limited to the specific structure we shall show and hereinafter describe.

Referring now to the drawings, 1

Fig. 1 is a vertical section of a-lock housingand lock core embodying our invention. r

Fig. 2 is a horizontal section taken along lines 2 20f Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a section taken along lines 3- 3 of Fig. 1 1

Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 1 but illustrates the retaining tumblers set in position to allow removal of the lock core from the core housing. Fig. 5 is a section taken along lines 5-5 of Fig.4. j

Fig. 6 is a partially cut away view of the front end of the lock core and core housing.

Fig. 7 is an exploded View of certain parts of our invention. I l

Referring now more particularly to the drawingsand especiallyFigs. 1 and 7, the core housing of our invention is designated by reference numeral 18 while the lock core is designated by reference numeral iii. A key plug 12 is mounted for rotation within the lock core ll in the usual way known in the art. A series of tumblers l3 and h tumbler drivers it are mounted within the lock core ll and the key plug l2 in the usual standard manner, it being understood that when a key such as key i5 of Fig. 1 positions the tumblers l3 and drivers [4 with their parting lines coincidental with the periphery of the key plug l2, the key plug 12 may be rotated. The tumblers i3 and drivers I4 areherein called locking tumblersso as to simplify the description that follows.

Mounted withthe core housing In as bestil lustrated in Figsjl and 2, is acam l6 carrying apair of pins ll. These pins l! are adapted to enter longitudinal bores 18 in the key plug -12 when the lock core and key plug are inserted into the core housing ll This'relationship of the'cam [6, the pins H and the key plug [2 is old in the art and is common to removable core cylinders, so tha'tno furtherreference thereto is necessary; Incidentally, the particular time housing 10 herein illustrated is adapted fornight latch open ation and is formed with retainingears I 9 into may enter retainingscrews ill; an" as understood by those skilled in the art, The cam I6 is shown as adapted for cooperation with a connecting oar 2i, also, as is standard in this art.

The drivers l4 and the tumbler pins is forming the locking tumblers, are adapted for sliding movement in vertical bores 25 of the lock core II. A series of vertical slots 25 are formed in the lock core ll, one slot passing preferably vertically and diametrically through each of the bores 25. Mounted in each of the slots 25 is an H shaped retaining tumbler 21, the surface 28 of which is adapted to lie against the upper SUP-1. face I la of each of the drivers l4. Naturally, the

portions 29 of the H shaped tumbler-s 21 cooperate with the slots 26 to maintain the tumblers against lateral cocking movement.

Against the surfaces at of the several tumblers 21 there are applied a series of pressure tumblers 3| slotted at 32 so as to house substantially all of the bar portions 21a of tumblers 2?. A series of springs .34 are mounted within the bores 25 and press against the pressure tumblers 35 in a manher which is quite apparent from the drawings. A spring plate 35,formed of sheet metal and shaped as best seen in Fig. 3 may be applied over the lock core to retain the springs 35 in position. The inwardly bent portions 36 of the plate 35 act tomaintain the plate 35 in retaining position.

Each of the H shaped tumblers 2'! is formed with a retaining shoulder 31 that extends outwardly of the lock core as best illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3. For coaction with the retaining shoulders '31, the core housing is formed with a series of retaining lugs 38 relatively to which the retaining shoulders 31 may slide. It is of course obvious that in the position of the parts in Figs. 1, 2 and 3, the loci: core II will be maintained within the; core housing ID by the series of retaining shoulders 3! because of their relation to the; retaining lugs 38. A slot or gating All is formed in the core housing l0, passing longitudinally of the core housing through each of the retaining lugs'38. It is of course obvious that if the retaining shoulders 31 are aligned with the slot 40, the lock core may readily be moved from its position of Fig. 2 out of the core housing and into its position of Fig. '7, unless prevented by other means. The relationship of the tumbler retaining shoulders 31 to the retaining lugs 38 and slot is one that is known in the art as a fence and gating relationship. It is obvious that it can readily be reversed by the forming of the tumblers with gatings or slots such as slot 55, and by placing the fences or shoulder Sl on the core housing It. The claims appended to this application must of course be considered as covering either,- combination, since they are entirely equivalent.

For aligning the several H tumblers 21 so as to position their retaining shoulders 31 in alignment with the slot 40, a special removal key 35 is utilized, this key being shown in Figs. 2, 4 and 5. Those skilled in the art will understand that the key will function through the locking tumblers l3, 14 to position the retaining tumblers 2'! against the force of the several springs 35 into the positionof Figs. 4' and 5. In those figures the several retaining shoulders 31 are aligned with the slot 40, and so far as the retaining tumblers are concerned, the lock core I I may be removed from the core housing. This setting of the tumblers may readily be distinguished from the setting of the tumblers by the key l5 by comparing Figs. e and 5 with Figs. 1 and 3. In Figs. 1 and 3 the lockins tumbl r 3. 4 h v b s t o their p tieslines are in alignmentwith the key plug l2. It is obvious that in this position of the parts, the key plug i2 is readily rotatable relatively to the look core H. It is also obvious that the several retaining tumblers are positioned in Figs. 1 and 3 with their retaining shoulders 31 out of alignment, with the slot 40 so that the lock core H is retained within the core housing 10. In other words, when the locking tumblers are in release position the retaining tumblers are held in retaining position, as is seen from Fig. 3. In' the reverse sense, whenthe retaining tumblers are moved into a release position as in Figs. 4 and 5, the locking tumblers l3, I4 are in locking position and the key plug is held against any rotation whatsoever relatively to the lock core II.

It is highly desirable in a lock of the class described, that the retaining tumblers resist picking, and also, that no pressure be applied against those tumblers to hinder their free movement when the locking tumblers are being'operated by the usual key l5. Thus, those skilled in the art will appreciate that if the shoulders 31 were to bear normally against the retaining lugs 38, in either of the fence and gating relationship discussed earlier, there would be considerable resistance to the operation of the several tumblers, including the locking tumblers, by the operating key I 5. In order to relieve the retaining tumblers of stress, we utilize an additional retainer in the form of a, pin whose action is best illustrated in Figs. 1, 2 and 6. This retaining pin is designated by reference numeral 50 and is spring pressed by a spring 6i outwardly of a bore 62 formed in the frontend of the lock core II. For facilitating manufacture, the front end of the lock core-l i, designated by reference numeral 63 in Figs. 1, 2 and 6, is made as a part separate from lock core l l, and preferably in the manner of a scalp. It is then assembled to the lock core II to form an integral part thereof. If desired, however, part 63 may be made integral with the lock core ll, all as is'apparent'to those skilled in the art. The upper end of the retaining pin 60 as seen in Fig. 2, is formed for entry into a retaining slot 64 in the core housing It! best illustrated in Fig. 7. It is the function of the retaining pin 6!! to retain the'lock corell within the core housing l0, and with the several retaining tumblers 2! held with their retaining shoulders 31 spaced from the retaining lugs 38 of the core housing.

A pin 65 best illustrated in Fig. 6, limits the throw of the retaining pin 50 by its spring 6|. A small hole 66 is formed in the front portion 63 of the lock core I I so that access may be had to a slot 51 in the retaining pin 60 to retract the pin 60 from retaining position. Special key 45 is formed as is best illustrated in Figs. 2 and 4 with a slotted lug 68 adapted to enter the hole 66 of the front 63 of the lock core. The head 69 of the lug 68 is adapted to move the retaining pin- 60 out of the slot 64 in the core housing I5, and the bitted blade of key 45 sets the several retaining tumblers into the position of Figs. 4 and 5. A slight movement of the key 45 in the keyway in which it fits somewhat freely will cause the taining position by the bitted portion of key 55 as described. It is well to note that the feature of an additional retaining means 'is'of importance even in those locks where'tumber controlled retainers are used rather 'than'the dire'ctly retaining'tumblers of'this application.

Those skilled in the ar't will now of course appreciatethat solongas retaining pin 60*functions to retain'the lock core within the core housing, there will be no stress "against the retaining tumblers '27. Those desiringto pick the'lock will first move the retaining pin "60 out of retaining position whereupon considerable stress may -be applied against the several retaining tumblers 21 merely by an outw'ardpull on the lock core H, the retaining shoulders '31 of the tumblers being then applied against the several "retaining "lugs 38. With the parts in *thisposition, it w'illbepossible to manipulate the retaining tumblers 21 in an attempt to align them relatively to the release slot '40. In order to prevent such'manipul'ation, we serrate the surfaces of the shoulders 31 as best illustrated at 37a in Figs. 3 and 5, and "we similarly serrate the retaining surfaces 'of the several retaining lugs 38 as shown at 38a. It is obvious that if endwise pressure is applied now between the surfaces 31a and 38a, those serrated surfaces will prevent manipulation of the tumblers. In this way, our lock is maintained pick resisting to avery high degree. Thisserration of the "tumblers andlugs will'of course bethe same regardless of which fence and gating combination is used.

'We believe that the construction andoper'ation of our invention will now be quite apparent to those skilled in the art.

We now claim:

"1. :In a lock of the class-described, a housing, a lock core 'mounted'in said housing and adapted for removal therefrom, a key plug movably mounted in said vlook core and having a keyway, a series of tumblers movablymounted in said lock core and adapted to be set :by a key in saidkey Way, and means in said housing cooperabl'e with parts of said tumblers for preventing removal -'of said lockcore from said'housing.

'2. In a lock of the class described, a housing, a lock core mounted in saidhousing and adapted for removal therefrom, a key plug movably mounted in said lock 'core and having a key way, a series oftumblers movably m'ounted in said lock core and adapted to be set by 'a keyin said 'key way, surfaces formed as a part of said housing cooperable with surfaces -'of said tumblers for preventing removal of said lock core from said housing, said tumblers being adapted for alignment .by a key intopredeterminedrelation to said lock core'andthe surfaces of said housing whereby to permit removal of said lock core.

3. In a lock of the class described, a housing, a lock core mounted in saidh'ousing and adapted for removal therefrom, a series :of spaced tumblers movably mounted in said lock core and adapted to be set by'a key,.'surfa;ces of said tumblers lying in juxtaposed relation to a "series of spaced surfaces onsaid housing wh'erebyto .obstruct removal of said lock core from said housing, said surfaces being shaped so that aipredetermined setting of said tumblers will align the said surfaces in unobstructing relati'on 'to allow removal of said lock core from said'housing.

4. In a look of the class described, a housing, a lock core mounted insaidLhOusing andadapted for removal therefrom, a series of springpressed tumblers movably mounted'in said lock core and adapted for setting bya key against the pressure 6 of said springs, and an independent nbstru'cting surfaoemn said housing cooper'a'ble with each of said tumblers for pr'even'ting removal "of said lock core from said housing.

5F1n a lock or the class described, a housing, a lock c'or'e mounted in said housing and adapted for-removal therefrom, a key plug movable :in said leek-core and having a -key'w'ay key settumblers for locking said keyiplug against unlocking movement relatively to saidlockcore adapted -to be positioned by a key in the key way of said key plug to "releas said key plug, retaining tumblers movably mounted in a said lock core and adapted to be moved bysaid key set tumblers when said key set tumblers "are being key set, and surfaces formed as apart-of said housing cooperable with surfaces of said retaining tumblers for preventing removal of *said lock core from said housing, said retaining tumblers being adapted for alignment by a'key'into predetermined relation to said lock core and housing so that said surfaces no longer are positioned relatively to one another to prevent removal of said'lo'ckcore.

"'6. Ina "lockof the class described, a housing, a lock core mounted in said housing and adapted for removal therefrom,-akey plug movableiin'said lock core, locking tumblers for locking said key plug against unlocking movement relatively to said lock c'ore, retaining tumblers movably mounted in said lock core, said retaining and locking tumblers being movable simultaneously by-akey in'saidkeywamand surfaces formed as a part of *said housing cooperable with surfaces of said'retaining tumblers 'for reventing removal of said'lock core from said housing, said-tumblers being adapted for alignment by akey into predetermined relation'to said lock core andhousing so that saidsurfa'ces no'longer'are positioned relatively-to one-anotherto prevent removal of said lock core.

*7. In a lo'ckof the class described,a housing, a lock core mounted in said housing and adapted for removal therefrom, --a key plug movable in said lock core, tumblers mounted for movement relatively to said lock "core and key plug and adapted to "be positioned-by a key in the key way of said key'plug for releasing said key plug for rotation, and'surfaces formed as a part of said housing coopera-ble with surfaces of certain of said tumblers for preventing removal of said lock core from said housing, said tumblers being adapted for'alignment by a key into predetermined relation to said lock core and housing so that said surfaces n'o'longer are positioned relatively to one another to prevent removal-of said lock core.

8. In a lock of the class'desc'ribed, a housing, a lock core mounted in said housing and adapted for-removal therefrom, akey plug movablein said lock *core, locking tumblers for locking said key plug against unlocking movement relatively to said lock core adapted to be positioned by a key in the key way of said key plug to'release said key plug-for movement in said lock core, retaining tumblers 'movably'mounted in said lock core and adapted to be moved "by said locking tumblers when'said locking tumblers are being key set, surfaces "formed as apart of said housing cooperable with "surfaces of said retaining tumblers for preventing removal of said lock core from said housing, said tumblers being adapted for alignment by a key into predetermined relation to said lock oore and housing so that said surfaces no longer are positioned relatively to one another to'prevent removal of :s'aid lock core, said retainlng'and locking tumblers being so formed that when said locking, tumblers release the key plug for 'rotation in said lock core-said retaining tumblers are in retaining ,position,,and when said retaining tumblers are out of -retaining position said locking tumblers are in locking position,

9. In alock of the class described," a housing, a lock core mounted in said housing andadapted for removal therefrom, a key plug in said lock core having a, key way, a series of tumblers movably mounted in said lock core, means;positioned between said tumblers and said key way and adapted to be set by akey in the key way whereby to set said tumblers, and mean in said housing cooperable with parts of said tumblers for preventing removal of said lock-core from said housing- Y 10. In a lock of the class described, a housing, a lock core mounted in said housing and adapted for removal therefrom, a key controlled element movably mounted in said lock core, means in said housing cooperable with a part of said key con trolled element for preventing removal of said lock core from said housing, and additional means for maintaining said lock core in said housing with said key controlled element spaced from the means in said housing.

11. In a lock of the class described, a housing, a' lock core mounted in said housing and adapted forremoval therefrom, a series of tumblers movably mounted in said lock core, means whereby said tumblers controlthe removal of said lock core from said housing, and additional retaining means 1 for maintaining said lock core in said housing independently of saidmean controlled by said tumblers. v I Y 12. In a lock of the class described, ahousing, a lock core mounted in said-housing and adapted for removal therefrom, a series of tumblers movably mounted in said lock core and adapted to be set by a key, surfaces formed as a part of said housing cooperable with surfaces of said tumblers for preventing removal of said lock core from said housing, saidtumblers being adapted foralignment by a key into predetermined relation to said lock core and housing so that said surfaces no longer are positioned relatively to one another to prevent removal of said lock core, andmeans for maintaining said lock core-in said housing with the surfaces of said tumblers spaced from the surfaces of said housing. v 13. In a lock of the class described, a housing a lock core mounted in said housing and adapted for removal therefrom, a key plug in said lock core having a key Way, a series of tumblers movably mounted in said lock core and adapted to be set by a key in said key way, surfaces of said tumblers lying in juxtaposed relation to surfaces of said housing whereby to obstruct removal of said lock core from said housing, and means for maintaining said lock core in said housing with the surfaces of said tumblers spaced from the surfaces of said housing.

14. In a lock of the class described, a housing, a lock core mounted in said housing and adapted for removal therefrom, a series of tumblers movably mounted in said lo'ck core and adapted to be set by a key, surfaces of said-tumblers adapted for cooperation with surfaces in said housing to. obstruct removal of said lock score from said housing, and means for maintaining said lock core in said housing in a position wherein said tumblers are free of said surfaces and are adapted for free movement bythe key.- 15. In a lock of;the classdescribed, a housing,-

a-lo'ck "core mounted in said housing and adapted forremoval therefrom, a series of tumblers movably'mounted in said lock core and adapted to be set bya key, surfaces of said tumblers adapted to obstruct removal of said lock core from said housing, and means for maintaining said lock core in said housing in a position wherein said tumblers are free of said housing and are adapted for free movement by the key, said tumblers being serrated so that if they contact the housing they are prevented from free movement.

16'. In a lock of the class described, a housing, a'lock core mounted in said housing and adapted for removal therefrom, a series of tumblers movably mounted in said lock core and adapted to be set by a key, surfaces of said tumblers lying in juxtaposed relation to surfaces within said housing whereby to obstruct removal of said lock core from said housing, said surfaces being shaped so that a predetermined setting of said tumblers will align the said surfaces in unobstructing relation to allowremoval of said lock core from said housing, the said surfaces being formed so that when they are in contact movement of said tumblers will be inhibited, and means for maintaining said lock core in said housing with the surfaces of said tumblers spaced from the surfaces within said housing.

17. In a lock of the class described, a housing, a lock core mounted in said housing and adapted for removal therefrom, a series of tumblers movably mounted in said lock core and adapted to be set by a. key, surfaces of said tumblers lying in juxtaposed relation to surfaces of said housing whereby to obstruct removal of said lock core from said housing, said surfaces being shaped so that a predetermined setting of said tumblers will align the said surfaces in unobstructing relation to allow removal of said lock core from said hous ing, and the said'surfaces bein formed so that when they are in contact movement of said tumblers will be inhibited.

18. In a lock of the class described,.ahousing, a lock core mounted in said housing and adapted for removal therefrom, a series of tumblers movably mounted in said lock'core, means in said housing cooperable with parts of said tumblers for preventing removal of said lock core from said housing, and additional means for maintaining said lock core in said housing with said tumblers spaced from the means in said housing, said lock core having an opening through which said additional means are readily moved out of retaining position. s

19. In a lock of the class described, a housing, a lock core mounted in said housing and adapted for'removal therefrom, a key plug movable in said lock core, aligned bores in, said key plug and lock core in communication with a key way in said key plug, pin tumblers in said aligned bores, and plate tumblers mounted in vertical slots in said lock core parallel to said alignedbores, means whereby said plate tumblers are movable with said pin tumblers, and surfaces of said plate tumblers cooperable with surfaces of said housing for obstructing removal of said lock core from said housing. I

V 20., In a, lock of the class described, a housing,

a lock core mounted in said housing and adapted for removal therefrom, a key plug in said lock core having a key way, a series of tumblers movably mounted on said lock core and adapted to be set by a key in thekey way of said key plug, means in said housingcooperable with parts of said tumblers for preventing removal of said lock core from said housing, additional means for retaining said lock core in said housing with said tumblers spaced from the means in said housing, said lock core having a forward opening through which said additional means are readily moved out of retaining position, and a key for said lock core having a surface for setting said tumblers and a portion adapted to enter said opening to move said additional means.

21. In a lock of the class described, a housing, a lock core mounted in said housing and adapted for removal therefrom, a key plug movable in said lock core, aligned bores in said key plug and lock core in communication with a key way in said key plug, pin tumblers in said aligned bores, plate tumblers mounted in vertical slots in said lock core parallel and diametrically traversing said aligned bores, means whereby said plate tumblers are movable with said pin tumblers, a series of surfaces formed on said housing and adapted to lie in obstructing relation to portions of the said plate tumblers to prevent movement of said lock core outwardly of said housing, springs pressing said plate tumblers into a predetermined obstructing relation to said series of surfaces, and said tumblers being movable by a key in said key way out of said obstructing relation to release the lock core for removal.

CHARLES LEDIN.

JOHN P. ANDREW.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,487,307 Best Mar. 18, 1924 1,914,639 Hurd June 20, 1933 2,083,859 North June 15, 1937 1,984,202 Shinn Dec. 11, 1934 1,908,672 Jacobi May 9, 1933

Patent Citations
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3630053 *Apr 1, 1970Dec 28, 1971Krakauer Edwin GSafety lock
US4444034 *Jul 16, 1981Apr 24, 1984Best Lock CorporationPull-resistant lock core
US5136869 *Mar 29, 1991Aug 11, 1992Best Lock CorporationHigh security key and cylinder lock assembly
US5272895 *May 29, 1992Dec 28, 1993Best Lock CorporationHigh security key and cylinder lock assembly
US6076386 *Mar 20, 1997Jun 20, 2000Australian Lock Company Pty Ltd.Removable plug lock
US6578396 *May 6, 2002Jun 17, 2003Medeco Security Locks, Inc.Removable cylindrical lock core
US7634930Oct 6, 2005Dec 22, 2009Strattec Security CorporationLock apparatus and method
EP1063371A2 *Jun 21, 2000Dec 27, 2000Kaba Gege GmbHLock cylinder
WO1992017669A1 *Mar 27, 1992Sep 30, 1992Best Lock CorpCylinder lock assembly
WO1997036072A1 *Mar 20, 1997Oct 2, 1997Australian Lock CoRemovable plug lock
Classifications
U.S. Classification70/369, 70/408
International ClassificationE05B27/04, E05B27/00, E05B9/08, E05B9/00
Cooperative ClassificationE05B9/086, E05B9/084
European ClassificationE05B9/08C, E05B9/08C2