US 2433950 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
8 D. HENDERSON 2,433,950
- CRASH SEAT FOR HIGH SPEED CONVEYANCES Filed May 25, 1945 2 Sheets- Sheet 1 Do/vAL a HENDERSON I ATY'URNEI.
D. HENDERSON 2 Sheets-sheaf. 2
CRASH SEAT FOR HIGH SPEED CONVEYANCES Jan. 6, 1948.
' Filed May 25, 1945 ATTORNEY Patented Jan. 6, 1948 OFFICE citAsHgSEA'i. FOR HIQHQSIV'EEE MCONVEYANQESTUI saga-Hawaii; North Hollywood, Calif. -'--A5aiaan as, 1945'; serial mar A t "th:e' presenp trmewvi n the r fast traveling conveyance is "suddenly a ested','."pas"- tomarry 'th'ef occupants-body fforwafd can.
"siderable uistance, sucn'rorwardinovement les *senihg the suddennessof the mpa t ceas -the passengers'and thussafe guarding against ser- 'iousiniury. t e
Another object of the invention is to provide v forswingably supporting" a"p'as'senge'rs" chair in such" a"'fnariner that 'wheri"'the'"c6nvyanoe buddenly' stops 'the" seat "will automa'ti'cally swing" to a position wh'ereinthe-bocly or Tthe' "occupant will be-s'o positioned by'the' first -parifor *the arrestedmovementthat if. a 'final 'c'rash occurs its; injuriousefiect wiilibe greatly lessened: "This advantageous result" is "obtained" principally" by protecting the head andchs'tfrdnrdirct in'fpact with an object in advance of'theseatbeing occupied. v f f n A further object of theinvention is'to provide a multiple seat structure which'f'in combination withthesafety features above mentioned, will serve'as a reinforcement forthe framework-of t e v y ce so. hatiitswilldnqt (bev wrecked to such an extent when a crash occurs. :This' object is obtained, in part, by providingmeans'whereby aplurality of seats are automaticallyjoined 'to reinforce each other and'theconveyance asa whole when an impactoccurs. 1 Still another Qbject'is to provide means auto:- rnaticallyoperated by a sudden reduction in the speed of the conveyance to supply anoperating fluid under pressure for the purpose of accelerating the movement. of the seat toward the position in which it safeguards its occupant against bodily injuryiproducd by asudden stoppage. Yetrano ther object is to provide in combination with the automatic chair positioning means mentioned a manually controllable means'ior mechanically. moving the chairs tov the impact reducingv position whenever a crash is anticipated. i
c .LOthenobjects', features and' advantages of invention will hereinafter appearr' Ref airing we t e accempahying urawings which illustrate what is'at' present deemed to be anreirrd' embodiment of the' inventions 'asid eivation of the passenger chair al fiositfon, constructed in "accordance 5 r-1nc'i15ls-of theinvention.
Fig. f rear elevation oith structure shown m r-1g '1: pans adjacent to one of the' upper air of pivot members bingsectioned. l 1 i) Ffg g i s a vertical se'ofiofi line 3 3"0f'Fig'. 1.
'14-'-is an elvatioi1 similar "to Fig. 1, except automatically assumes 'whena Af'f-fa'gin-ent ofthe' chairin ad=- i eluded-'- inthis view to illustrat'e the 'a'tic li'nliifigto'gther of the chairs.
Fig". 5 is'arragme 'tary'vertical section'on line 53 5 ef'r'1g.4. Referring in detail to'the drawings, each chair ii 't' comprises a pair of twin' upstanding" chair 'siifiporfisbrstandards "l; l0 and the swingable chair struot'urell carrying in its upper part at each side an outwardly projecting trunnion l3 for whiclia bearing I4 is provided in the stand- 'ard lfl'at its s id of thedevice." Y *Each standard In is shown as a somewhat triangular rigid plate'which taperstoward its rounded top'and which has an outwardly directed 'footflange I5 securable' to. the floor l6 by any desired conventional means. i Each standard desirably has an opening I! out out of its lower portion 'tolighten its weight and to afford access to parts to be manually operated.
The chair proper II is shown comprising a '0 back member 20, a seat portion 2| and side portions 22 which afford arm rests 23, and above sai'd arm rests-each has a narrowed upper portion 26, these chair parts being of a conventional character and needing no further description. When the chair'is in the normal, down-swung position shown in Fig. .1 the lower back corner portions of its two side members engage the floor at points slightly in advance (rightward) of points'perpendicularly below its 'trunnions [3 so that the floor will not obstruct the swing of the chair toward the position the'r'eofsliown' in" Fig. 4. An outwardly projecting stud 25 is carried'by each lower front cornerportion of the chair, these 'studs'being latch members automatically interlocking with'resilient latch arms 26 attached to-the next standards II] in advance when a sudden retarding of the speed of the conveyance causesthe chair underthe urge of inertia, to swing :forwardly and up to the position shown in"Fi'g 4. *In swinging: up to this l position the veyance.
studs 25 strike elastic bumpers 21 held in angular seats 28 provided for them in the standards H].
An automatically actuated mechanical means is provided-to accelerate the upswinging of the chairs alread mentioned. This means derives its power from fluid under pressure supplied through a conduit 30 leading through a valve 3| into a pipe coupling 32 from which it is conducted through a flexible tube 33 into one end portion of a piston cylinder 34. This end portion of said cylinder is pivotally supported at 35 upon the adjacent portion of the standard In at that side of the structure, it being understood that the structure now being described is duplicated at each side of the main assembly as shown in Fig. 3.
From the opposite end of said cylinder 34 projects the rod 36 of the piston, the projecting portion of said rod being laterally deflected at 31 to form a pivotal connection with a lever 38. Said lever has its short arm pivoted at 39 to the front part of the basal portion of the standard ID. A crossbar All connects the free ends of the two levers 38- with each other, said bar abutting in a slidable, manner with the chair back 20 so as to swing the chair towards a position shown in Fig. 4,.or at times aid in so swinging the chair.
A weighted inertia-operable pendulum 40a is provided at each side of the general assembly to turn on the fluid pressure supply to operate the piston contained within the cylinder 34 whenever a sudden lessening of the speed of the conveyance occurs. Said pendulum is so mounted as to swing relative to the conveyance in the direction of the travel of the latter and comprises an angular stem 4| which opens the valve 3| whenever the pendulum swings forward because of a sudden retarding of the speed of the con- The pendulum 40a may be manually swung forward to open the valves 3|, if desired. The pipe fitting 32 communicates with a pressure relief pipe 42 controlled by a manually operable valve 45.
If it is desired to provide a means common to all the chairs of a row to automatically accelerate their forward swing when a sudden retardation of the conveyance occurs, this may be accomplished by providing each side row of levers 38 with a single long operating rod corresponding to the rod 36. shown in Fig. 4 and providing,
in place of the piston cylinder for said rod 36,
a single large piston likewise having a valved fluid pressure supply, the valve of which will be opened by the inertia impelled means shown. This arrangement could be more quickly manually operated (by turnin on the fluid-pressure supply) and when operated the long piston rod common to the row of levers at each side would additionally brace the aircraft (or other conveyance) against the efiect of a crash.
It should be understood that the present disclosure is for the purpose of illustration only and that this invention includes all modifications and equivalents which fall within the scope of the subject matter claimed.
What is claimed is:
1. In a structure of the kind described, a plurality of pairs of chair supports mounted in a conveyance in a spaced apart relation relatively to the direction of travel of the conveyance, a forwardly facing chair proper mounted on each pair of said supports and having its upper part attached swingably to the supports, so that the chairs all move forwardly under the urge of inertia when the speed of the conveyance is suddenly retarded, and catch means arranged in a cooperative relation to each chair and the supports in advance of it to maintain the chair subject to release in an upswung position assumed as a result of a sudden retardation of the advance of the conveyance.
2. In a structure of the kind described for high speed conveyances, the combination, with a swingably mounted chair and a mounting means comprising a support therefor; of a lever structure having a lower end portion pivotally connected with said mounting means and an upper end portion engageable with said chair to swing it forwardly, a piston mounted upon said support and connected with said lever structure above its pivoted lower portion, a cylinder wherein said piston operates, a fluid pressure supply for said cylinder, a valve to control said pressure supply, and inertia operable means mounted upon said support and connected with said valve automatically to open it when the advance of the conveyance is suddenly retarded.
3. In a structure of the kind described, a plurality of pairs of chair supports mounted in a conveyance in a spaced apart relation relatively to the direction of travel of the conveyance, a forwardly facing chair proper mounted on each pair of said supports and having its upper part attached swingably to the paired supports, so that the chairs all move forwardly under the urge of inertia when the speed of the conveyance is suddenly retarded, and combined stop and catch means arranged in a cooperative relation to each chair, said catch means being carried by the paired supports of the chair next in advance to maintain the former chair subject to release in an upswung position assumed as a result of a sudden retardation of the advance of the conveyance.
4. In a structure of the kind described, a pair of twin chair supports attached to the floor of a conveyance in an upstanding, spaced apart position, a chair proper occupying the space between said supports and having its upper part pivotally connected to each of said supports, there being a normally unobstructed space in advance of the chair proper so that it is swingable in the direction of travel of the conveyance, and combined stop and catch means positioned in the conveyance in advance of said chair to engage and releasably support the latter when it swings forwardly under the urge of its inertia as a result of a sudden retardation of the speed of the conveyance, said chair carrying a latch member in its lower part positioned to cooperate with said catch means.
5. In a structure of the kind described, a pair of twin chair supports attached to the floor of a conveyance in an upstanding, spaced apart position, a chair proper occupying the space between said supports and having its upper part pivotally connected to each of them, there being normally an unobstructed space in advance of the chair so that the chair is swingable in the direction of travel of the conveyance, a latch member carried by said chair, means positioned in the conveyance in advance of said chair in the path of its swing to engage and releasably support said chair when it swings forwardly as a result of the action of its inertia whenever a sudden retardation of the speed of the conveyance occurs, said means including a catch to cooperate with said latch means; and means to accelerate the inertiaimpelled forward swing of the chair proper, the latter means comprising a bar transversely engagin the back of the chair, a lever for each support, each having a lower end portion pivoted to its respective support of said pair of supports and an upper end portion connected with the end portion of said bar at its side of the chair, piston means including a piston rod carried by each support, said piston rod being pivoted to said lever, a valve-controlled fluid pressure supply for operating the piston of said piston rod, and means mounted upon the conveyance and including a pendulum actuated by sudden retardation of the speed of the conveyance to open the valve of said fluid pressure supply, said pendulum being connected to said valve.
6. In a structure of the kind described, a support attached to the floor of a conveyance in an upstanding position, a forwardly facing chair proper having its upper part swingably attached to said support so that the chair proper is swingable about a horizontal axis in relation to the conveyance in the direction of travel thereof, means positioned in the conveyance in advance of said chair in the path of its swing to engage and releasably support said chair when it swings forwardly as a result of the action of its inertia whenever a sudden retardation of the speed of the conveyance occurs, fluid pressure actuated means operatively connected with said chair at a point below its aforesaid swingably attached part to accelerate its aforesaid forward swing, a conduit to supply fluid under pressure to the latter means, a valve in said conduit to control the fluid flowing through it, and a normally, vertically positioned, weighted inertia-operable pendulum connected to said valve, said pendulum due to inertia impelled by the sudden retardation of the speed of the conveyance, being automatically moved forward to operate said valve, said valve remaining closed when said pendulum is vertical.
7. In a structure of the kind described, a support attached to the floor of a conveyance in an upstanding position, a forwardly facing chair proper having its upper part swingably attached to said support, there being an unobstructed space in advance of the chair so that said chair is swingable in the direction of travel of the conveyance, a latch member carried by the lower part of the chair, means mounted on the conveyance in advance of said chair in a forwardly spaced relation thereto and provided with a catch to engage said latch member and releasably support said chair proper when it swings forwardly under the urge of its inertia as a result of a sudden retardation of the speed of the conveyance, fluid pressure actuated means mounted upon the conveyance and connected with said chair to accelerate its forward swing, a, valve controlling pressure supply to the latter means, and an inertia-operable part having connection with said valve and being adapted to move against the opposition of gravity in relation to the conveyance in the direction of the travel of the latter to actuate said valve and put into operation said fluid pressure actuated means when said inertiaoperable part receives an inertia impulse resulting from retardation of the advance of the conveyance.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,375,512 Howe Apr. 19, 1921 2,101,145 Lee Dec, 7, 1937 2,102,979 Smith Dec. 21, 1937 2,140,423 Frees Dec, 13, 1938 2,227,717 Jones Jan. 7, 1941 2,331,309 Curriston Oct. 12, 1943