US 2433088 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 23, 1947. A. H. BULBULIAN MASK STRUCTURE Filed July 22 1945 3 Sheets-Sheet '1 ARTHUR -H B'U'LBUL IAN Dec. 23, 1947. u u| A 2,433,088
MASK STRUCTURE Filed July 22, 1943 I5 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG. 4
ARTHUR H. BULBULIAN Dec. 23-, 1947. A. H. BULBULIAN MASK STRUCTURE Filed July 22, 1943 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 ARTHUR H. BULBULIAN Patented Dec. 23, 1947 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE MASK STRUCTURE Arthur H. Bulbulian, Rochester, Minn. Application July 22, 1943, Serial No. 495,966 Claims. (01. 128-146) My invention relates to mask structures particularly designed for use of aviators at high elevations and has for its object to provide a new and improved form of mask which at the same time will provide exceptional protection and comfort in being worn, perfect sealing of the face of the aviator even where unusual contours exist, short and easy breathing passages making possible simple and easy breathing, and practically complete elimination of liability of frosting at exceedingly high elevations and corresponding low temperatures.
It has been found in practice that masks for controlling delivery of oxygen to aviators going to high altitudes, in the extremely low temperatures which are encountered at such high altitudes, may be found to seal ineffectively, to frost up so as sometimes to entirely close the exhaling valve, to give inefiicient protection to the cheeks and sides of the face with resulting quite frequent frosting, which do not comfortably support the chin and which are held upon the face of the aviator in such a manner that the chin may slip forward to block valve operation and condensation may flow back under the chin. There further has been great difficulty in sealing the mask upon the sides of the nose.
It is a principal object of my invention to overcome all of these difficulties by simple and effective means which will result in the production of a mask structure which can be comfortably worn and will eliminate all of the difficulties above mentioned.
It is a further object of my invention to provide in a mask structure quite deep flaps to overlie the cheeks of a wearer and to form on the insides of these cheek flaps and at a substantial distance inwardly from the margins of said flaps, semi-lunar inwardly turned flaps open at their inner edges which will normally engage and fit into the hollow part of the cheek and which when subject to positive pressure in the mask structure will be forced against the cheek portions.
It is a further object of my invention to p ovide such semi-lunar inner fiap portions in conjunction with very deep wide face-engaging extensions of the mask structure which will have the effect of protecting the most exposed parts of the face and those most likely to be frostbitten.
It is a further object of my invention to continue said wide extensions under the chin thickened and curved in a manner to give at the same time a convenient chin rest when the mask is worn, and to prevent the chin being thrust forward so as to cut off the exhalation passages or block the exhaling valve.
It is a further object of my invention to prepare the aforesaid chin rest so as to make it of substantial thicknessand to form a barrier or raised rim against condensation within the breathing chamber so that such condensation will not flow back under the chin and get under the cheek parts and in that way produce serious discomfort.
It is a further object of my invention to so modify the spring grip members at the nose of my Patent No. 2,323,199 as to materially improve both their permanence and gripping quality, to wit, by making the annularly disposed finger portion on the end of each arm in the form of a loop and by underlying said loop adjacent the contact of the rubber against the face of the wearer with a pad of fabric material all embedded in and beneath layers of the rubber of the mask.
The full objects and advantages of my invention will appear in connection with the detailed description thereof given in the appended specification, and the novel features which produce the aforesaid improvements and advantages in use will be particularly pointed out in the claims.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a plan view of my mask viewed from the open side thereof and having a part broken away to show the exhalation tube outlets.
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary sectional View taken on line 2-2 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a sectional view taken on line 3-3 viewed in the direction of the arrows.
Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken on line 4-4 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken on line 5--5 of Fig. 4.
Fig. 6 is a side elevation view of the mask with straps attached.
Fig. '7 is a plan view of the mask taken from the outside, being the reverse of the showing of Fig. 1.
Fig. 8 is a side plan view of an end of the nose-gripping wire with the rubber removed to show the form and relative position of the angularly disposed finger and pad associated therewith.
As illustrated my mask comprises a main body part III, a nose-receiving part II, extended cheek engaging parts I2 and I3 extending into a bottom part [4, Figs. 1 and 4, which is cupped or convexly curved as indicated at IS in Fig. 4. The bottom part I4 is extended into a heavy rim.
member I6, Figs. 1 and l, which provides a ridge or ledge ill and a trough l8. The main body part 9 is formed on the inside with a substantially straight and plane-faced front wall 32, which provides the outer limit of the breathing chamber.
The arrangement of cupped lower part [5 and rim it provides a rest for the chin of the wearer and prevents the chin from slipping over the exhalation valve l8, Figs. 1 and 4, and at the same time the trough l8 furnishes a trap for any moisture which condenses and tends to accumulate within the breathing chamber l9 formed within the body of the mask when it is applied to the face of a wearer. A microphone chamber 26 is provided in the front wall 32. Within this chamber a microphone, not shown, may be positioned, and a normally closed tube 2| leads to a channel 22 within the microphone chamber 29 through which the wire to the micro phone, also not shown, will be introduced.
A tube 23 leadsat an outward angle from the bottom portion l4, E5 of the main mask body and is adapted to be connected with a demandtype oxygen delivering device, which may be used with or without a reservoir rebreathing bag. The demand-type oxygen supplying and controlling means, the source of oxygen and the reservoir rebreathing bag, if one is used, are of known constructions and in and of themselves form no part of my invention, for which reason they have not been shown. The channel 24 leading through tube 23 branches at 25, following the course indicated in dotted lines at 25 in Figs. 1 and 4, so that inhalation gases are drawn into the breathing chamber l9 immediately below the opening of the nostrils thereinto and at the sides of the front wall H) and of the mouth as the mask is worn.
' An outwardly projected member 28 forms an exhalation chamber 29. A round opening 30 formed by an annular rib 3| is adapted to receive the exhalation valve it}, Figs. 1 and 4. The exhalation valve l8, of standard construction, is provided with a valve member 33 which engages the outer face of valve 18. This valve. member is of standard construction and blocks any entrance of inhalation gases to the breathing chamber It. From the exhalation chamber 21 extend two passages 34 and 35 formed by front wall 32 and the projecting mask member 28, which latter has extension legs 36 and 31 to complete the passages 34 and 35. The passages 34 and 35, as perhaps best indicated in Figs. 4 and 7, are very short, extend directly downward, and surround or straddle the tube 23 which encloses the inhalation passageway 24.
This close compact arrangement in a mask which completely covers the cheeks and chin and may be worn with a high degree of comfort, insures very easy breathing and concentrates the warm exhalation gases so that the valve 32 will not freeze shut regardless of the degree of cold.
The passages 34 and 35 are wide and fiat and have bottom channels 38 and 39 which will receive any liquid condensate and quickly discharge it from the mask. Even if some ice should form adjacent the points 33 and 39, a little manipulation of the lower parts of tubes 38 and 3'! at and adjacent the points 38 and 39 will quickly crumble and permit immediate removal of said ice. But the travel of warm gases of exhalation is so short that ice will only form at the extreme edges of the tubes 31. These tubes are made fiat and long, as shown, not only to facilitate drainage from the inside of the mask, but to maintain at all times relative large exhalation area which enables exhalation to take place even under pressure of great excitement with substantially the same case as when exhaling in the open air. The passageway 35, as indicated in Figs. 1 and 2, is not only flattened but is made wide enough to permit the fingers to be introduced into the exhalation chamber 29 for positioning the exhalation valve 18, when that is desired, for breaking ice if there is any formed about the tube 23 where it contacts the exhalation chamber '29 at 42 and also permits opening into the exhalation chamber 29 to permit inspection.
The side parts l2 and I3, when the mask is worn, cover the face and chin of the wearer from points just below the eyes to well back on the cheeks. As worn, these flaps or cheek extensions thus protect all parts of the face of the wearer not covered by helmet and jacket collar, thus insuring that the wearer will not have his face frozen at high altitudes or burned from fire caused by accident or enemy action.
With the cheek flaps l2 and I3 extended so far outwardly, there might be difiiculty in making an effective seal.
In order to secure against leakages which would be likely to happen where bony or hollow cheeks are involved, I have provided a pair of inwardly turned flaps 40 and 4|, which, as indicated at 43, Fig. 5, are formed integrally with the main body of the cheek parts l2 and I 3, and extend inwardly toward the face of the wearer at an angle indicated at 44 in Fig. 5. These flaps may be of any desired shape or extent and will be located toward the inner portions of the side parts l2 and I3, and preferably will have arcuate free margins and be of a semi-lunar shape. The flaps 4E! and 4! will tend to enter irregular or depressed contours of the sides of the face of a wearer and will be firmly seated in sealing engagement therewith. This arrangement enables the extended cheek covering parts [2 and I3 with all their comfort and protecting advantages to be used without any tendency to produce an insufficient sealing of the breathing chamber upon the face of the wearer.
As a means of securing against any possible leakage at the critical point of contact of the mask with the sides of the nose of the wearer, I employ a modified form of the wire nose-gripping member covered by Patent No. 2,323,199. In this improved form the main transverse arched wire 45, Figs. 1, 4, .6 and 8, and the inturned arms 46 and 41, are substantially those of the aforesaid patent except that the inward bend of arms 46, 47 is made greater and presses the nose margins closer together as indicated at 48 in Fig. 1. To enable this arrangement to meet the added strains on the rubber of the mask and at the same time to make it comfortable to be worn, I have made the angularly disposed fingers at the ends of arms 66 and G1 in the form of a circular loop 49, Fig. 8. Beneath this loop I have placed a disc pad 56 of some strong cloth or fabric which is preferably rubber impregnated as well as embedded in the rubber of the body of the mask. This pad 59 receives the inward thrust of the fingers 49 against the rubber covering of the mask and through that against the nose of the wearer, as indicated in Figs. 3 and 8, distributing the pressure and rendering the construction durable and at the same time comfortable.
The mask of this application has the very great advantage of being at the same time unusually comfortable and protective in wear, effective in the seal maintained upon the contacted surfaces of the face of the wearer, and extremely eflicient in the matter of ease of breathing effected by short direct passage control.
A great advantage resides in the employment of Wide cheek engaging parts which cover most all of the cheek parts from just below the eyes in combination with a chin engaging part which covers and protects all parts of the chin including those parts of the chin which extend down into the neck.
It is a further important advantage of my invention that I have combined with these wide cheek parts, inturned flaps integrally united along one edge with the insides of the cheek engaging parts of the mask and so positioned thereon as to provide a means of. adapted contact with irregular and bony parts of the face and cheeks of the wearers to effectively seal the mask upon and over said parts and to effect this sealing with great efficiency.
It is a further substantial advantage of my invention, aiding in the sealing effect, that the Wide cheek-engaging parts connect with the nosereceiving part of the mask and are held at their point of this junction firmly against the depressed portions at the sides of the nose by spring arms having fingers protected by fabric pads so that a substantial degree of pressure may be exerted at this point without danger of breaking through the covering of rubber and without discomfort to the wearer.
It is a further advantage of my invention that the outwardly-extended cheek covering parts are formed and positioned to permit the formation in conjunction therewith of a chin rest and a supporting ridge at its inner margin, so that not only is the chin covered and held comfortably in the mask, but the chin is prevented from slipping forward to engage and block the inhalation valve, and, further, so that the ridge or rim forming part of this chin rest and guard at the same time forms a trough for receiving condensate and carrying it away from the wearers face.
It is a further and substantial advantage of my invention that notwithstanding the large degree of protective covering over the face and chin of the wearer which my mask provides, the exhalation valve and passageways and the inhalation tube and passageways are so related to each other and to their entrance into the breathing chamber within the mask that the mask is made very compact and of relatively small dimensions, and the aforesaid breathing passage are all so short and of such large cross-sectional area that easy chamber wide and flatly triangular, of very short 6 exhalation valve and chamber centrally positioned and opening from the breathing chamber through the-lower part of said wall, a chin-receiving part extending into a substantially rigid rim spaced from said wall so as to prevent the chin from contacting the exhalation valve, said part being shaped and positioned to contact the chin with a high degree of comfort and to form a trough outside said chin-receiving part at the bottom of the'breathing chamber for the accumulation of condensate adjacent said exhalation valve and to prevent condensate from wetting the chin and face of the wearer, and an opening extending from the bottom of the trough into the exhalation chamber and discharging to the exhalation outlet outside of and subject to exhalation pressure in the breathing chamber to effect continuous rapid evacuation of accumulated condensate.
2. A mask for use in delivering oxygen at high altitudes, comprising a body portion having a nose-receiving part at the upper limit thereof, side parts extending therefrom and uniting in a chin-receiving part, said side parts being of broad transverse width and contacting large areas of the face and chin'and extending in each direction from close under the eyes as worn, and flap means integrally united along one edge with the insides of each of said side parts, the lines of union being positioned inwardly a considerable distance from the outer edges thereof to bring the free edges of the flap means near the inner edges of the side parts at the breathing chamber as the mask is worn so as to permit exhalation pressure to be exerted inside said flap means and upon the cheek parts of the wearer.
3. A mask for use in delivering oxygen at high altitudes, comprising a body portion having a nose-receiving part at the upper limit thereof adapted to envelope the nose between the eyes and to grip the corners at the nose below the eyes, said body having a substantially straight front portion with side parts extending therefrom and from the nose-receiving part and uniting in a chin-receiving part, said side parts being of broad transverse width and contacting large areas of the face and chin and extending in each direction from close under the eyes as worn, and an inwardly opening flap member integrally united along one edge with the inside of each of said side parts, the lines of union being positioned inwardly a considerable distance from the outer edges of the side members to bringthe free edges of the flap members near the inner edges of the side parts at the breathing chamber as the mask is Worn, so as to permit exhalation pressure to be exerted inside said flap members to cause a sealing of irregularities of facial contours under said cheek parts.
4. A mask for use in delivering oxygen at high altitudes from demand type oxygen delivering means, comprising a body portion having side parts extending therefrom and uniting in a chinreceiving part, said side parts being of broad transverse width and contacting large areas of the face and chin and extending in each direction from close under the eyes as worn, said chinreceiving part being of correspondingly broad transverse width and formed with an underlying substantially rigid thickened rim adapted to hold the chin from slipping forward into the breathing chamber when the mask is worn, and inwardly opening flap members integrally united along one edge with the insides of each of said side parts, the line of union beginning at points spaced from the chin-receiving part and being positioned inwardly a considerable distance from the outer edges of the sidemembers to bring the free edges .of the flap means near theinner edges of the side parts at the breathing chamber as the mask is worn, so as to permit exhalation pressure to be exerted inside said flap members and uponthe cheek parts of the wearer.
5. A mask for use in delivering oxygen at high altitudes from demand type oxygen delivering means, having a body portion adapted as worn to enclose and seal in a breathing chamber, a broad exhalation passageway formed outside of said breathing chamber and having valve communication therewith, a pair of branching short wide exhalation tubes triangular in theirend outlines extending from said passageway downwardly and inwardly to the lower edge of the mask body and thus shaped and positioned to be readily grasped by the fingers of the wearer for collapsing and thus to efiect crushing andelimination of any ice forming on or in these tubes, an inhalation tube adapted 3130 be connected with the demand oxygen delivery mechanism located between the last mentioned tubes and extending outwardly from the mask between said last-mentioned tubes and beneath the exhalation passageway, and means including a trough formed at the bottom of the breathing chamber and having connection with the exhalation passageway to permit accumulation and discharge of condensate through the exhalation tubes outside the maskwithout wetting the face of the wearer.
ARTHUR H. BULBULIAN.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED .STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,323,199 Bulbulian June 29, 1943 2,323,198 Bulbulian June 29, 1943 2,318,790 Martindale et al. May 11, 1943 2,228,218 Schwartz Jan. 7, 1941 2,166,164 Lehmberg July 18, 1939 2,308,991 Melup Jan. 19, 1943 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 529,345 France Nov. 26, 1921 802,211 France Aug. 31, 1936 636,117 Germany May 12, 1933