|Publication number||US2420983 A|
|Publication date||May 20, 1947|
|Filing date||May 12, 1945|
|Priority date||May 12, 1945|
|Publication number||US 2420983 A, US 2420983A, US-A-2420983, US2420983 A, US2420983A|
|Inventors||Leroy L Salfisberg|
|Original Assignee||Ivers Lee Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (74), Classifications (15)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
l.. L.. sALFlsBERG 2,420,983
METHOD OF AND MACHINE FOR PACKAGING May 20, 1947.
5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed May l2, 1945 IN VEN TOR.
18g/ROY L. Smflsise,
May 20, 1947 l.. L.. sALFlsBERG 2,420,983
METHOD OF AND MACHINE FOR PACKAGING Filed May l2, 1945 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENToR. LEROY L. SHLFSERG,
Arm/MH( May 20, 1947- L. SALFISBERG 2,420,933
METHOD OF AND MACHINE FOR PACKAGING Filed May 12, 1945 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 l IN VENTOR.
,f- LUQY LHLFISBERGL( ATTOHNEK Y May 20, 1947- L.. L. sALFlsBERG METHOD OF AND MACHINE FOR PACKAGING Filed May 12, 1945 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR. :LEROY L. SQLFISBERQ,
' A T TU/FIVEY May 20, 1947 L. L. sALFxsBERG 2,420,983
METHOD OF AND MACHINE FOR PACKAGING Filed May 12, 1945 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 LERg( L. SRLFISERG,
Patented May 20, 1947 UNITED STATES PAET Price METHOD OF AND MACHINE FOR PACKAGING tion Gf Delaware Application May 12, 1945, Serial No. 593,429
This invention relates in general to the art of packaging, particularly th'e packaging of fluent materials, such as pastes, namely, cold creams and suppositories, or liquids, namely, oils and hand lotions, or powder, and more specically the invention contemplates a package of the type which includes opposed layers of relatively thin packaging material sealed together in certain zones which form the boundaries of a compartment or chamber between said layers to receive the material being packaged.
One object of the invention is to provide a novel and improved meth'od of making a package which shall be of said general character but shall have a compartment or chamber of irregular shape or of widely varying cross-sectional area, at diierent points, for example of the shape of a suppository.
Another object is to provide a package of the general character described which shall include novel and improved features of construction such that all air shall be excluded from said ch'amber or compartment, the package shall be tightly sealed against leakage of the contents and at the same time the Walls of the package may yield or expand to compensate for pressure on the Walls of the chamber during iilling of the chamber or during handling of the package or as the result expansion of the packaged material under heat, so as to reduce the possibility of rupturing of the package walls or weakening of the sealed Zones.
Still another object is to provide such a package that shall include novel and improved features of construction whereby the package can be easily opened for removal of the packaged material.
Another object is to provide a machine for packaging fluent material and embodying novel and improved features of construction for forming a tube of opposed strips of ductile material, depositing in the tube fluent material to be packaged and transversely pressing together the walls of the tube at zones spaced longitudinally of the tube so as to form and bound compartments of predetermined shape and volume each' completely filled with the material being packaged, and sealing said strips together in areas surrounding said pressed zones.
A further object is to provide a machine of this character which shall include compensating means for pressing the layers of packaging material to form the chamber for the material being packaged and to prevent wrinkling at the edges of the formed chamber to reduce th'e possibility of tearing of the package layers during formation of the chamber and during handling of the package, as Well as under expansion of the packaged material under heat.
Still another object is the provision of a practical machine for feeding strips of ductile material, crimping the material and automatically attaching the strips together along the predetermined line or lines.
10 Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the description thereof to follow taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which- Figure 1 is an elevational sectional view of a machine embodying one form of the invention.
Figure 2 is a vertical sectional view taken on the plane of the line 2-2 of Figure 1, parts being broken away.
Figure 3 is an enlarged fragmentary detail View of the die rollers. y
Figure 4 is a detail View showing the development of the packages in chain formation in accordance with the invention.
Figure 5 is an enlarged plan view of one form of package made in accordance with the invention.
Figure 6 is a sectional view taken on the plane of the line 6-6 of Figure 5.
Figure '7 is a sectional view taken on the plane of the line 1-1 of Figure 5.
Figure 8 is an enlarged plan View of another modied form of package made in accordance with the invention.
Figure 9 is a sectional View taken on the plane of the line 9-9 of Figure 8.
Figure 10 is a sectional View taken on the plane of the line IU-l of Figure 8.
Figure 1l is an enlarged plan view of still another modified form of package made in accordance with the present invention.
Figure l2 is a longitudinal sectional view of a machine embodying a modied form of the invention.
Figure 13 is a sectional view taken on the plane of the line l3|3 of Figure 12.
Figure 14 is a sectional view taken on the plane of the line I4-l 4 of Figure 13.
Figure l5 is a detail View showing the development of packages in chain formation made in accordance with the form of the invention shown in Figure 12.
Figure 16 is an enlarged plan view of a package made in accordance with the form of the invention shown in Figure l2.
Figure 17 is a sectional view taken on the plane of the line I I--I 'I of Figure 16.
Figure 18 is a sectional view taken on the plane of the line IB--I8 of Figure 16.
Referring to the particular form of the invention shown in Figures 1 and 2 of the drawings, rolls I and 2 of ductile packaging material are rotatably supported on the frame 3 of the machine. The material is preferably coated metal foil but it may be any other suitable packaging material such as transparent thermoplastic coated Cellophane and the like. The rolls I and 2 supply ribbons or webs 4 and 5, respectively, of material which are led upwardly over introductory idler pulleys or rollers E and respectively, disposed on opposite sides of inlet and outlet pipes or tubes 8 and 9, respectively, which lead to a liquid reservoir (not shown).
After passing over the rollers 6 and 7, the ribbons 4 and 5 are fed upon opposite sides of the ends of the pipes B and 9 so as to pass between longitudinal edge-sealing rollers Ill and I I. The roller I is mounted on a shaft I2 extending from the machine frame and roller I I is mounted on a bearing member I3 pivotally mounted on a shaft I4 supported on the frame, said bearing member having a downwardly projecting extension I5. The rollers I0 and II have peripheral crimping'portions or spaces I6 adjacent opposite ends thereof as may be seen in Figure 2. As shown in Figure 1, these edge-sealing and crimping portions on both rollers mutually engage to forcibly interdigitate the edges of the ribbons 4 and as indicated at I'I. These crimping rollers are provided with internal electrical heating elements for applying heat in suillcient quantities to fuse the thermoplastic coatings on the ribbons 4 and 5 and provide a complete fluid seal. This sealing of the edges of the ribbons converts said ribbons into a tubular package structure surrounding the pipe 8 and 9, the tubular structure being directed between further crimping, scoring, shaping and severing devices.
Means are provided for transversely sealing and scoring the tubular structure at spaced intervals. Such means includes a pair of sealing and scoring rollers |8 and I9. Rollei' I8 is mounted on a shaft 20 extending from the machine frame and roller I9 is mounted on a bearing member 2| pivotally mounted on a shaft 22 supported on the frame. Bearing member 2| is provided with an integral extension 23 projecting upwardly. Rollers I8 and I9 have spaced peripheral crimping portions or spaces 24 and 25 for mutual complementary mechanical engagement as the rollers are rotated in opposite directions. Interposed between said crimped surfaces 24 and 25 are knives 26. The rollers are provided with internal electrical heating elements for applying heat in sufficient quantities to fuse the coatings on the ribbons 4 and 5. When the crimped portions are mutually engaged as shown in Figure 1, the tubular structure is pressed together and the opposed walls thereof are forcibly interdigitated by virtue of the crimped deformations as indicated at 27 and 28 in Figure 4, and at the same time the material is scored transversely by the knives as indicated at 29 and the thermoplastic material on the walls of the tubular structure is fused so as to form a complete iiuid tight transverse seal which, with the edge seals, provides a rectangular shaped package 30.
From the rollers I8 and I9, the webs advance between a pair of dies in the form of rollers 3| and 32. Roller 3| is fastened to a shaft 33 supported on the frame and roller 32 is supported by a bearing member 34 which is pivotally mounted on a shaft 35 extending from the frame and which has an upwardly projecting extension 35. The rollers 3| and 32 are formed with a series of peripheral spaced transverse semi-circular grooved portions 31 between their end walls 3B. Floatingly and rockingly mounted in the grooves 3l are semi-circular shaped die members 39, said die members being provided with stub shafts 40 at their ends adapted to slidingly nt in curved slots 4I formed in the faces of the end walls 38. The die members are formed with longitudinally disposed grooves 42 in their nat-faced portions 39, said grooves being substantially semi-circular in cross section and having tapered walls. The flat-faced portions have crimping surfaces or spaces for mutual complementary mechanical engagement as the rollers are rotated. Upon rotation of the rollers 3| and 32 in opposite directions, the die members 39 swing and rock bodily in the grooves, the slot and shaft connections permitting this movement, but upon coming into engagement with each other said die members automatically adjust themselves bodily so that the face portions thereof meet and engage whereby the opposed walls of the tubular structure are pressed together over the entire surface thereof except opposite the groove portions 42. At the same time, the material is gathered longitudinally and transversely of the webs above and below the grooved portions as indicated at 43 to form central elongated compartments or chambers 44 into which the fluid is forced by the compression of the walls. The transverse scoring permits the webs 4 and 5 to be torn so as to insure adequate free material to form the compartments and to compensate for said gathering of the material along the boundaries of the compartments, and thereby prevent rupturing of the material in the package walls.
The rollers Ill and II, IB and I9 and 3| and 32 may be provided with mea-ns for eiecting fine adjustments of their relative positions and for regulating the pressure of the rollers upon the material. As shown in Figure 1, a bracket member 45 is cast on the frame and is vertically disposed between the bearing members I3 and 2! for the rollers II and I9 so that it overlaps the extensions I5 and 23. At its upper end, the bracket is split and supports an adjusting screw bolt 41 adapted to engage the extension I5 for adjusting the roller II toward and from the roller I0, a cap screw 43 being provided to clamp the screw 4'! in adjusted position.
Roller I9 is adjustab'ly spring pressed toward the roller I8 by means of a screw bolt 48 passing loosely through the extension 23 and engaging screw threads on 4the bracket 45 and held in adjusted position by a cap screw 45a, and a spring 48a. interposed between the extension and the bracket.
Roller 32 is adjusted toward and from the roller 3| by a screw bolt 50 supported by a bracket member 5| fastened to the frame and which bolt is adapted to engage the extension 36.
At the bottom of the line of travel of the tube structure, severing mechanism is provided for cutting off the formed packages in single units. This severing mechanism comprises a pair of rollers 52 and 53 provided with spaced grooved portions 54 to receive the formed compartment 44 and with radial slots 55 between said grooved portions. The radial slots 55 in roller 53 seat blades 56 enclosed in rubber sleeves 57 with their edges protruding slightly beyond the periphery of the roller. The rollers 52 and 53 are mounted on shafts 58 and 59, respectively, extending from the machine frame and upon rotation of the rollers, the material, at the joints between the formed packages, along the scoring lines of the unseparated portions, is pressed by the rubber covered blades into the slots 55 in roller 52 and stretched to the breaking point, the severed package falling into a hopper or the like not shown The rollers IIJ and ll, 52 and 53 are driven by a shaft ship.
Any suitable arrangement may be utilized for ejecting liquid or fluid into the tubular packaging structure, for example, a forcing injection pump system may be used for injecting a measured quantity of fluid into and through the tube 8 at a predetermined time. Again Where the iiuid constitutes a finely divided substance such as powder, the pipes 8 and 9 can be connected with a powder containing chamber having a measuring cavity and a release closure therefor, the release closure being operated at timed intervals by a cam driven in timed relation with the other movable parts of the `mechanism so that each formed package is lled with the powder prior to its closure.
In the operation of the system, the fluid from the reservoir is fed through and down pipe 8 into the tubular structure formed by the ribbons 4 and 5 longitudinally sealed together along their edges by rollers Il) and Il. The iiuid fed into the tubular structure produces a standing column of fluid of a level 'determined by the level of the fluid in the reservoir. The transverse sealing rollers I8 and I9 operate to act through the standing column of fluid and permanently heat seal together the tubular structure in spaced areas to provide individual fluid containing package units joined together in chain package formation. The die rollers 3l and 32 press the walls of the material together under cold pressure and shape the chambers M by gathering the material longitudinally of the webs and simultaneously forcing the fluid into said chambers. When passing through the rollers 52 and 53, the blades 55 sever the tubular structure at the transverse seals so as to divide the chain into individual fluid containing packages.
A special advantage of the invention is that the rollers, in sealing the package tubular structure acting through the standing column of liquid, make it possible to provide fluid package units without occluded air. That is, the package material is formed directly around the fluid without any possibility of undesirable air bubbles or the like, as such air bubbles usually have a very deleterious effect upon the contained commodity.
Another advantage of the invention is that only the interdigitated portions l1, 21 and 28 are heat sealed, the remainder of the compressed area of the package surrounding the chamber being cold pressed together thereby providing a safety expansion area whereby the layers of material may spread apart slightly permitting the fluid to eX- pand when the chamber is being filled or when pressure is exerted on said chamber in use. cold pressed area also permits the material to be easily torn for opening the package. Furthermore this cold pressure feature also permits the chamber lll to be formed Without wrinkling or tearing of the packaging material and allows the I8 and I9, 3l and 32 and mechanically intergeared and (not shown) in timed relation- The material to be freely gathered so as to produce chambers of unusual and irregular shapes.
The present invention also contemplates oifsetting the end edges of the webs of material from each other so that a package such as shown in Figures 5 and '1 is obtained. In this package the margins are heat sealed and the edge Bl of the web 4 projects slightly beyond the edge 62 of the web 5 at the left of the package as shown in Figure '1, Whereas the edge 63 of the web 5 projects slightly beyond the edge 64 of the web 4 at the right of the package. This permits the offset edges to be grasped by the fingers and the walls of the package readily separated for opening the package.
The modied form of package B5 shown in Figures 8 to 10, inclusive, may also be produced in accordance with the present invention. To produce this for-m of package, one of the webs, for instance, web 4, is wider than the web 5 so that its edges 56 extend beyond the edges 51 of the web 5 to facilitate grasping by the fingers. In this form, the package is heat sealed at spaced spots around the chamber 44, as indicated at 68, as well as at the edges.
In Figure 11 still another modified form of package 69 produced by the present invention is In this particular form, the material of the package may be notched as indicated at 10 along one of the short edges of the package to initiate tearing of the package along a line passing through the cold pressed Zone, whereby the package may be readily opened.
Still another modified form of package is shown in Figures 16 to 18, inclusive, in which the webs and 5 are cold pressed together between the chamber lill and the heat sealed margin 1| at one end thereof, as indicated at 12. Notches 13 are formed in opposite edges of the material adjacent one end to facilitate initial tearing of the material for opening.
In the modified form of the invention shown in Figures 12 to 14, inclusive, a machine of the reciprocating type is shown. Here the ribbons or webs i and 5 pass over idler pulleys 6 and 1 and are fed downwardly through the machine by rotatable feed brushes 1d and 15 driven by any suitable means. The ribbons are sufciently wide to pass on opposite sides of spaced pairs of pipes or tube 8 and 9 downwardly between and through crimping devices or blocks 15 and 11. Block 16 is carried by a reciprocating casting or bearing member 18 and block 11 by a similar reciprocating bearing member 19. The blocks are provided at their edges with vertically disposed crimping or corrugating projecting portions 8() and 8l and at their central portions with similar spaced crimping or corrugating portions 82 and 83. These crimping portions are adapted to mutually engage to forcibly interdigitate the edges of the ribbons as indicated at 84, and intei'digitate the centers as indicated at 85 and 86. A vertically disposed movable perforating knife blade 81 is carried by the block 16 between the central crimping portions 82 and 83 and is spring pressed into engagement with a blade 81a in block 11 by means of plungers 88 and springs 89 mounted in the bearing member 18 for perforating the ribbons lengthwise. Nuts 9U adjust the tension of the springs on the blade. Both of the vertical crimping devices are provided with internal electrical heating elements 9i for heating the crimping portions.
From the vertical crimpers the ribbons pass downwardly between and through devices for crimping the material horizontally and for regulating or controlling the commodity contained The horizontal crimping devices comprise a pair of opposed blocks 92 and 93 carried by the bearing members 18 and 19, respectively. Both blocks 92 and 93 are provided with a plurality of pairs of horizontally disposed projecting crimping or corrugating portions 94 and 95 with a space between the individual crimping portions of each pair. Three pairs of such crimping portions are shown. In the spaces between the individual portions of the pairs of crimping portions on block 92 are movable perforating knife blades 96 and on block 93 in such spaces are fixed blades 91. The movable blades are spring pressed into engagement with the fixed blades by means of plungers 98 and springs 99 mounted in the bearing member 18 for perforating the material horizontally. Nuts are provided to adjust the tension of the springs on the blades. Internal electrical heating elements mounted in both of the blocks 92 and 93 for heating the horizontal crimping portions.
The regulating or controlling apparatus includes a bracket rail |02 fastened to the frame and provided with perforated bearing members |04 extends between and |06 and |01 to and |01 are nuts and ||3 slidable along the bracket rail |02, having threaded connections with right hand and left |l| respectively on the shaft |04 whereby upon turning of said shaft by the knob |05, the nuts will move toward and away from each other thereby moving the bearing sliders |06 and |07 respectively toward and respective sliders |06 and |01 and 93 move apart,
The faces of the blocks are also formed with a plurality Cil such recesses being shown in each block to correspond in number with the three pairs of crimping portions of the horizontal crimpers. The crimping surfaces of these blocks are adapted to mutually engage to forcibly interdigitate the surfaces of the tubular structure as indicated at |20 and the recessed portions are adapted to coact to form chambers |2 each chamber being disposed centrally between the crimped edges of the structure as indicated in Fig. 15. The recesses may be of any desirable shape. In forming the cham- |23 and |24 carried by the bearing members 1'8 and 19 at their bottom ends. Both blocks are formed wit |25 in their faces. Block structure between the chambers |2| into the slots |26 and thereby stretch the material to the breaking point whereby the material is severed horizontally to form individual packages.
Any suitable mechanism may be used for rerespective functions.
The operative face portions of the crimping or cal or horizontal corr'ugations, or they may have pyramldal serrations or any other suitable crimping surface. In some cases said operative face portion may be smooth.
While I have described tain zones of the packages, many cases to heat seal ing material in said zones.
cold pressing cerit may be desirable in the layers of packag- The term ductile material as used hereinbefore and in the appended claims, means material which can be bent or pressed into and will retain a desired shape or contour and the term ductile does not exclude such resiliency, pliability or plasticity which is not inconsistent with the shapeholding qualities of the material.
Changes in details of construction may be resorted to and parts may be used without others within the spirit and scope of the invention.
What I claim is:
1. A machine of the character described cornprising means for feeding strips of ductile material, opposed heated devices having projecting portions for heat sealing the strips along their edges, opposed heated devices having projecting portions for heat sealing said strips transversely at spaced intervals therealong and opposed die members having grooved portions for forming chambers in said strips between said transverse seals and having surfaces for cold pressing said strips between said chambers and the heated sealed portions.
2. A machine of the character defined in claim 1 characterized by means for cutting the strips into single packages.
3. A machine of the character described comprising means for feeding strips of ductile material, opposed heated rollers having projecting crimping portions for heat sealing the strips along their edges, opposed heated rollers having projecting portions for heat sealing said strips transversely at spaced intervals therealong and opposed rollers having grooved portions for forming chambers in said strips between said transverse seals and having surfaces for cold pressing said strips between said chambers and the heated sealed portions.
4l. A machine of the character described in claim 3 characterized by means for cutting the strips into single packages.
5. A machine of the character described comprising means for feeding strips of ductile material, opposed heated rollers having projecting portions for heat sealing the strips along their edges, opposed heated rollers having projecting portions and having perforating blades for heat sealing said strips and for perforating said strips transversely at spaced intervals therealong, respectively, opposed rollers having grooved portions for forming chambers in said strips between said transverse seals and having surfaces for cold pressing said strips between said chambers and the heated sealed portions.
6. A machine of the character described comprising means for feeding strips of ductile material, opposed heated rollers having projecting portions for heat sealing the strips along their edges, means for transversely sealing said strips, means for forming chambers in said strips including rollers carrying floatingly mounted semi-circular die members having grooved portions and face portions bordering said grooved portions adapted to engage the strips and simultaneously form chambers and coldpress the strips between said chambers and the heat sealed portions, and means for severing said strips transversely into single units.
7. A machine of the character described cornprising means for feeding opposed strips of ductile material, opposed rollers for crimping and heat sealing said strips along their edges for forming tubular structure, opposed rollers for simultaneously crimping, heat sealing and perforating said tubular structure horizontally,
means for feeding iiuid into said tubular structure, opposed rollers for simultaneously shaping said tubular structure into chambers and for cold pressing the material around said chambers, and opposed rollers having cutting implements for severing the tubular structure horizontally.
8. A machine of the character described comprising means for feeding opposed strips of ductile material, opposed reciprocating blocks having vertically disposed portions for heat sealing said strips along their edges and centrally thereof for forming a plurality of spaced tubular structures, means for severing said spaced tubular structures longitudinally, means for feeding fluid into said tubular structures, means for heat sealing said tubular structures horizontally, means for forming chambers between said heat sealed portions and for cold pressing the material therebetween, and means for severing said tubular structures horizontally.
9. The process of forming a package consisting of the steps of feeding a pair of opposed strips of ductile material, heat sealing the edges of said strips to form a tubular structure, horizontally sealing said tubular structure at spaced intervals therealong and simultaneously forming a central chamber between the sealed portions of said structure and pressing the strips between said chamber and said sealed portions.
10. The process of forming a package consisting of the steps of feeding a pair of opposed strips of ductile material, heat sealing the edges of said strips to form a tubular structure, horizontally a sealing said tubular structure at spaced intervals therealong, simultaneously forming a central chamber between the sealed portions of said structure and cold pressing the strips between said chamber and said sealed portions and severing the tubular structure horizontally.
11. The process of forming a package consisting of the steps of feeding a pair of opposed strips of ductile material, heat sealing the edges of said strips to form a tubular structure, simultaneously heat sealing and perforating said tubular structure horizontally, feeding fluid into said tubular structure, simultaneously forming a chamber centrally of said tubular structure and pressing the strips between said chamber and the sealed portions of the tubular structure, and severing the tubular structure horizontally.
12. The method of forming a package for nuent material which comprises feeding and sealing opposed layers of ductile web packaging material to form a tubular structure, feeding a uent substance into said structure, externally applying pressure to the portion of said structure that contains said fluent substance and thereby pressing said layers into non-adhering contact with each other in zones which form and bound a compartment between said layers which is lled with said fluent substance, and sealing said layers tightly together in zones in spaced and encircling relation to said compartment.
13. The method of forming a package for fluent material which comprises feeding and sealing opposed layers of ductile web packaging material to form a tubular structure, feeding a fluent substance into said structure, externally applying pressure to the portion of said structure that contains said fluent substance and thereby pressing said layers into non-adhering contact with each other in zones which form and bound a compartment between said layers which is filled with said fluent substance. and sealing said layers and to force said fluent substance thereinto.
15. A packaging machine comprising means for continuously feeding opposed strips of ductile material, means for sealing said strips together in longitudinal zones to form a tubular structure, means for feeding iuent substance into said tubuto form packages fluent material,
each containing some of said means for forming weakened zones in said strips transversely through said transverse sealed zones between adjacent packages, and means for pressing said strips into nonadherent contact said uent substance thereinto whereby said strips may yield at said weakened zones to compensate for the movement of said ductile material during formation of said chambers.
LEROY L. SALFISBERG.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the tile of this patent:
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|DE3126671A1 *||Jul 7, 1981||Mar 25, 1982||Cito Pac Verpackungs Gmbh||Blister pack strip|
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|EP0316850A1 *||Nov 14, 1988||May 24, 1989||Sealed Air Corporation||Apparatus and method for forming foam cushions for packaging purposes|
|EP0370564A1 *||Nov 15, 1989||May 30, 1990||Ireneus Johannes Theodores Maria Pas||Method for packing a measured quantity, of thermosetting resin intended for encapsulating a component, packing obtained using this method, method for operating a mould and mould for carrying out this method|
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|U.S. Classification||53/436, 89/35.1, 206/484, 206/820, 53/451, 53/555, 53/554, 53/479, 264/DIG.370, 53/526|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S264/37, B65B9/023, Y10S206/82|