|Publication number||US2428273 A|
|Publication date||Sep 30, 1947|
|Filing date||Nov 2, 1943|
|Priority date||Jan 29, 1940|
|Publication number||US 2428273 A, US 2428273A, US-A-2428273, US2428273 A, US2428273A|
|Inventors||Hobart N Durham, Jr George B Finnegan|
|Original Assignee||Hobart N Durham, Jr George B Finnegan|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (12), Referenced by (5), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Sept. 1947- s. B. FINNEGAN, JR., arm. 2,428,273
RECORDING CAMERA Original Filed Jan. 29} 1940 '7 Sheets-Sheet 1 1min Wm "'nm' ATTORNEY-9 Sept- 3 7- G. B. FINNEGAN; JR., ETAL RECORDING CAMERA Sheets-Sheet 2 Orig inaI FiIed Jan. 29, 1940 mmvrona p G. B. FINNEGANY, JR., ErAL 2,423,273
RECORDING CAHERA Original Fil'ed Jan. 29, 1940 7 Sheets-Sheet 3 Sept. 30, 1947: s. B. FINNEGAN, JR"; El'AL 2,423,273
RECORDING CAMERA Original Filed Jan. 29, I940 7 Shets-Sheet 4 Sept. 30, 1947. G. B. FINNEGAN, JR., ETAL RECORDING CAMERA Original Fi led Jan. 29, 1940 '7 Sheets-Sheet 6 ATTORNEY8 Sept. 30, 1947.
G. B. FINNEGAN, JR., EI'AL 7 2,423,273
RECORDING CAMERA Original Filed Jan. 29, 1940 7 Sheets-Sheet 7 En m2 I .WNN m. N L QR Ill-Ill lllululllllllll'll Patented Sept. 30, 1947 2,428.21: RECORDING camera's George B. Finnegan, Jr., Mountain Lakes, N. 1., r
and Hobart N. Durham, Munsey Park, N. Y.
Original application January 29, 1940, Serial No.
316,080, now Patent No. 2,336,076, dated Dccember '7, 1943. Divided and this application November 2, 1943, Serial No. 508,674
4. Claims. 1
The present invention relates to new and usei'ul improvements in recording the operation of motor vehicles and more particularly to improved photographic apparatus for making an automatic record of the course and manner of operation of the vehicles.
Objects and advantages of the invention will be set forth in part hereinafter and in part will be obvious herefrom, or may be learned by practice with the invention, the same being realized and attained by means of the instrumentallties and combinations pointed out in the appended claims. a
The invention consists in the novel parts, constructions, arrangements, combinations and improvements herein shown and described.
The accompanying drawings, referred to herein and constituting a part hereof, illustrate one embodiment of the invention, and together with the description, serve to explain the principles of the invention.
Of the drawings:
Pig, 1 is a fragmentary side elevation, partially in section, showing a typical and illustrative em- .embodiment of the present invention;
2 is a detailed vertical section through a camera in accordance with the present invention with the electrical wiring omitted;
Fig. 3 is a detailed horizontal section of the camera shown in Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 5 is a side elevation of a film magazine for use in the camera of Figs. 2 to 4;
Fig. 6 is a sectional view taken on the line 6--6 of Fig. 5;
Fig. 7 is a vertical sectional view of the control unit shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 8 is a sectional view taken on the line 8-8 of Fi '7;
Fig. 9 is a sectional view taken on the line 9-9 of Fig. 8;
- 2 automatically producing a continuous photographic record showing the course and manner of operation of a motor vehicle. The invention also has for its object theprovision of an improved camera which will rovide a photographic record of the improper operation of a motor vehicle so that such records may be used for the correction and disciplining of their driversas well as provide a record which will furnish pictorial evidence as to the traffic conditions at the time of an accident in which the .motor vehicle is involved together with comprehensive data as to the manner in which the vehicle was operated at the Fig. 10 is a fragmentary sectional view taken 1940, now Patent No. 2,336,076 dated December A The present invention has for its object the provision of .a novel and improved camera for time of the accident,
The invention further provides an automatically operated camera. which produces a series of periodic photographs, at a minimum of expense, showing the continuous course of the vehicle together with detailed operating data related to each picture enabling the determination of responsibility in the case of accident as well as providing data for the improvement of the operation of the vehicle not only in the driving habits of the driver but also in routing and scheduling of the vehicles.
In accordance with the illustrative embodiment of the invention, a motor vehicle is provided with a camera operating on relatively narrow strip film, such as 8 mm. motion picture film, and provided with a lens of relatively short focal length so as to include in each picture a maximum angle of view, as well as to insure not only that all of the road and scene within the angle of view are in focus, but also to permit instruments controlled by the operation of the vehicle to be contained within the camera casing and be substantially within the depth of focus of the camera lens.
The camera is preferably mounted at a considerable distance above the road, near the front and upper portion of the vehicle and is directed forwardly of the vehicle so as toshow the appreaching traffic and the roadway to he travelled. Means are provided for automatically taking successive photographs and for this purpose the film is exposed and advanced normally each time the vehicle has travelled a predetermined distance, say 500 feet, but it is also exposed and advanced at more frequent intervals when the conditions require that photographs be taken more frequently to record all of the conditions of operation; thus, when the vehicle is being steered around a substantial curve, the pictures are taken as often as every feet, and similar pictures are taken every 50 feet while the vehicle is being braked to slow it or bring it to a stop, and additional photographs are produced on the record film at the moment when the brake is first applied or whenever the vehicle is decelerated by braking or otherwise in excess of a predetermined.
Thus, the series of pictures will show the normal operation of the vehicle, the pictures taken while the vehicle is being steered will show overlapping portions of the roadway, the picture taken when the brake was initially applied will show the conditions ahead which required the application of the brake, the emergency of deceleration controlled picture will likewise show whether the excessive deceleration was caused by braking or a. collision, and the series of pictures during braking will show a succession of road scenes from which it can be accurately determined whether the operator-applied the brake sufficiently early to have been prudent in the case of an accident as well as to show whether the avoidance of an accident was due to his skill and judgment or was due to other causes.
Included in, and forming an integral part of each of the record pictures is a record of operating data such as vehicle speed, time, whether or not the vehicle was braked, whether the clutch was disengaged as in coasting, as well as any other desired factors which are of importance in connection with the proper operation of the vehicle.
Preferably, the camera is provided with a removable magazine which contains a substantial suppl of film so that the film need not be replenished over a long period of time, such as a weeks normal operation, and the magazines are preferably removable from the camera without film wastage or destruction of the previously made record thereby nabling each operator of the vehicle to have his own magazine so that he may be fairly charged with personal responsibility for the record of his own operations.
Provision is also made for protecting the camera against weather and dirt so that it may continue in operation without excessive attention over long periods of time and underall conditions of operation. The camera is preferably electrically controlled and powered, is difilcult to tamper with so as to produce an inaccurate or unduly favorable record.
It will be understood that the foregoing general description, and the following detailed description as well, are exemplary and explanatory of the invention, but are not restrictive thereof.
Referring now in detail to the accompanying drawings which show a typical and illustrative embodiment of the present invention, the recording camera is shown as mounted on the upper portion of a conventional motor vehicle, and the control assembly is mounted on the dash panel of the vehicle. The motor vehicle is provided with the usual steering wheel 10, brake pedal l I, clutch pedal I2, speedometer drive shaft l3, while above the operator, and preferably on the roof ll of the vehicle, is mounted the recording camera 15.
Figs. 2 to 6 illustrate in detail the construction of the embodied form of recording camera. The
camera is contained within a casing 20 which is preferably of rounded shape and may be suitably streamlined to reduce its air resistance. The shutter and film feeding portions of the camera are preferably located near the central portion of the casing, the motor driving mechanism and the data indicating instruments are preferably located in the rear portion of the casing and the 4 forward portion of the casing serves as a light trap, weather protecting means and as a support for the mirror for reflecting the instrument data into the camera lens and onto the photographic film.
' The camera lens 25 is mounted on a substantially horizontal axis and is preferably of short focal length, from 10 to 15 mm., and is threadedly secured into the lens opening at the front of the casting 26 which is bolted to the base plate 21, which in turn is bolted to the base 28 of the casing. The forward end of the casing is provided with a rectangular opening 29 of sufilcient size and so positioned not to interfere with the image of the roadway as formed by the lens.
Immediately behind the lens 25 is a rotary shutter 30 having a cutaway segmental area 32 through which the exposure is made, and this shutter is rotatably mounted on a stud 33 projecting from the casting 26. The periphery of shutter 30 is formed as a spur gear through which the shutter is rotatably driven from motor 15 at the rear of the camera. Motor 36 is provided with a shaft extension 37 journalled in casting 26 and rotates pinion 38 meshing with idler 39 which in turn drives idler 40 meshing with th .,gear face on shutter 30..
For permitting the shutter to be rotated only a single revolution at a time, a drum 42 is loosely mounted on shaft 31, and the interior of this drum is adapted to be engaged by the centrifugally expanded weights 43 which are pivotally mounted on fiange 44 also carried on shaft 31 and rotated thereby. Idler 40 is fixed to a snail cam 46 which rotates therewith and the radial portion of this cam is adapted to engage a detent pin 41 carried by arm 48 fixed to drum 42. As the shaft31 rotates, arm 48 and pin 41 are lifted into contact with the periphery of cam 48 ready to engage the radial portion of this cam to hold the gear 40, shutter 30, and shaft 31 against further revolution until the motor current shall have been interrupted. When the motor current is interrupted, the torque on shaft 31 is relieved and arm 48 falls by gravity, retracting the pin 41 from engagement with the cam 46, so as to condition the parts for another full shutter revolution when the motor is next energized.
Means are provided for feeding the film after each exposure and during the non-exposure portion of each shutter revolution, and where 16 mm. film is employed and the exposures are to be only half the width of the film, as in the illustrative embodiment, means are provided for feeding the film only one half the distance between adjacent perforations after each exposure. Fixed to rotate with gear 39 is a bevelled pinion 50 meshing with a bevel gear 5! on shaft 52 which is rotatably journalled in the brackets 53 and 54 extending forwardly from the casting 2G. Shaft 52 carries two similar cams 5B and 51 which are spaced slightly apart and are 180 degrees out of phase with each other. Feed fingers and 61 are pivotally mounted on vertical shaft 63 carried in brackets 53, 54 and at one end each of the feed fingers BI and II is formed with a tapered pin 65 which is adapted to engage in the usual film perforation. The other end; of the feed fingers 6D and BI are provided with box-like portions '0 surrounding the cams i8 and I1 so that the fingers are oscillated by rotation of the cams.
Means are provided for moving the feed fingers G0 and 6! up and -down on their shaft 63, the idle upward motion of the fingers taking place while the fingers are disengaged from the film, while the downward motion of theiingcrs occurs when one or the other of them is alternately engaged with a perforation. For this purpose. a g ide is mounted for vertical movement on shaft 83 and comprises three forwardly extending plates I8 in superposed relation with the fingers 88 and 8I between them, these plates being interconnected by the web II, and the upper and lower plates extending rearwardiy to engage the upper and lower portions of cam 12 mounted on the forward space of idler gear 88. Cam I2 as it rotates produces a gradual starting and stopping of the film approximating simple harmonic motion. and the plates I8 are apertured to flt over and be guided by the shaft 63.
Gear 88 is preferably rotated to make one and one half revolution for every revolution of cam I2 so that on feeding motions the fingers 88 and 8| are alternately engaged, and there is no rubbing of either of the fingers on the sensitized surface of the film during the non-feeding movement.
Motor 38 is preferably of suflicient power to produce a rapid acceleration of the shaft 81, and
this speed and the angular opening of the shutter area 32 are such as to produce the desired length of exposure, say one twenty-fifth or one-thirtieth of a second.
A film magazine is provided for holding the film supply and is shown in detail in Figures 5 and 6. As embodied, this comprises a'metal box 88 having a removable side 8|. Within the box are a pair of film spools 82 and 83 adapted to hold a relatively long strip of photographic film, such as 16 mm. motion picture film. The spools 82 and 83 are mounted on studs 88 and 85, one of which is riveted to the case 88, while the other stud 88 is riveted to the cover 8|. At the center of spool 82 is a hub portion 88 leaving the spool free to rotate on the stud 88.. On one side of spool 82 is a spring-pressed pawl 81 engageable with the teeth of ratchet 88 which is formed integral with a friction disc 88 mounted on the reduced end of stud 88 and rotatably projecting through an aper ture in the cover plate 8i. Similarly, spool 88 is mounted on its stud 88 and the friction disc 88 projects through the magazine. wall 88 so that the disc and spool may be rotated. The film is threaded from spool 82 over an idler roll 88 which is freely rotatable and contained within the cas ing 88, and passes between a spring-pressed pressure plate 8| and the forward wall 82 of the casing, thence over sprocket 83 and on to spool 83. The front wall 82 of the casing 88 is formed with a suitable aperture 84 through which the exposure ismade, this aperture registering with an opening and casting 28 immediately behind the lens, and also with the shutter opening 32.
For rotating the take-up spool 83 as the film is fed downwardly past exposure position by the fingers 88 and 8|, a friction driving wheel 81 is rotatably mounted on shaft 88 journalled in brackets 88 and I88, and is driven through pinions "I from the shaft 31, wheel 81 contacting lightly with the friction disc 88 so as to take up the slack in the film below the pressure plate 8|, as well as to rotate the sprocket wheel 83 as its teeth are engaged by the perforations in the film. Sprocket wheel 88 is connected to pinion I83 meshing with idler I88 to drive gear I88through pinion I88a fast to gear I88, and on the'face of gear I88 is mounted an eccentrically located pin I88 from which the footage indicator is actuated. Pin I88 engages with the T-head I" on slide rod I88, which is slidable in guides I88, against the pressure of spring II8, all of these parts, as well as the gears I83, I88 and I85 being preferably located within the magazine and to one side of the film spool 83. At the other end of rod I88 is fi ed a double pawl II2 engageable with either side and a footage indicating ratchet wheel II 3 rotatably mounted within the magazine casing, and graduated footage indications which are visible through an aperture I in the side wall of the casing 88. The pawl portions of the double pawl I I2 are'preferably spaced further apart than the chord across ratchet II3, and rod I88 has considerable lateral play in the guides I88 so that the upper pawl alone is engaged in the position shown in Fig. 5. As film is fed past the exposure aper ture 88, sprocket 83 is rotated to actuate pawl H2 and thereby advance the ratchet wheel footage indicator II3.
Preferably, the magazine is adapted to contain film which is double width, and means are provided for positively indicating on the magazine when one half width of the film has been exposed, and for preventing incorrect insertion of the magazine within the camera. For this purpose, a slide bar I28 is mounted within the rear portion of the magazine casing 88, and is also slidable within the internal housing I2I within the magazine. Bar I28 is preferably longer than the magazine so that it may project above the top of the magazine, and bar I28 is continuously urged downwardly by a spring I22 encircling the bar and compressed between pin I23 and the internal housing I2I. Bar I28 is held in theposition shown in Fig. 2 until the filmdn the magazine has been practically exhausted on the first half of this exposure,v and means are provided for then releasing the bar and allowing spring I22 to move the bar downwardly as soon as the magazine has been removed from the camera after exhaustion of the film.
0n therear wall of the magazine casing 88 is a detent I28 projecting alongside of the bar I28 and into the path of a pivoted latch I28 on bar I28 normally held in the position shown by means of a light spring. A pin I21 on ratchet wheel H3 "engages with an extension I28 on a slide I28 on the inner rear wall of the casing 88, and another extension I38 engages with the lower half of the pivoted detent I28 so that as the last two or three feet of film are being used, the extensions I28 and I38 are moved downwardly to release the detent I28 from the stop I25, thereby freeing spring I22 to permit movement of rod I28. Thereafter, and upon the movement .of the magazine from the camera casing, the bar I28 is projected through the lower wall of the magazine 88, and the upper end of detent I28 engages with the stop I82 mounted on the inner housing I 2| to prevent reverse movement of the bar I28.
A magazine receiving chamber is provided within the camera so as to accurately locate the magazine with its aperture 84 in registering position with the lens, and with the other parts in operative relation. For this purpose,casting 28 extends rearwardly along one side of the magazine, and together with the casting 28' forming the other side, provides a narrow cavity into which -the magazine may be inserted. Vertically extending bosses 28" projecting inwardly from the wall casting 28' cooperate with springs I88 to locate the magazine laterally of its cavity while another spring is provided at the rear of the magazine to insure properseatingof the forward portion of the magazine against the exposure gate. On the upper andlowerportions of the magazine are provided resilient handles I36, the upper one of which may be deformed for accurate vertical D- sitioning of the magazine in the cavity.
After the entire length of film has been exposed for one half its width, the magazine is removed from the cavity and may be reinserted with ita other end down, thereby bringing the other half width of the film into exposure position, and the film is thereafter fed reversely, spool 82 acting as a take-up spool. During this operation, the lower pawl of double pawl II2 falls into engagement with the duplicate reversed ratchet II 3 so as to cause the reverse movement of the footage indicator.
Means are provided for covering the opening in the top of the camera casing over the magazine cavity, and for this purpose a cover I40 i hinged at I over the cavity, and is provided with a finger loop I42 pivoted to the rear of the cover 40 and provided with a latch I43 which may project into a slot in the casing. Within the cover I40 is a transversely extending pin I44 to engage the upper resilient magazine handle I36.
In order to improve the operation of the camera in all kinds of weather, and to reduce the necessity for frequent cleaning of the lens and other parts, a weather shutter is provided substantially closing the opening 29 at the front of the camera casing. This shutter comprises a parti-cylindrical sheet metal member I50 supported at the forward ends of arms II and I52 which are pivotally mounted on brackets I53 on the inside of the forward end of the camera casing, and means are provided for automatically lifting the particylindrical shutter I50 in synchronism with the opening of the shutter 30. These means comprise a solenoid-I55 having an armature I56 connected to link I51 pivotally mounted on a support I58 and connected at its other end to a link I59 which is pivotally connected to the rear of one arm I5I so that as solenoid I55 is energized the shutter I50 is lifted and is thereafter allowed to drop by gravity when the solenoid is de-energized.
The data as to the manner of operation of the vehicle, such as time, speed, braking, etc., is preferably recorded on the photographic film in line with the perforations and preferably just to the one side of the exposure area to which the data relates. Thus, along one side edge of each picture is the narrow vertical panel extending from the bottom of the picture up to the edge of the perforation (if that frame is perforated), in which panel is contained the photographic image of the various instruments. Near the front of the camera casing, and to one side of the aperture 29is mounted a narrow vertically extending fiat mirror I60 carried in a metal frame I6I which is pivotally mounted at its upper and lower end by means of pivot bearings I62 supported in a suitable bracket attached to the forwardly extending ledge I63 of the main casting I21. Mirror I60 may be adjusted about its pivot by means of a set screw I64 pressing against the forward side of the metal frame I6I against the tension of leaf spring I65 mounted on a side wall I66. Another side wall I61 extends vertically upward from the ledge I63, and is substantially radial with respect to the optical center of the lens 25, and therefore does not obstruct any substantial part of the held of vision of the lens.
Near the rear portion of the camera, and positioned preferably to one side of the film magazine is a vertically extending panel of instruments and other indicia, the images of which may be reflected by the mirror I60 back into the lens 26 so as to form the focussed image on the edge portion of the film to one side of the road scene image area. By using the mirror in this way, the indicia on the instruments can be brought into relatively sharp focus on the film at the same time as the lens is properly focussed for the road scene, and this is so even when relatively large apertures are employed. The mirror more than doubles the distance within the casing and makes its distance suificiently large for good focus considering the extremely short focal length of the lens used and its great depth of focus.
While a wide variety of instruments and other indicia may be presented for recording on the record film, Fig. 4 shows these instruments as being a clock and a speedometer, associated with symbols which may be illuminated when the brake is applied, when the clutch is disengaged, and when some other occurrence takes place such as deceleration in excess of a predetermined normal maximum. These instruments aremounted on a bent plate l10 extending vertically and fastened to the outer rear portion of the casting 26 so that the face of the instruments is towards the mirror I60.
Plate I10 is provided with a narrow vertically extending rectangular opening in which is mounted a transparent sheet. Certain areas of the sheet are provided with letters or other symbols such as the abbreviation for emergency in area I12, the work brake in I13, clutch in I14, while the speedometer dial I15 and clock dial I16 are suitably spaced to provide room for their working parts. Behind the plate I10 and in registering relation with the various indicia areas I12 to I16'are a plurality of small 1ightproof boxes or cells I19, each provided with its own small electric lamp I of suflicientintenslty to cause an adequate exposure of the indicia images on the photographic film.
The speedometer I82, of conventional construction, is provided with an extended shaft I" so that the speedometer hand I84 may lie closely against the translucent portion of plate I10 and cast a sharp shadow thereagainst, the translucent surface I10 bearing a speed scale in opaque numerals.
The clock I86 is also mounted behind the panel I10 in a. similar manner having its hands closely adjacent to the opaque numerals on the translucent insert I16, and this clock may be provided with a. winding stem I80 projecting through the outside of the casing so as to be readily accessible to the driver.
The indicia. in panels I12, I13 and I14 are opaque letters on the translucent background which may be illuminated by the individual lamps within the separate light cells, and these indicia are recorded only when the corresponding individual lamps behind them are illuminated. v
Inasmuch as the camera is adapted to hold a relatively long strip of film, say 50 or 100 feet, and the film consumption is relatively slow, it is preferable to provide means for interrupting the operation of the camera and for signalling the driver when the film supply is exhausted. For this purpose, slide I29 on the rear of the camera magazine is provided with a rearwardly extending boss I38 which is adapted to contact with the roller I90 on the end of switch operating arm I9I- supported on and controlling the operation of switch I92. As slide I29 is moved in one direction or the other by its engagement 9 with pin I21, the has "I is moved across roller ISO to intemipt the current supply of the motor 36, and also to energize a warning sisnal for the driver. 7
In order to protect the indicia panel I15 against sunlight or lisht from oncoming headlights such as might otherwise enter through the exposure aperture 2! and cause the indicia in panels I12, 113, I14 to appear as though illuminated, a vertically extending wall I94 projects forwardly from the casting 25 for a considerable distance almost interlying with wall I51, thereby forming a light trap to prevent external light of appreciable intensity shining on the panel I10.
n the inner face of shutter'disc 30 and adjacent to an edge of the exposure aperture 94 on the magazine'and preferably slightly nearer the perforated edge by which the film is being fed, that is at the extreme left of the aperture looking from the front, is a very small spot of luminous paint which serves as a constant source of weak actinic light and will fog the edge of the film on prolonged exposure. In this way, any prolonged stoppa e of the vehicle is indicated by a fogged edge portion 395 of the film, thereby enabling one to see at a glance where the driver stopped and to estimate, by the fog density, the
length of the stop. In usual practice, the luminous paint will be such as to produce an appreciable fog in about three or four minutes.
In accordance with the present invention, the road pictures are adapted to be taken periodically at relatively infrequent intervals, say every 500 feet, or ten times per mile of vehicle travel. In addition, a picture is taken whenever various unusual conditions occur, such as whenthe vehicle is sharply steered, when the brake is applied, and when the deceleration of the vehicle exceeds a predetermined maximum, as in a collision. While the unusual conditions continue, as with a normal or emergency application of the brakes, additional pictures are taken at much more frequent intervals, say every 50 feet or 100 pictures per mile of vehicle travel, and the taking of these more frequent pictures continue until the turning, braking or excessive deceleration has stopped. In addition, means are preferably provided for causing the indicia panel to be properly illuminated a small fraction of a second in advance of the actual exposure so that the filaments of the lamps 305, 335, 32!, 333 and 331 illuminating the indicia will be at proper intensity at the time of the exposure.
As shown in Figs. 1 and 'I to 10 of th drawing, the control mechanism is preferably formed as a unit which is detachably connected to some convenient portion of the vehicle such as the front body panel 200. This control unit 252 is adapted to be connected to the conventional speedometer shaft which is driven from the transmission box in the usual way, and this shaft is shown as a flexible shaft 203, which is connected by'a suitable fitting 254 to the under side of unit 202. Shaft 203 drives main shaft 205 rotatably mounted within the casing 255 by means of antifriction bearings 251 and 253, and provided at its upper end with a suitable fitting 259 by which the main shaft 205 may drive flexible shaft 2| 0. Main shaft 2I5 ls also provided with a bevel gear 2| 1 meshing with bevel gear 2l2 fixed to the end of the speedometer 'take-ofl shaft2i2 journalled in anti-friction bearings 2 and which may be connected by fitting 2 I 5 to the short speedometer shaft 2 for driving the conventional speedometer 2l1.
For causing the normal exposures at the rate of ten per mile, main shaft 205 is provided with worm 220 meshing with worm gear 22l mounted on cross shaft 222 which also carries worm 223 meshing with worm gear 224 which is carried by the vertical shaft 225. Extending from one side of worm gear 224 is a short pin 226 adapted to engage plunger 223 momentarily once each revolution of worm gear 224, and plunger 228 is adapted to contact with switch operating arm 223 of switch 230 which closes the switch once each revolution of worm gear 224 or about ten times per mile of vehicle travel.
For the actuation of the shutter at more frequent intervals, say one hundred times per mile, or approximately every fifty feet, a pin 23!! pro-. jects laterally from the side of gear 22!, and is adapted to make momentary contact with the inner end of plunger 23f which cooperates with the switch arm 232 of switch 233 to close this switch momentarily.
Also enclosed within the control unit 202 are various other switches including, as illustratively embodied, the clutch operated switch 240, the brake operated switches 25llj'and 25l, the emergency operated "switch'25il, and the sharp turn switch 210.
Separate switches 250 and 25l are preferably employed so that their actuation may be differently timed, and as illustrated, switch 250 is adapted to be actuated slightly before the actuaation of switch 25l, as the slide rod 253 is raised.
Clutch operated switch 240 is provided with switch operating arm 24! which engages with the cam surface formed on slide rod 242, and slide rod 242 is moved to switch closing position by disengagement of the clutch through push pull wire 243 normally held under tension by spring 244, one end of the push pull wire 243 being connected to the lower end of bar 242 while the other end is attached to the clutch pedal I2. Likewise, the brake operated switches 250 and 25| provided with similar switch operating arms cooperating with the cam surface of slide rod 253 are adapted to be closed as brake pedal H is depressed to I apply the brake. Spring 254 is connected to the rod 253 and holds push pull wire 255 in tension between the lower end of slide bar 253 and the brake pedal Ii. Push pull wires 243 and 255 are enclosed in their individual sheaths 241 and 251, respectively, which are anchored'to the chassis by clamp 245 near the pedals ll, l2, the other end of these sheaths being fitted to the lower wall of casing 206.
For controlling the camera and indicia when the vehicle is turning, and more frequent taking of pictures may be required in order to make a complete record of the course of the vehicle and the incidents occurring therealong, another switch 210 is provided and is closed by centrifugal force developed by the turning of the vehicle in either direction. As embodied, the switch 210 is pro pendulum is preferably contained within an oiltight housing 215 filled with some relatively viscons liquid such as lubricating oil or hydraulic brake fluid which will have the tendency of damping minor vibrational movements-of the pendulum, allowing it to respond to a continuous development of centrifugal force in the same directlon over a moderate period of time, say one-half to two seconds.
In orderto actuate the camera when the deceleration of the vehicle exceeds a predetermined maximum. as in case of a collision with a fixed object or a rough or jolting application of the brakes such as might damage the cargo or cause injury to bus passengers, another switch 250 is provided which is illustratively shown as a double pole, single throw switch to be actuated by switch arm 26!, which rests against the flat on cam 262 connected to the freely swinging pendulum 263 having an adjustable bob 2G4, and likewise immersed in some damping liquid within the housing 265. As the vehicle is suddenly decelerated, the pendulum 203 swings forwardly of the vehicle by inertia, thereby shifting the switch arm 26I to its operative position.
Also contained within the control unit 202 is a relay 200 which is preferably of a relatively slow make and slower break type, and is adapted to close such of the branch circuits as are necessary to permit the periodically operating switches to be rendered effective, at the same time allowing the occasionally operated switch to be rendered effective. That is, this relay permits the pictures to be taken every fifty feet by closing of the switch 230 while the brake is depressed and switches 250 and I are also closed and have caused a picture to be taken. The action is similar with respect to the occasional taking of pie. tures caused by switches 260 and 210.
Control unit 202 is connected with the camera by means of a flexible shaft 2| 0 which is connected to drive speedometer I82 through the bevelled gearing 290, and the sheath surrounding the flexible shaft 2I0 also serves as a protective covering for the group of conductors 2! which interconnect the control unit 202 and the camera I5.
Fig. 11 of the drawings is a circuit diagram showing the illustrative manner in which the electrical connections are made between the various parts which have been described in connection with the other figures of the drawings. As embodied, the power is derived from any suitable source such as a storage battery 300 which is grounded to the chassis at 30I and is connected to the recording camera and control apparatus through a master switch 303, which leads to the movable contact of switches 230, 233, 240, 250, 25I, 210, as well as both movable contacts of the switch 260. In addition, the current is supplied to the master switch 303 to the lights 304 and 305 for the speedometer and clock, respectively, in the camera casing I5, and is also supplied to one terminal of a pilot or signal light 306, located at some convenient point, such as on the dashboard of the vehicle. Whenever the master switch 303 is closed, current is sup-plied to lamps shutter solenoid I55. An inductive resistance 3H is in circuit with the motor, and the windings of the motor are shunted by condenser 3I0 so that the motor action will be delayed at all times with respect to the shutter I as well as with respect to the various lamps illuminating the indicia panel I10.
when the brake is applied, switch 250 is closed and current is supplied through conductor 320 to the brake indicia lamp 32I, lighting the lamp so that the corresponding indicia will be registered on the film. Simultaneously, switch I is closed and current is supplied through conductor 322 to the coil 3I2 of relay 200, this connection also supplying current to contacts 3 so that current is also supplied to motor 35 and solenoid I55, again causing the motor to expose the lllm and feed the film, as the weather shutter I50 is opened. As the coil 3I2 is energized, relay armature 324 is attracted, breaking the circuit at contacts 3I0 and 3 after the lapse of a fraction of a second, and making the circuit at contact 32!, thereby connecting switch 233 in circuit so that succeeding pictures are taken periodically by rotation of switch actuating gear 22I every onehundredth of a mile through current supplied from the battery, through switch 233, contact 325, and thence to the motor 30 and solenoid I55. During the fraction of a second required for the attraction of the relay armature 324 prior to the opening of contacts 3I0, 3H, and the closing of contact 325, sufficient amount of time has elapsed for the lighting of the indicia lights and for a full revolution of the shutter 30 driven by the motor 36. Thus, when the brake is applied, the camera is instantly actuated, and continues to take successive pictures at an accelerated rate so long as the brake remains depressed, and this accelerated rate of taking pictures also occurs when the vehicle is turned sharply, when excessive deceleration occurs, or in general, when the vehicle deviates greatly from its normal straight course at a substantially uniform speed.
In case the vehicle is turned sharply, switch 270 is closed, supplying current to coil 3, motor 36 and solenoid I in the same manner as with 306 is normally out but is lit by the closing of switch I02 when the film supply is exhausted.
During the normal operation switch 230 is closed every one-tenth of a mile, causing current to be supplied to the middle contact 3 I0 of relay 280. Contact 3l0 is normally closed as are the relay contacts 3| I, and current is supplied through 3I0 to 3 and thence to the coil 3I2 of relay 280, as well as to the motor conductor 3I5 supplying energy to motor 35 and to weather switch 25I (not 250).
When excessive deceleration occurs, switch 230 is closed as to both itspoles, and current is supplied through contacts 330 to the relay winding 3i 2, motor 36 and solenoid I55, and current is also supplied through contact 33I to the indicia panel light 333 which illuminates indicia I12.
Disengagement oi the clutch closes switch 240 which does not of itself cause the taking of any record pictures, but the closing of this switch merely causes indicia light 335 to be illuminated so that the fact that the clutch was disengaged will be recorded when the taking of a picture occurs for any other reason. Thus, a succession of pictures showing the clutch disengaged, and a fairly high or increasing speed would indicate dangerous coasting down grade.
A spare indicia light 331 is provided which may be illuminated when the gears are in neutral, when the doors of the bus are open, or when any other desired condition occurs.
Fig. 12 shows a typical portion of a record film produced by the illustrated embodiment. The film 340 is shown as standard 16 mm. motion picture film, with each of the record images covering one quarter of a normal frame. The road image is designated as 34I, while the series of indicia records are designated 342 and are positioned at the edges of the film and between the film feeding perforations 343. The logged portion 396 shows that the'vehicle was stopped for a considerable period of time between two of the successive exposures. The images at the left hand half of the film are in sequence, and the inverted images at the right hand side of the film represent travel of the vehicle after the magazine has been inverted.
The invention in its broader aspects is not limited to the specific mechanisms shown and described but departures may be made therefrom within the scope of the accompanying claims without departing from the principles of the invention and without sacrificing its chief advantages.
What we claim is:
1. In a camera for recording the operation of motor vehicles, the combination of a lens for making simultaneous exposures of near and distant objects, means for feeding successive areas of sensitized material into exposure position, a mirror positioned in the field of view of the lens, an indicator showing the operation of a vehicle control and included in the field of view of the lens by the mirror, and means operated by actuation of said vehicle control for exposing said indicator and a distant scene simultaneously through said lens.
2. In a camera for recording the operation of a motor vehicle, the combination of means for feeding successive areas of sensitized material into an exposure position, a lens for forming an image of a distant scene on the film, a series of indicia showing the operations of a plurality of the vehicle controls, a mirror in front of the lens and at an edge of the field of view of the lens for reflecting the indicia into the lens and onto the exposure position, and means operated by actuation of at least one of said vehicle controls for exposing the indicia in said series corresponding to said control and simultaneously exposing said distant scene.
3. In a camera for recording the operation of a motor vehicle, the combination of means for feeding successive areas of sensitized material into an exposure position, a lens for forming an image of a distant scene on the film, a series of indicia showin the operations o1. a plurality of the vehicle controls, a mirror in front of the lens and at an edge of the field of view of the lens for reflecting the indicia into the lens and onto the exposure position, and means operated by actuation of at least oneof said vehicle controls for exposing the indicia in said series corresponding to said control and simultaneously exposing said distant scene, said means comprising exposure lights adjacent the respective indicia, said lights being selectively illuminated by operation 01' the respective Vehicle controls relating to the indicia adjacent thereto.
4. In a recording camera, the combination of means for feeding successive areas of film into exposure position, a lens for forming a distant scene image at the exposure position, a plurality of indicia included in the field of view of the lens, shutter means for simultaneousl momentarily exposing adjacent parts of the film through the lens to said distant scene and said indicia respectively, and means automatically operated by selected vehicle controls used in driving the vehicle for momentarily illuminatin selected indicia 51- multaneously with said exposures.
GEORGE B. FINNEGAN, JR. HOBART N. DURHAM.
REFERENCES orrEn The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PA'I'EN'I'S Number Name Date 2,323,576 Sperry July 6, 1943 2,278,357 Madden .Mar. 31, 1942 349,133 Anthony et al Sept. 14, 1888 1,810,002 Arnold June 18, 1931 2,325,335 Meyers July 2'1, 1943 2,005,366 Gaty June 18, 1935 2,148,119 Grist Feb. 21, 1939 1,143,522 Faber June 15, 1915 1,411,689 Frederick et a1 Apr. 4, 1922 2,336,081 Finnegan et a1. Dec, 7, 1943 1,764,066 Chamberlin June 1'', 1930 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 3- F a e Jan. 6. 986
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|U.S. Classification||352/93, 352/236, 352/240, 396/429, 346/45, 346/107.2|