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Publication numberUS2422685 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 24, 1947
Filing dateMar 27, 1944
Priority dateMar 27, 1944
Publication numberUS 2422685 A, US 2422685A, US-A-2422685, US2422685 A, US2422685A
InventorsKeck George F
Original AssigneeClay Products Ass
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Radiant heating for buildings
US 2422685 A
Abstract  available in
Images(5)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

June 24, 1947.

G. F. KECK RADIANT HEATING FOR BUILDINGS 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed March 27, 1944 INVENTOR.

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FPPPP P P P P P P P P P P P P P PPPPPPPPO! 2 f 4 v v P P P P P P P P P I Y x w ,L ATTORNEY6.

' Mam June 24, 1947.

" 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 .Filed March-27, 1944 INVENT OR. Qeoqge Fliach June 24, 1947. G. F. KECK RADIANT HEATING FOR BUILDINGS Filed March 27, 1944 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTCR. Geo :96 F/[ec/L, Wm *aw ATTORNEY 5 Maw ' June24, 1947. G. F. KECK RADIANT HEATING FOR BUILDINdS Filed March 27, 1944 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 I INVENTOR.

ATTORNEYfi Patented June 24, 1947 2,422,685 RADIANT HEATING FOR BUILDINGS George F. Keck, Chicago, 111., assignor to Clay Products Association, Chicago, 111., a corporation of Illinois Application March 27, 1944, Serial No. 528,384

7 1 This invention has to do with radiant heating for buildings, and is particularly concerned with the construction and arrangement of the various ducts and headers employed in handling the circulation of the heated air or other fluid.

One of the principal objects of the invention.

is to provide, in a radiant heating system, a hollow tile floor structure through which the hot air is circulated in a novel and highly advanta-' a full understanding of the new radiant heating layout and the construction and arrangement of the several special tile units entering into the same.

While the invention is described herein as applied particularly to heating, it is equally appli- 12 Claims. (Cl. 237-69) '7 is a fragmentary horizontal section through the lower right-hand corner of the floor structure shown in Fig. 1, taken through the centers 01. the tiles employed in forming the return header, showing the construction and arrangement involved in changing the direction of theheader;

Fig. 8 is a horizontal section through one of the tiles of the return header, taken on the line 8-8 of Fig. 7;

Fig. 9 is a side view of the tile shown in Fig. 8;

Fig. 10 is a fragmentary section through the floor structure, taken on the line l0lll of Fig. 1;

Fig. 11 is a perspective view of an intermediate portion of the floor structure, taken approximately on the line llll of Fig. 1;

Fig. 12 is a perspective view of an intermediate portion of the floor structure, showing two of the tiles separated to expose the bridge members which are inserted in the aligned ends of the ducts in the tiles when the latter are brought together;

cable to cooling, and the various references made herein to heating are therefore to be construed as. meaning broadly a conditioning of the air or other fluid, whether such conditioning involve heating or cooling.

A preferred embodiment of the invention is presented herein by way of exemplification, but

it will of course be apparent to those skilled in the art that the invention is susceptible of incorporation in various other structurally modified forms coming equally within the scope of the appended claims.

In the accompanying drawings:

Fig. 1 is a plan view oi a hollow tile floor structure constructed in accordance with the invention;

Fig. 2 is a perspective view of an intermediate portion of the floor structure, taken approximately on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is a side view of one of the-individual tiles used in forming the finished surface of the field of the floor structure;

Fig. 4 is an end view of the same tile;

Fig. 5 is a perspective view of a marginal portion of the floor structure shown in Fig. 1, taken approximately on the line 5-5 of'Fig. 1;

Fig. 6 is a perspective view of another marginal portion, taken approximately on the line 6-6 of Fig. 1;

1 shown in Fig. 16.

I Fig. 13 is a section through the joint between the ends of two of the field forming tiles, showing one of the bridge members in position;

Fig. 14 is a side view of one of the bridge members;

Fig. 15 is an end view of the bridge member shown in Fig. 14;

Fig. 16 is a side view of one of the bridge members used between the ends of two of the header forming tiles; and

Fig. 17 is an end view of the bridge member The floor structure shown in the drawings is composed throughout practically its entire expanse of a large number of hollow fiat-topped tiles l0 (see Figs. 2, 3 and 4) which tiles are arranged in regular rows like ordinary floor surfacing tiles. The tiles III are individually supported on a rigid sub-base ll of suitable material, and are set flush with each other on a relatively thin layer I2 of suitable bedding material. The edges of the tiles are separated slightly from each other and the spaces between such edges are filled in and pointed up with strip-like sections l3 of suitable jointing material, which .material may be the same as the material used forces the top I 4 and divides the hollow interior into two open-ended passages [9 for directing the hot air used in the system. The under surface of the top It is arched at 20 between the sides It and the partition l8, whereby to afford maximum load-supporting strength with minimum thickness over the passages IS. The outer surfaces of the sides I6 are recessed at 2| between their upper and lower edges, 'whereby'to provide keying spaces of substantial size between the opposed sides of adjacent tiles for the reception of the jointing material while still permitting the tiles to be brought fairlyclose together.

In applying the present system to the floor of a building in which several rooms are. to be located on the same floor-a in the ordinary dwelling-the tiles It can be arranged advantageously in a number of separate groups, as for example the three rectangular groups included within the areas indicated respectively by the crossed arrows A, B and C in Fig. 1. Each of these group can be individually supplied with the hot. air used in heating the tiles I0, thus enabling the temperature of the floor in any Particular area to be controlled easily in accordance with requirements and independently of the proximity or remoteness of such area from the source of the hot air. V

Referring to the intermediate group B--the tiles III in that group are positioned in a number of transverse rows, with the passages M in the tiles in each row all extending in the same direction as the transverse rows in endwise communication with each other. The hot air used in heating the tops M of the tiles in group B is fed under pressure from a-heater H or other suitable source up through a flue F into a supply conduit S. The conduit 8' extends horizontally at right angles to the rows oftiles in group B and opens laterally after the fashion of a-header into each of the passages IS in the tiles in that group.

The supply conduit S is composed of a single row of open-ended tiles 22 (see Figs. and 10) which have tops 23 of the same shape and size as the tiles ill. The tiles 22 are of greater dept strength. The tiles 22 are set in the bedding layer H2 in the same manner as the tiles ID, with their tops 23 flush with the tops H of the tiles i0, and with each of the tiles 22 in lateral alignment with one of the row of the tiles It, thus presenting a finished tile floor surface of the same regular tile pattern throughout;

After the air supplied by the conduit S to the tiles in in group B has traveled the lengths of the passages I9 in the tiles it it enters a return conduit R and flow through the same back to the air intake of the furnace F.

' The return conduit R, like'the supply conduit S, extends horizontally at right angles to the rows of tiles in group B and is composed of a single row 01 open-ended tfles 21 (see Figs. 6, 8 and 9) having tops 28 of the same size and shape as the tiles it, with main header passages 29 and side distributor passages or openings 30, the latter being disposed in communication with the passages 89 in the tiles III. The tiles 21 are set into the floor in the same manner as the tiles I0,

- gether,inverted channel members 32 of thin sheet metal or other suitable material are telescoped into the confronting ends of the passages H (see Figs. 12 to 15, inclusive), whereby to render such passages continuous throughout each row of tiles and prevent entry of the jointing material into the passages. The members 22 are provided intermediate their ends with out-turned positioning tongues 33 which limit the extent of insertion of the members into the ends of the passages. Similarly functioning bridge members 34 are inserted within the ends of the passages in the rows of tiles forming the supply and return headers (see Figs. 10, 16 and 1'7), and also in the side opening in those tiles.

The tiles forming groups A and C are laid out in the same general Way as the tiles forming group B.

The tiles III of group A are positioned in a number of transverse rows, with the passages K9 in the tiles in each row all extending in the same transverse direction in endwise communication with each other. The hot air used in heating the tops it of the tiles III in group A is fed under pressure from the heater H- up through a flue F into a supply conduit S The conduit S extends horizontally at right angles to the rows of tiles in in group A and opens laterally into each of the passages in the tiles in that group. The

conduit S like the conduit S, is composed of a single row of the tiles 22. The hot air which is fed into the tile ill of group A is discharged from the same into a return conduit R The conduit R like the conduit R, is composed of a single row of the tiles 2! and empties into the conduit R. I

The tiles ID of group C are similarly fed with hot air from a supply conduit 8, the hot air upon leaving the tiles l0 discharging into a return conduit R The return conduit R is connected in series with the two other return conduits. It makes a right angular turn at 35 at the far end of group C; passes the closed end 36 of the supply conduit 8*; makes another right angular turn at 31; and returns alongside the supply conduit S at 38 to an intake flue I leading back into the heater H.

In the various supply and return conduits those tiles of the conduits which are perforated laterally for communication with the passages 19 in the tiles l0 are marked withthe letter P (see Fig. 1) in order to distinguish them from the unperforated tiles in other stretches of the conduits. Certain of the individual tiles constituting the system herein claimed, as well as further special tiles and arrangements of tiles for a similar system in general accordance with the invention, are the subject matter of a continuing copending application, Serial No. 746,601, filed May 7, 1947, and entitled Radiant heating system and components thereof.

Where the conduits S, S and R traverse section A of the floor structure such conduits pass under the field tiles it of that'section without interfering in any way with the circulation through such field tiles, the necessary vertical jogging being effected in each conduit through the introduction of a special conduit tile 39 (see Fig. 10) having a vertical dimension equal to the combined vertical dimensions of the tiles it and 22.

diminishment in the flow through the conduit in v turning the corner.

The usual utilities-such as pipes and wiresmay be advantageously placed in one or more marginal conduits U (see Figs. and 6) formed between upwardly opening channel members 4| and fiat cover tiles 42 arranged flush with the upper surface of the fioor structure. The tiles 42, which can be removed without difiiculty at any point to give access to the utilities, can be jointed in line with the joints between the various other tiles whereby to present if desired an uninterrupted tile pattern over the entire floor area.-

It will be noted that the invention affords a plurality of groups or sections of floor surface A, B and C, each characterized'by tiles arranged in rows to define parallel surfacing units, and that the tile passages provide continuous and uninterrupted conduits through and coextensive with said units. Each section has a supply header common to the elongated units therein and the common return header coacts with the units of each section and the supply header thereof in defining a plurality of loop ducts whereby uni- .form circulation of hot airand resultant uniform space heating effect are achieved. The multiple loop arrangement providing parallel paths of flow through the sub-floor conduits facilitates circulation of the heated air and reduces the pressure needed to assure proper circulation. In this connection it will be noted that the main passage 24 of the supply conduit is of substantially larger cross-sectional area than that of the side openings 25 and the passages IQ of the distributor tiles l0.

1. In a loop-type circulatory and radiant heating system for buildings, a floor structure'including a plurality of flat topped tiles containing open-ended hot air passages immediately beneath the tops of the tiles, said tiles being set with their tops flush with each other in parallel rows, with the passages in the tiles in each row in endwise communication with each other to define distributing ducts extending longitudinally of said respective rows, said ducts being out of communication with one another between the ends thereof,

and supply and return headers for circulating I hot air independently through said respective ducts, each of said headers comprising a single row of fiat topped tiles having tops which are of the same shape and size as the tops of the first mentioned tiles, said second mentioned tiles having open-ended passages and openings in one of the sides of said passages, and being set with their passages in endwise communication with each other and with each of the tiles in lateral alignment with one of the rows of-the first mentioned tiles and with their side openings in communication with the ends of the ducts in the rows, means for heating air and delivering it to said supply header, and means for exhausting said return header.

2. In a loop-type circulatory and radiant heating system for buildings, a floor structure including a plurality of flat topped tiles containing open-ended hot air passages immediately beneath the tops of the tiles, said tiles being set with their tops flush with each other in parallel rows, with the passages in the tiles in each row in endwise communication with each other to de-' fine distributing ducts extending longitudinally of said respective rows, said ducts being out of communication 'with one another between the ends thereof, and supply and return headers for circulating hot air independently through said respective ducts, each of said headers comprising a single row. of fiat topped tiles having tops which are of the same shape and size as the tops of the first mentioned tiles. said second mentioned tiles having open-ended passages and openings in one of the sides of said passages, and being set with their passages in endwise communication withreach other and with each of the .tiles in lateral alignment with on of the rows of the first mentioned tiles andwith their side openings in communication with the ends of the ducts in the rows, .means for heating air and delivering it to said supply header, and means for exhausting said return header, the top of all of said tiles constituting the finished surface of said floor structure.

3. In a multiple loop-type circulatory and radi- 7 ant heating system for buildings having a multiple room floor area, means for heating air for circulation through the system, means defining a large number of separate and parallel hot air passages beneath the surface of said multiple room fioor area, which passages are arranged in two or more groups located at different distances from said heating -means, means communicating with said heating means and defining separate supply headers for each of said groups, which headers are arranged at right angles to the passages in the groups and lead to corresponding ends of the same from said heating means, and means defining return headers at the far ends of said passages for returning the spent air to said heating means, said header defining means being disposed in said floor area substantially coplanar with said passage defining means and coacting therewith in affording a load supporting surface.

4. In a radiant heating system for buildings having, a multiple room floor area, means for heating air for circulation through the system, means defining a large number of parallel hot air passages beneath the surface of said multiple room floor area, which passages are arranged in two or more groups located at different distances fromsaid heating means, means communicating with said heating means and defining separate supply headers "for each of said groups, which headers are arranged at right angles to the passages in the groups andlead to corresponding .endsof the same from said heating means, and

means defining return headers at the far ends of said passages for returning the spent air to said heating means, said header definin means being disposed in said floor area substantially coplanar with said passage defining means and coacting therewith in afiording a load supporting surface, said return headers being connected together in series.

5. In a loop-type circulatory and radiant heating system for buildings, a floor structureincluding a plurality of fiat topped tiles containing open-ended hot air passages immediately beneath the tops of the tiles, said tiles being set with their tops fiush with each other in parallel rows, with the passages in the tiles in each row in endwise communication with each other to define conduits extending longitudinally of said rows, said conduits being separate from and out of communication with one another between the circulating hot air through all of the conduits, each of said headers comprising a single row of tiles, said second mentioned tiles having openended passages and openings leading transversely into said passages, and being set with their passages in endwise communication with each other and with their transverse openings in communication with the respective conduits, means for heating air and delivering it to said supply header, and means for exhausting said return header.

6. In a loop-type circulatory and radiant heating system for buildings, means defining a plurality of parallel elongated fioor surface units having upper load-supporting surfaces disposed in coplanar relation, said units being provided with internal passages extending longitudinally thereof and disposed immediately beneath the load-supporting surface for radiation of heat to the space thereabove, said passages being separate from and unconnected with one another intermediate the length thereof, means defining a hollow supply header in separate andindepend ent internal communication with the passages of a plurality of said units to supply the same independently, said header having a load-supporting surface coplanar with that of the units, and means defining a hollow return header, said return header being separately communicated with said passages in spaced relation to the supply header for the return of gas circulated from said supply header to and through said units, said header being provided with a load-supporting surface coplanar with said other surfaces, a source of hot gas connected to deliver to the supply'header, and means receiving returnedgas from said return header.

'7. In a loop-type circulatory and radiant heating system for buildings, means defining a plurality of parallel elongated floor surface units, each comprising aligned hollow tiles having upper load-supporting surfaces disposed in coplanar relation, said units being provided with internal passages extending longitudinally thereof and disposed immediately beneath the load-supporting surface for radiation of heat to the space thereabove, said passages being separate from and unconnected with one another intermediate the length thereof, means defining each of a hollow supply header, said header being disposed in intersecting relation to said units, with the header in separate internal communication with the passages of a plurality of said units to supply the same independently, said header having a loadsupporting surface coplanar with that of the units, and means defining a hollow return header, said return header being separatelycommunicated with said passages in spaced relation to the supply header for the return of gas circulated from said supply header to and through said units, said headerbein provided with a loadsupporting surface coplanarwith said other surfaces andcoacting therewith in defining a fioor area, a source of hot gas connected to deliver to the supply header, and means receiving returned gas from said return header.

ing system for buildings, means defining a plurality of parallel elongated floor surface units having upper load-supporting surfaces disposed in coplanar relation, said units being provided with internal passages extending longitudinally thereof and disposed immediately beneath said load-supporting surface for radiation of .heat to arate fromand unconnected with one another intermediate the length'thereof, means defining a hollow horizontal supply header, said header being disposed in intersecting relation to said units, with the header in separate and, independent internal communication with the passages of each of a. plurality of said units to supply the same independently, said header having a loadsupporting surface coplanar with that of the units, and means defining a hollow horizontal return header, said return header being separately communicated with said passages in spaced relation to the supply header and being provided with a load-supporting surface coplanar with said other surfaces and coacting therewith in defining a floor area.

9. In a radiant heating and circulatory system comprising a plurality of rows of aligned tiles, each row defining an elongated floor surface unit, said tiles being provided with aligned internal passages in continuous and uninterrupted communication with one another longitudinally of the respective units to provide separate internal conduits through said units which are out of communication with one another between the ends of said respective units, means defining a hollow fluid supply header, said header being in separate internal communication with the conduits of each of a plurality of units for independent fiow of volumes of fluid through the respective units, and means defining a hollow return header, said return header being separately communicated with each of said respective conduits at points spaced from the supply header for the return of fluid circulated from said supply header to and through said separate units.

10. In a radiant heating and circulatory systern comprising a plurality of rows of aligned tiles,

each row defining an elongated floor surface unit,

said tiles having upper load-supporting surfaces disposed in coplanar relation in said units and being provided with .aligned internal passages in continuous and uninterrupted communication with one another longitudinally of the respective units to provide separate internal conduits through said units which are out of communication with one another between the ends of said respective units, said passages being disposed immediately beneath the load-supporting surface of the tiles for radiation of heat to the spacethereabove, means defining a hollow fluid supply header, said header being in separate internal communication with the conduits of each of a plurality of units for independent fiow of volumes of fluid through the respective units, said header having a load-supporting surface coplanar with that of said units, and means defining a hollow return header, said return header being separately communicated with each of said respective conduits at points spaced from the supply header for the return of fluid circulated from said supply headerto and through said separate units, said return header being provided with a loadsupporting surface coplanar with said other surfaces.

11. In a radiant heating and circulatory system comprising a plurality of rows of aligned tiles, each row defining an elongated fioor surface unit, said tiles having upper load-supporting surfaces disposed in coplanar relation in said units and being provided with aligned internal passages in continuous and uninterrupted communication with one another longitudinally of the respective units to provide separate internal conduits the space thereabove, said passages being septhrough said units which are out of communication with one another between the ends of said respective units, said passages being disposed immediately beneath the load-supporting surface of the tiles for radiation of heat to the space thereabove, means defining a hollow fluid supply header, said header being in separate internal conimunication with the conduits of each of a plurality of units for independent flow of volumes of fluid through the respective units, said header being of substantially larger cross-sectionalv area than said conduits and having a load-supporting surface coplanar with that of said units, and means defining a hollow return header, said return header being separately communicated with each of said respective conduits at points spaced from the supply header for the return of fluid circulated from said supply header to and through said separate units, said return header being provided with a load-supporting surface coplanar with said other surfaces.

12. A radiant heating circulatory system comprising a plurality of rows of aligned tiles, each row defining an elongated floor surface 'unit, said tiles having upper load-supporting surfaces disposed in coplanar relation in said units and being provided with aligned internal passages in continuous and uninterrupted communication with one another longitudinally of the respective units to provide separate internal conduits through said units which are out of communication with one another between the ends of said respective units, means defining a hollow fluid supply header, said header being in separate internal communication with the conduits of each of a plurality of units for independent flow of volumes of fluid through the respective units, said 10 header having a load-supporting surface coplanar with that of said units, means defining a hollow return header, said return header being separately communicated with each of said respective conduits at points spaced from the supply header for the return of fluid circulated from said supply header to and through said separate units, said return header being provided with a load-supporting surface coplanar with said other surfaces, a source of heated fluid connected to and delivering to the supply header, and means receiving returned fluid from said return header.

GEORGE F. KECK.

' file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,995,481 Myers Mar. 26, 1935 2,117,712 Evans Mar. 17, 1938 2,301,672 Akam Nov. 10, 1942 2,316,319 Demarest Apr. 13, 1943 1,521,922 Wilson et al Jan. 6, 1925 836,017 Douglass Nov. 13, 1906 1,065,762 Ainsworth June 24, 1913 2,192,567 Waugh Mar. 5, 1940 1,487,247 Lane Mar. 18, 1924 1,745,765 Lucas Feb. 4, 1930 2,181,814 Knapp Nov. 28, 1939 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 375,103 France May 6, 1907 810,186 France Dec. 19, 1936

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US2512854 *Feb 15, 1946Jun 27, 1950Edgerly Fay HHeated floor construction
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Classifications
U.S. Classification237/69, 52/607, 52/441, 52/503, 52/220.2
International ClassificationF24D5/00, F24D5/10
Cooperative ClassificationF24D5/10
European ClassificationF24D5/10