US 2425227 A
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Aug. 5, 1947. s. B LOOM METHOD OF MAKING SHOULDER PADS Filed Aug. 7, 1946 2 Sheets-Sheet l SZMUEZ' 5400/14 Aug. 5, 1947. 2,425,227
S. BLOOM METHOD OF MAKING SHOULDER PADS Filed Aug. 7, 1946 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 ivy- Elmo/whom SAMUEL 5400/14 Patented Aug. 5, 1947 UNITED STATE s' PATENT OFFICE METHOD OF MAKING SHOULDER PADS Samuel Bloom, New York, N. Y. Application August 7, 1946, Serial No. $9,000
\ Claims. 1
This invention relates to improved molded, fitted and shaped shoulder pads for adaptation to garments and particularly women's garments, for imparting desired contour lines to the garments, and to the method of production of said shoulder pads.
It is the object of the present invention to provide improved sets of molded, fitted and shaped shoulder pads which are fitted to the right and left shoulders of a person in order to conform to the body configurations of the individual and which are so shaped as to obtain desirable shoulder outlines in accordance with different styles and vogues.
It is the purpose of the invention to rovide such shoulder pads fitted and graded to individual persons for both right and left shoulders, which maintain their permanence after their fabrication. One person may have several sets of these shoulder pads for different dresses, coats or costumes, in dependence upon the desired style of garment sought to be fashioned or created for the individual wearer.
It is a further object of the invention to provide a shoulder pad which conforms to the body frame of the individual and which is of light and neat construction so that the same can be worn with comfort at all times. The shoulder pad in accordance with the invention may be patterned from standard forms; or may be distinctively patterned from the individual body frame so that any idiosyncrasies characterizing the individual at the clavicle, scapula and acromion may be reflected in the ultimate shape of the finished shoulder pad. Thus, the collarbone or clavicle forming the anterior portion of the shoulder girdle, the scapula or shoulder-blade forming the posterior portion of the shoulder girdle, and the acromion forming the summit of the shoulder, may contribute to the distinctive shaping of the shoulder pad in order to enable one to obtain an individually fitted set conforming to the individuals body contours, which is particularly desirable when such present a substantial departure from those of a standard model.
It is a further object of the invention .to provide a shoulder pad embodying a light fabric base and molded felt top corresponding to any desired outline, embodying therebetween a filler of cotton wadding which is maintained in fixed relation between the bottom and top so that once the unit it fitted to the shoulder, the same retains its given contours over long periods of time without sagging or disintegration. The shoulder pad pads which are distinctively molded, fitted and shaped to an individuals shoulder, which, despite a comparatively higher initial cost, presents an economy in the long run in the attainment of a set of shoulder pads which retains its shape and which may be repeatedly used for a long periodof time.
Other objects and purposes will appear from the detailed description of the invention following hereinafter, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, wherein Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the fitted shoulder pad in accordance with the present invention, adapted for incorporation into any desired garment such as a dress or coat;
Fig. 2 is a longitudinal sectional view of the improved shoulder pad in accordance with the invention, along line 2--2 of Fig. 3;
Fig. 3 is a transverse sectional view along line 3-3 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 shows the initial step of molding with clay the desired contour of the shoulder pad which is shown being done with a model form, but which may as well be executed on a human body;
Fig. 5 shows the molding of the sized felt to bring the same into the shape of the convex top of the shoulder pad;
Fig. 6 is a plan view of two superposed squares of cotton felting which are adapted to embrace therebetween a fibrous filler or cotton wadding to form the internal padding for a pair of the shoulder pads;
Fig. 7 shows a pair of the filler pads of lenticular cross-section at the conclusion of its filling and processing, cut across one diagonal to form the two pads, one for each shoulder pad;
Fig. 8 shows the two filler pads with a wedge removed therefrom in order to permit the concave shaping of the pad to the convexity of the shoulder while imparting a minimum thickness to the mad at the edges thereof as well as a surface of smooth convexity on the upper surface of the D Fig. 9 is a bottom view of the fabric portion of the pad with the filler sewn thereto alo g lines of stitching spaced from its lateral edges;
Fig. shows the fitting of the shoulder pad following the combination by basting of the padded fabric base with the molded felt top andprior to the trimming of the latter; and
The drawings illustrate the completed shoulder pad in accordance with the present invention, as well as several stages in the course of its fabrication. Bearing-in mind that the ultimate objective of the invention is to provide an individually tailored and fitted set of shoulder pads which are designed primarily for high grade ladies garments, it may readily be seen that the manipulative steps which are practiced in the production of this improved set of shoulder pads are painstaking and to some degree costly, but all are contributory to the ultimate objective of obtaining a shoulder pad which has never been available heretofore.
The pad in accordance with the instant invention is illustrated in Figs. 1 to 3 in its finished state. The same consists essentially of a soft and light fabric base I I which may be of any desired textile material such as silk, rayon, cotton or any other known lining materials, which is designed to conform accurately to the shoulderblade, collar-bone and summit of the shoulder of the individual along the lateral edges l2 and H which converge to the apex l5 adjacent to the neck line' of the individual and which are spanned by the base line H between the edges l3 and I1. The desired external outline for the shoulder pad is attained by a'sculptured and molded sheet iii of felt, buckram, flannel or suede, which corresponds in outline to th contours sought to be obtained with the shoulder pads, that is, the pad may incline upwardly, downwardly, or may lie horizontally, or may combine different surface inclinations and may terminate in any desired curvature at the base line l4 to attain different desired silhouette effects. A filling' of cotton wadding l8, enclosed within a shell of sheet cotton felting i9, which is sewn to the bottom Ii, is shaped in such a manner as, for example, by slitting a wedge at 20, to provide an adequate filling of the space between the bottom ii and top ID of the shoulder pad while at the same time enabling the same to be eased to the varying contours of the shoulder. The sewin of the filler shell l9 to the base II is shown by means of stitching 2| which is followed by the sewing of the molded and shaped felt in to the base by stitches 22 on the sides, and 28 on the end. Wide binding bands l2 aresewed to the lateral edges of the top l0 which preferably may be executed at the same time that the top I0 is sewed to the base II by means of stitches 22. The protruding edges of the top in are trimmed to follow closely the stitching 22 either before or after the sewing of the latter. A series of parallel stitchings 23 along the binding bands serves to ornament the wide bands and the last lines of stitching 24 also extend through the edges of the base I l to integrate the complete assembly in order to give a clean and thin edge to the lateral boundaries of the shoulder Dad, which edges, both of the sides l3 and I1, as
. well as the base edge It may be trimmed off with pinking shears in order to impart a more pleasing appearance to the final product (shown in Figs. 1 to 3) as well as to enhance the smooth blending of the edges of the shoulder pad with the garmeat.
I have found the following procedure most desirable in the fabrication of the improved shoulder pad described above:
8. 4 shows the initial stage in the production of an individually tailored set of shoulder pads in accordance with the present invention. In this figure, a conventional clothes model M is employed, but it'is understood that a human form may be used as well when a set of individually sculptured shoulder pads is to be attained. If models are used, several of these are necessary to obtain different sizes and grades corresponding to different sizes of human forms. The desired contour of the shoulder pad is sculptured on the model in clay, indicated at C. This. of course, will be varied according to the diflerent vogue and style eifects which are sought to be accentuated by the specific shoulder pads. The clay casts of the shoulder pads are permitted to harden. whereupon they are used for the purpose of molding forms therefrom which are employed repeatedly for the fitting and sculpturing of the shoulder pads thereafter. Thus, it is a simple matter to make a counterpart of the clay model C in wood and it is even simpler to make the same in metal by conventional metal casting methods. In addition to the actual shoulder pad counterpart, a replica of the top of the shoulder pad is made by forming two interfitting elements, one of which is preferably formed as a gas heated mold which is used for the molding of the sized felt top of the shoulder pad. It is also useful to form a molded replica of the shoulder outlines in order to provide a base for fitting the bottom of the shoulder pad, particularly so if the model is fragile or if the model is the human body.
The upper part of the shoulder pad I! is formed from a sheet of moldable felt material of the type used in the manufacture of hats. However, in some instances flannel, buckram, suede, or other moldabl cloth materials may be used. and the term felt" herein should be constructed to cover 'all of these materials. The same is first treated by dipping the sheet in a sizing solution, the concentration of which may be varied in dependence upon the particular felt employed, and may be controlled by testing with a sizing hydrometer. Following the thorough soaking of the felt material in the sizing solution, it is wrung thoroughly and allowed to dry for about twenty-four hours, whereupon the same becomes hard and brittle, but is subject 'to softening by the application of live steam thereto when the same is placed on a steam grid or like device. In the event that a wooden mold is used, a suitable piece of the felt. of substantially triangular contour, is applied to the wooden mold and is pulled into shape and thereafter the same may be tied with blocking cords until the felt is made to correspond to the shape of the wooden model. A steam iron may be employed to make the felt conform closely to the block and to impart a permanent set thereto. Thereafter the pressed felt is allowed to dry on the mold until the same is cool, so that the resultant product constitutes the top of the mold III as generally shown in Fig. 10 of larger area than the finished product because the same requires trimming.
As an alternative to the use of a wooden mold and the shaping of the sized felt thereto, metal dies may be employed, preferably of aluminum.
and with the aid of steam to bring it in conformity with the cooperating parts of the mold to impart a permanent set thereto. 7
Having shaped the upper part of the shoulder pad [0, the fitting of the bottom of the pad is undertaken with the use of suitable patterns which are of substantially triangular outline. Suitable segments of fabric are cut out according to these patterns, depending upon the size and style of the ultimate desired pad. Th'ese paper patterns include perforated lines to indicate the lines of stitching whereat the filling material is to be attached to the fabric base in a manner well known in the tailoring and dressmaking arts. The triangular fabric bottom of the shoulder pad is shown generally in Fig. 9 having an apex 35 with the lateral sides 36 and the base line 31," with the stitching lines 2| parallel to the lateral edges which secure the filling shell thereto and which lines are marked in the cutting of the patterns.
Fig. 6 shows in plan two square sheets of cotton felting I9 between which are adapted to be sandwiched a mass of cotton wadding l8 which is of maximum thickness at the center of this square and which tapers smoothly to the perimeter thereof in order to impart a lenticular or double convex cross-section to the filler pad. Thereafter a series of loose stitches 29 are basted through the covering sheets l9 and enclosed mass of wedding l8, as shown generally in Fig. 7, to maintain the filler mass in the form of an integrated filler shell with maximum thickness at its center and of a thickness corresponding to the thickness of the loose cotton sheets of felting [9 at the edges. The square is subsequently out along one of its diagonals 31 toform two filler sections, one for each of the pair of shoulder pads. Thereafter a wedge of the wadding, including one face of the sheeting I9 is cut out medially thereof at the base 31 and extending towards the apex 35, and this filler unit is sewed to the fabric bottom H of the shoulder pads along the stitches 2| with the wedge adjacent to the fabric so that the same may be shaped concavely to conform to the convexity of the shoulder while the opposite face of the filler is of smooth configuration to fill out fully the convexity of the upper part of the shoulder pad.
,The fabric bottom I I having the filler unit sewed thereto, is thereafter applied to the shoulder mold and is manipulated to conform thereto by drawing and shaping the wadding, upon which is superposed the prepared molded felt as described above and as shown in Fig. 10. When the pads have assumed the desired shape, the fabric bottom and the molded top are basted together, as shown in Fig. 10.
The finishing bands l2, of approximately 2" width, which have previously been stitched on a multiple needle machine, are then applied to each lateral edge of th top of the shoulder pad by means of basting stitches 42 in order to obtain a precision fit thereof onto the edges of the shoulder pad. With the bands (2 sewed in place, it is possible to trim oil the excess edges of the molded felt material l protruding beyond and below the inner boundaries of the bands, leaving an edging of the felt for stitching to the bands. The partially assembled pad is then taken to the sewing machine and the bands are stitched as basted along the line of threads 22. Also the outer base edge l4, holding the soft shirred material, as well as the molded outer surface, are then stitched together by the row of stitching 28 after any excess felt is removed from the open end of the filler pad, which is evidenced in the preliminary fitting of the pad when the parts are partially basted together.
The above operations are followed by a trimming of the bands I2 to bring them into conformity with the patterned cut of the fabric bottomof the shoulder pad whereafter a line of stitching 24 serves to integrate the outer margins of the trimming bands l2 with the lateral edges of the bottom ll. These operations are followed by a pinking of the lateral edges at l3 and-J1, as well as the base at H! to impart a finished-appearance to the shoulder pads. A stiff binding thread may be applied to the edge [4 if dgsired in lieu of or in addition to the pinked e ge.
A final fitting of the pad to the model shoulder may be employed to impart the finished set to the shoulder pad, which may. :be aided by the use of a steaming iron.
If desired, snap fasteners orthe like may be applied to the apex and the lateral edges of the shoulder pad designed for cooperation with suitable fasteners in the garment to render the shoulder pads readily attachable and detachable relative to the garment, as is well known in the a If a more finished appearance is desired to be imparted to the shoulder pad, the top molded surface of felt, buckram, suede or fiannel may be covered with a thin fabric or soft material such as silk which may be identical with the soft material of the bottom I I. K
While I have described my-invention as embodied in a specific form and as operating in a specific manner for purpose of illustration, it a without departing from the spirit of my invention, the scope of which is set forth in the annexed claims.
1. The method of producing molded, fitted and shaped shoulder pads which comprises sculpturing a set of plastic shoulder forms conforming to the body contour on the bottom and the desired configurations on the top, forming molds corresponding to at least the top surface of the plastic cast, shaping a sized felt sheet between the lastmentioned molds to impart a corresponding form thereto, fitting a triangularly-shaped fabric bottom to the surface of the shoulder having two lateral sides converging to an apex at the neck line and a base extending between said sides 0D- posite said apex, attaching a fibrous 'filler to the two lateral sides of said fabric bottom adjacent to said apex and fitting said fabric bottom and filler to th shoulder to ease and shape the same to the convexity of the shoulder while presenting I a smooth upper convex surface, and sewing the to said apex and fitting said fabric bottom and filler to the shoulder to ease and shape the same to the convexity of the shoulder while presentmolded top of felt material to the fabric bottom at the three edges thereof, and sewing finishing bands to the sides of the molded top to impart smooth edgings thereto at said lateral sides.
3. Themethod of: producing molded, fitted and shaped shoulder pads which comprises sculpturing a set of plastic shoulder forms conforming to the body contour on the bottom and the desired configuration on the top, forming molds corresponding to at. least the top surface of the plastic cast, shaping a sized felt sheet between the lastmentioned molds to impart a corresponding form thereto, fitting a triangularly-shaped fabric bottom to the surface of the shoulder having two latera! sides converging to an apex at the neck line and a base extending between said sides opposite said apex, attaching a filling of cotton wadding ing a smooth upper convex surface, sewing the 8 molded, fitted and shaped shoulder pads which include fabricating a filler between a flexible fabric base and an overlying molded felt top by confining a mass of cotton wedding of diminish- 8 thickness from its center to its edges between two square sheets of cotton felting to impart a lenticular cross-section thereto, basting the cotton felting with the mass of cotton wadding therebetween to maintain the same in integrated form, and cutting said square across one of its diagonal lines to provide a filler for each one of a .pair of shoulder pads.
'8. The steps in the method of producing molded, fitted and shaped shoulder pads which include fabricating a filler between a flexible fabric base and an overlying molded felt top by -confining a mass of cotton wadding of diminishing thickness from its center to its edges between two rectangular sheets of cotton felting to said fabric bottom and spaced from the lateral edges of the latter, said wadding having a wedge cut therefrom on its lower face and extending toward said apex whereby said wadding may conform at its lower surface to the convexity of the shoulder while presenting a smooth'upper surface, sewing-the molded top of felt material to the fabric bottom at the two lateral sides and the base edge extending therebetween, and sewing finishing bands to the sides of the molded top to impart smooth edgings thereto at said lateral sides.
4. The method set forth in claim 1, including the final step of pinking the free edges of the bands and the base edge opposite the apex.
5. The method of producing molded, fitted and shaped shoulde pads which comprises sculpturing a set of plastic shoulder forms conforming to the body contour on the bottom and the desired configuration on the top, forming molds corre-' sponding to at least the top surface of the plastic cast, shaping a sized felt sheet between the lastmentioned molds to impart a corresponding form thereto, fitting a, triangularly-shaped fabric bottom to thesurface of the shoulder having two lateral sides converging to an apex at the neck line and a base extending between said sides opposite said apex, attaching a filling of cotton wedding tosaid fabric bottom and spaced from the lateral edges of the latter, said wadding having a wedge cut therefrom on its lower face and extending towards said apex whereby said wadding may conform at its lower surface to the convexity of the shoulder while presenting a smooth upper surface, basting the molded felt top to the fabric base and fitting the combined pad to the shoulder form, basting trimming bands to the lateral edges of the molded top in overlying relation to the lateral sides of the fabric bottom, removing the excess molded felt between said bands and bottom, and stitching said fabric bottom, molded felt and trimming bands, as well as said molded felt and shirred fabric bottom along the base edge opposite the apex.
6. The method set forthin claim 5 which includes sewing together the outer edges of the trimming bands with the lateral edges of the fabric base, and thereafter pinking said edges.
7. The steps in the method of producing to impart a double-convex cross-section thereto, basting the cotton felting with them of cotton wadding therebetween to maintain the same in integrated form, cutting said rectangle across one of its diagonal lines to provide a filler for each one of a pair of shoulder .pads, and removing a wedge of material extending from the midportion of the diagonal line toward the apex of the resulting triangle through only a portion of the thickness of the filler unit.
- 9. The steps inthe method of producing molded, fitted and shaped shoulder pads which include fabricating a filler between a fiexible fabric base and an overlying molded felt top, by
confining a mass of cotton wadding 0f diminishing thickness from its center to its edges between two square sheets of cotton felting to impart a lenticular cross-section thereto, basting the cotton felting with the mass of cotton wadding therebetween to maintain the same in -in -tegrated form, cutting said square across one of its diagonal lines to provide a filler for each one of a pair of shoulder pads, removing a wedge of material from one face of each filler unit extending from the mid-portion of the diagonal line toward the apex of the resulting triangle through only a portion of the thickness of the filler unit, and sewing the resulting pad to the fabric base along the two thin edges of each filler unit.
10. The method of forming molded, fitted and shaped shoulder pads which includes the steps of sculpturing a set of plastic shoulder forms conforming to the body contour on the bottom and the desired silhouette on the top, and forming molds corresponding to the top and bottom surder forms.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,698,144 Sladdin Jan. 8, 1929 2,172,499 Chassaing Sept. 12, 1939 2,170,199 Hawkins et al. Aug. 22, 1939 7 1,788,126 Sladdin Jan. 6, 1931