US 2425984 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 19,1947. s. BLACKMAN 2,425,984
' ufl'raon Fon' CLEANING CAPSULES AND THE LIKE Filed Sept. 26, 1942 O v Q Y 4 r/ I .22 1O 9 I 68 is I I p I 69 72 I a2 I l I l I A6 '88 c -s-.- I 48 9 74 84 l 66 v 52 I 78 86 I 54 w A 56 Q Q 3Q 25 INVENTO OEA/Ey Patented Aug. 19, 1947 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE METHQD FOR. CLEANING CAPSULES AND THE LIKE 6 Claims.
This invention relates to a method for cleaning dustv films from the external surfaces of articles such as capsules or the like.
It is an object of my invention to provide a method for removing the powdery film from capsules without subjecting the same to the unsanitary and time consuming step of. manual handling.
It. is another object of my invention to provide a method for cleaning filmed capsules with substances not heretofore used for this purpose;
Other objects of this invention will in part be obvious and in part hereinafter pointed out.
The invention accordingly consists in the features of construction, combinations of elements, and arrangement of parts which will be exemplifled in the construction hereinafter described, and of which the scope of application will be indicated in the claims.
In. the accompanying drawings, in which is shown one of the various possible embodiments of this invention,
Fig. 1 is a side view in partial section of an apparatus embodying my invention;
Figs. 2 and 3 are front and rear elevational view respectively thereof; and
Fig. 4 is a sectional View taken substantially along the line 44 in Fig. 1.
Referring now to the drawings, denotes a capsule cleaning apparatus employed in accordance with my invention. Said apparatus includes a cylindrical drum l-z having a main section M of substantial diameter. At the front end It of the main section the drum is inset. and provided with a truncated conical tip it; The rear end of the drum is partially closed by a wide flange 2-0, which has an L shaped annular ring 22. extending from its periphery. A plurality of vanes 24 (Fig. 4) disposed interiorly of the drum on the main section I4, extend radially inwardly and divide the interior surface of said main section into: a plurality of elongated sectors 25. Said vanes, in the illustrated embodiment of my invention, run longitudinally of the drum, but it will suifice in. order to carry out the invention for these vanes to have merely an appreciable longitudinal component.
Suitable means is provided to support the drum [2' with the longitudinal axis thereof inclined to the horizontal and to revolve the drum while thus inclined. Such means may comprise a base 25 disposed beneath the drum and having a pair of vertical end supports 28-, 30;. The lower front. end support 28 has a. pair of outwardly branching arms 34, 3t extending from its upper edges.
Similarly the upper rear end support 30 has a pair of outwardly branching arms 38, 40 extending away from its upper edge. A pair of shafts 42, 44, arranged parallel to the longitudinal axis of the drum 12, are journalled in the extremities of the arms 34', 36, 38, 4.0. Collars 46 fixed to the rear ends of the shafts. 42, 44 and bearing against the rear surface of the arms. 38 40 prevent axial shifting of said shafts. Each of said shafts has fixed thereto a pair of deeply grooved front and rear sheaves 48', 4 9 which are so arranged that the front sheaves 48 lie in a common plane normal to the longitudinal axis of the drum I2, and the rear sheaves 4!} lie in a common plane parallel to said first plane. Said sheaves tangene ti-ally receive in their grooves large rings 50 which are rigidly attached. to the exterior of the main portion I l of the drum and lie normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. The flanges of the sheaves cooperate with said rings to prevent shifting of the. l2 along its axis, and. the radial equidistant disposition of the sheaves relative to said axis allows said drum to rotate while thus supported. One of the shafts, for example, shaft 42, carries on its forward end a sheave 52 driven by a belt 54' from the sheave 56- of a motor 58 mounted on the base 26. The motor revolves. at. such a speed and the sheaves 52, 56 are so proportioned that the drum l2 will be rotated at an angular velocity which permits objects raised by the. vanes 24 to fall from the sectors 25 as said drum is turned. I have found that 15 revolutions per minute will satisfactorily accomplish this purpose although it will be understood that higher or lower rotational speeds may be. satisfactorily employed in carrying out my invention.
If desired, I may quiet the means for rotating; and angularly supporting the drum by facing, either the rings 58 or sheaves 48 with a yielding. substance, such as leather or rubber. Said facing 59 assists in driving the drum although it. is not necessary for this purpose.
Disposed inside of the, drum ['2 and arranged concentrically therewith is a second cylindricaldrum 69 fabricated from a perforate. material such, for example, as wire screening, Whose openings are smaller than the smallest dimension of the capsules to be cleaned. The two ends of the perforate drum Eli are rigidly attached by suitable means, such as spot welding, to the imperforate drum I2 preferably adjacent the ends thereof so that said drumsv will turn together. Sai'dperforate drum is supported intermediate its ends on the tips of the vanes 24'.
In the operation of the device, a mass C- of 3 filmed capsules is introduced at the rear end of the perforate drum 60. A suitable granular cleaning substance S, hereinafter more fully described, is introduced in the same manner. The cleaning substance drops through to the imperforate drum and quickly slides down to the forward end and tip of said drum, whereupon it assumes a position such as shown in Figure 1. The capsules, due to their larger size and to the rough surface of the perforate drum, progress more slowly down said perforate drum during rotation thereof. Rotation of the imperforate drum causes portions of the cleaning substance S to be carried by the vanes 24 above the level of the capsule mass C lying in the perforate drum 60. As these portions are thus elevated, they first gradually, and then more rapidly slide off the tips of the rising vanes 24, and drop through the openings in the perforate drum on top of the mass of-capsules. Successive vanes 24, as they are elevated, thus discharge laterally moving Waves W of the cleaning substance across the top of the capsule mass. This substance, upon striking the capsules and being churned and tumbled therewith, intimately contacts all of the capsules and removes the dust films therefrom. Said cleaning substance seeps through the capsule mass to the perforate drum 60 through which it passes to drop to the imperforate drum [2. The cycle of cleaning operations for said substance is then repeated.
In order to insure substantial recovery of the cleaning substance falling on top of the mass of capsules, I form the frusto-conical tip 88 with an apex angle which is more than twice as large as the angle of inclination of the longitudinal axis of the drum l2. Due to this construction, portions of the cleaning substance which drop from the front end of the vanes 24 into the tip 18 will return under gravity to the body of the cleaning substance lying in the main portion I4 of the drum.
With the parts arranged as shown, most of the cleaning operation is performed adjacent the front end of the main portion M of the imperforate drum. If it is desired to extend the operation rearwardly, the vanes can be arranged at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the drum so that as the cleaning substance is raised on said vanes it will at the ame time be moved towards the rear of the drum.
It will be seen that the cleaning operation, as thus practiced, is continuous and that to keep the machine in continual operation it is merely necessary to keep feeding capsules into the rear end of the perforate drum 68, and to remove debouching capsules from the front end of said drum.
Upon discharge from the drum 60, the capsules fall on an inclined chute 82. Said chute comprises both a lower imperforate trough 64 and an upper trough 65 of perforate material similar to that of the drum 60. The bottoms of the troughs are spaced apart. This construction is employed to separate from the cleaned capsules any of the cleaning substance which may be discharged from the drum.
Feeding of the capsules into the perforate drum 60 is facilitated by a heavy plate 68 carried on the rear support 33 and having its forward face internally recessed to receive the L-shaped flange 22 on the drum [2 so as to provide a dust-proof seal at the rear of the cleaning apparatus. Said heavy plate is centrally apertured to provide a feeding mouth 69 for the perforate drum, and a hopper I0 integral with the plate 68 leads into said mouth. The feed end of the hopper is closed by a cover 12 hinged to said plate. It may be mentioned that by using this arrangement there is provided a stationary platform on which the dusty capsules may be deposited and from which the capsules can gradually move under the influence of gravity into revolving perforate drum 60.
Various types of granular cleaning substances S may be used, it only being necessary in accordance with my invention that such substances comprise particles which are small enough to pass freely through the aperture in the drum 60 and that said substances be ionizable crystalline compounds, sodium chloride being a typical example.
I believe that the crystalline substances remove the dust film from the capsules by virtue of their partial ionization under normal atmospheric humidity.
I have found that When common table salt is used as the cleaning substance it will remove and retain dust from filmed capsules for periods as long as over eight hours.
I have also found that the amount of dust which the salt can retain is increased by raising the moisture content thereof and hence its de gree of ionization. This may be accomplished in various manners such as, for example, by dampening the salt before placing the same within the drum, or by controlling the humidity of the atmosphere Within said drum.
In the herein disclosed embodiment of my invention I have shown a suitable means for regulating the humidity of the drums atmosphere. Said means comprises a motor-driven centrifugal fan M which pumps air into a humidifier 76. The moisture content of the air exiting from the humidifier is controlled in any manner Well known to the art, and is set at the desired humidity by means of an index dial 18 disposed exteriorly of said humidifier 16. The moistened air discharged from the humidifier is led through a conduit to a discharge manifold 82 disposed above the tumbling mass of capsules in the perforate drum where the cleaning operation begins. a
I may also provide means to remove dust liberated from the filmed capsules when they are deposited in the hopper 10 and first begin to turn upon reaching the perforate drum 60. Such means may comprise a second centrifugal fan 84 driven by the same motor as that which drives the fan 14. The exhaust 86 of said second fan is connected by a conduit 88 to a manifold (not shown) similar to the manifold 82 and disposed within the perforate drum 60 immediately adjacent the rear end thereof.
It will thus be seen that there is provided a method for using the same in which the several objects of this invention are achieved, and which is well adapted to meet the conditions of practical use.
As various possible embodiments might be made of the above invention, and as variou changes might be made in the embodiment above set forth, it is to be understood that all matter herein set forth or shown in the accompanying drawings is to be interpreted a illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
Having thus described my invention, I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent:
1. Amethod for cleaning dust film from the external surfaces of articles such as capsules or the like, comprising agitating a mass of such articles under conditions of normal atmospheric humidity, depositing upon such articles, while they are being agitated, a granular cleaning substance comprising a crystalline compound partially ionizable under conditions of normal atmospheric humidity, and removing said substance after it has passed through said mass.
2. A method for cleaning dust films from the external surfaces of articles such as capsules or the like, comprising agitating a mass of such articles under conditions of normal atmospheric humidity, depositing upon such articles While they are being agitated, a granular cleaning substance comprising salt, and removing said substance after it has passed through said mass.
3. -A method for cleaning dust films from the external surfaces of articles such as capsules or the like, comprising agitating a mass of such articles, depositing upon such articles, while they are being agitated, a partially ionized granular substance, and removing said substance after it has passed through said mass.
4. A method for cleaning dust films from the external surfaces of articles such as capsules or the like, comprising agitating a mass of such articles, depositing upon such articles, While they are being agitated, a granular cleaning substance comprising an ionizable crystalline compound, dampening said substance, and removing said substance after it has passed through said mass.
5. A method for cleaning dust films from the external surfaces of articles such as capsules or the like, comprising agitating a mass of such articles, depositing upon such articles, While they are being agitated, a granular cleaning substance comprising an ionizable crystalline compound, raising the humidity of the atmosphere where said articles are being agitated, and removing said substance after it has passed through said STANLEY BLACKMAN.
REFERENCES CITED The followin references are of record in the file of this patent:
\ UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,298,933 Guthat Apr. 1, 1919 1,294,459 Heineke et al Feb. 18, 1919 2,210,728 Orfald Aug. 6, 1940 458,571 Gedge Sept. 1, 1891 631,133 Starke Aug. 15, 1899 1,377,247 Heineke May 10, 1921 886,075 Remington Apr. 28, 1908 1,840,289 Hunter Jan. 5, 1932 645,138 Sleeper Mar. 13, 1900