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Publication numberUS2434502 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 13, 1948
Filing dateMay 4, 1945
Priority dateMay 4, 1945
Publication numberUS 2434502 A, US 2434502A, US-A-2434502, US2434502 A, US2434502A
InventorsPaul Rowland Walter, Payne Martin Kenneth
Original AssigneeColonial Press Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Book and the production thereof
US 2434502 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 13, 1948. K. P. MARTIQFJ ET AL 2,434,502

BOOK AND THE PRODUCTION THEREOF Filed May 4, 1945 3 SheetsSheet 1 3nuentor K. Payne math; W. Paul Rowlandwitness I (Ittorneg Herberi Covey 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 K. P. MARTIN EI'AL BOOK AND THE PRODUCTION THEREOF Filed May 4, 1945 Jan. 13, 1948.

K.Pc1.une marl \IV FCLuL Rowland Jan. 13, 1948. KQP. MARTIN ETAL 2,434,502

BOOK AND THE PRODUCTION THEREOF Filed May 4, 1945' 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 ,/;:8 3rwen tors K.P ne martin. F916. WPZL Rowland A Her bar! 8. Covay aflomeg Patented Jan. 13, 1948 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE BOOK AND THE PRODUCTION THEREOF Application May 4, 1945, Serial No. 591,860

This invention relates to the manufacture of books and particularly to mechanism for securing the end leaves on a paper bound book.

In the manufacture of paper bound books, it has been customary to attach a fly leaf in place merely by the application of a narrow margin of glue on the book. The back and front end sheets of a book may also be made each of a double size sheet of paper previously folded on the center line, and one of the folded flaps may be pasted to the cover while the other remains free and thus forms the fly leaf. In the manufacture of such a book, it has been customary to apply the two double end leaves to the cover manually and. then affix the cover on the book. In that procedure. the cover, previously out to size, has been marked or scored for subsequent alignment of the end sheets; then adhesive has been ap plied to the paper cover; and following this, the operator carefully lays in place the end sheet which has been previously cut to size and folded in separate operations. When one end sheet has been attached to the cover, the latter is turned around and the second end sheet applied. Considerable skill, as well as a waste of time.,is involved in assembling these parts manually.

. In that old procedure, the signatures are gathered into a book and clamped together, and then the back is cut by a kn fe, thus leaving each of the sheets separate and unattached. While held in the clamps, glue is placed on the back edges of the assembled unconnected sheets of the book, and the book is inserted into the cover. For some books, a super or strip of crash is mounted on the back of the book before it is secured to the cover. A less durable book is made by attachin the cover directly to the glued edges of the book sheets without the aid of an intervening strip of crash. In the latter case, the book sheets are likely to become loose anywhere throughout the book, since there is nothing but the thin glued edge of each sheet to hold it in place. Also, if the crash is used, this has been located between the book and the end sheets, so that the edges of the crash often show in, the completed book, and the construction is not as strong as it should be. The book tends to crack and to break near the back hinge. Further problems are presented in aligning the crash on the book back when this operation is done by hand.

A primary object of this invention is to elimi- Claims. (01. 11-1) nate various hand operations and to provide a method of making a paper covered book and particularly for securing the end leaves to the book cover, which will insure proper alignment and positioning of the end leaves and which will result in a strongly reinforced book of good appearance.

Another object is to provide a machine for applying both the end sheets and a reinforcing super or crash to a series of book covers in such a way that the operation may be carried on continuously, and which insures that the end leaves are assembled accurately and applied properly to each cover While the crash is inserted in such a location relative to the end leaves that a strongly reinforced product is thereby obtained.

A further object is to provide a machine which will perform automatically the various required operations expeditiously, accurately and continuously, so that a series of covers fed progressively thereto may each be provided with the end sheets and a reinforcing super and be fully prepared for mounting on a book.

Another object is to provide a new construction of paper covered book in which a crash or super is so secured to the cover and the end sheets that its edges are not visible in the finished product and the book structure is strong and durable and the cover will not be easily cracked or broken near the hinge. Further objects will be apparent in the following disclosure.

In accordance with our invention, we have made a paper bound book which has a super or strip of crash or other suitable reinforcing ma'- terial secured to both the paper cover and the book in such a position that it not only reinforces the back of the book but also minimizes breakage of the cover near its hinge.

Referring to the drawings:

' Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a new book structure, with parts shown exaggerated for clarity of illustration;

Fig. 2 is a similar view of the book cover, end leaves and crash in their attached relationship and prior toassembling the book therein;

'Fig. 3 is a fragmentary view showing the method of assembling a series of covers with two continuous end leaves and a strip of crash and which are subsequently severed to provide the required book lengths; v

Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic sketch illustrating a group of assembled book signatures;

Fig. 5 is a similar view after the folded ends Fig. 10 is a somewhat diagrammatic fragmenw tary elevational view showing the operation of the device and the relationshipofmarts J'tistaprior':

to severing the end sheets; 7

Fig. 11 is a similar view 'showingtheepartsime mediately after the severing operatiomhlas been;

completed; and

Fig. 12 is a similar view showing the relation of the parts when the flying carriage has reached" the end of its travel prior to return to the initial starting position.

As shown particularly in Figs. 1, 2 and 7, .our new type. of paper bound? bok'.'structure comprisesa collection ,of book'sheets, herein; termed the book lmounted' in a 'papercover '2. Two V -shaped' ;end sheets are. inserted between the book and'jthe .cover. Each of these end sheets is formed of a folded'sheetof paper made up of the parts land 4. .The part 3 forms the in leaf and thepart tis glued securely toLthe'inner' face A'stripjof crash made of astarch,

trated, the crash is; wider, than rthebo'ok l, i

and a margin projects into jthespacebetween the cover land the attachedlportion. 4' of- .the end sheet. The .book liisprovidediwit'ha coatingof glue Gjon the back edgesof,theassembledsheets,

"and the book. is .placed;' betwee.r1: the fly-leaves (Fig. 7)) andattachedjto, the coveixwhil'e the glue is. stillj.plas tic. The L hle. 6;.permeates the .open mesh crash 5 'andaso ,attaches.the .crash' .botheto the back of,the book'J land to .the inner.;central back portion of ,the cover 2; Hence? ,the .crash 1 serves-as a vreinf orcement." forpthe backs of the book aswell'as for thehinge, portiomof .the cover, andit thereby minimizes the danger. .of the cover breaking at the point. ,where it hinges... The con structionct Figs. Land is. exaggerated in order to show the .difierent parts vclearly, but it=willbe appreciated'thatthka end sheets, crash and cover with .the associated-glue -lieein .firm attachment Without any spaces.therebetween. Incthis. con.- struction, the. crash. ,5 concealedubetweentthe cover 2.,and..,the-. attachedeend sheet -portion -4 andjt cannotbe seenrwhenlthe book is: opened;

The bookjismade byassemblinglthe signatures and then cutting 'the.-edges -on -the- .-line .b--b;i-of Fig. 4 while ,the -.sheets .aresuitably, heldw-by clamps, thusleavingethegsheets individuallysepae rate and unattached as shown in Fig.5. 'Iflae adhesive -6 applied .tdtheir.loweniedgeszrfFige-fi) semesltoholdthemitaeether.

In accQIdancewith. our-.lmethod..of..-making such a.book;asjillustratedinl ige 3,.two continucla ifies .p d shfifl pe m y. be :folded in accordance withstandard ractice.andethenas-v sembledyvith' acontinuousstrip of crasn8 there-l beneath and the previously lcut; covers 9 are p sted th reto. The ,fqlds...of .itheendsheets 1 face inwardl'yi and are. spacediatthelcorrect.distancaso that 'thebook'maybe put in place and be-glued 'onlyto the crash. This. procedure may e ea ne ou se s-seesaw eedi 4 9 in a correct spacing into association with the end sheets after glue or other suitable adhesive has been applied either to the covers or to the under faces 4 of the travelling end sheets. After the end sheets and. crash have been attached to the covers, the end covers and crash are severed alongttheiline-a-r-a of Fig.3.. The cover with its :attachedparts has thegen'eral. appearance shown in Fig. 2. After the book has been assembled in the cover, the various parts may be further trimmed as desired.

" This method -of'book manufacture may be car- ,riedout by 'meansof' various types of mechanism, .b'utfwehaveeshown in Figs. 8 to 12 inclusive a preferred-dorm ofmachine which will accomplish ';3these-.steps;i 1 Two continuous strips of end sheet paper ill aredrawn from suitable spools ll rotatably'-'mounted'on vertical axles I2 on the framework of the machine. These two sheets of paper pass over guide rolls I3 and then through two folding. devices 14 of standard construction which serve to fold each continuouslstrip 'into a double strip. having. its twoehalvespf equal width. 'Eachlfoldingdevice l4 comprises a strip Ofisheetmetal whichlis arranged vertically and parallel with the axis o=the-shaft l2 at its left hand end, and-(this metal sheet -is-bent medially 'andaway from the centerlineof the machine so that at the right hand end it is V-shaped and has two closelyadjacent side portions l5'facing outwardl'yand horizontally. --The paper is bent thereby into a V-sh'aped'double strip. These double strips pass between a pairiof-suitably mounted .pressurerollers lfi'which crease the strip at its central line. From there the lower-flap 4 of the doubled stripv it passes -over-the top surface of a. glue roller l8-which applies glue or-other suitable adhesive thereto in accordance with standard procedure. I 'I'his-roller l8--may be mounted ona suitable horizontal 'shaft 'supported on a tank :I S -carrying the glue; The roller 18 dips directly;into the-glue-and awiper roll 20 spaced correctly. from the roller[ 8 provides aneven coat ing of the correct -amount"for transfer 'tothe paper. hA presser rolli I holds the paper against the glue.roll. The-two-paper strips|0 =pass'-in parallel arrangement around-a guide roll -22'and through.spacings-guides 23-and then between two pairs ofpressure-rollers and 25 which force thegluedl= sheets-into-contact with the'book covers As .indicatedparticularly in Figs. 10 to 12, the-non-glued' end leaf-3 comes into contact with thelowenroll and the-glued leaf 4 is on the-upper side. Here-the glue coated leaf 4 meets-a-cover -30-arrangedwith its outer printed face upsso-that' the glued sheets will'be applied to theunderface thereof-as the parts are fed forwar-ddeetween the driven pressure rolls 24 and 25.

The-covers-30 are' fed forward by a'suitable automatic deed mechanism 5 which a may be "of standard construction; 7 This is illustrated in the dmwings"as e'omprising two spaced endless chains 3 I having prongs :32 projecting Fupwardly therev frorn which. engage the' rear 'edges'of'the covers andmove them forwardin a prop'e'r timed relationship. The prongs "are so spaced 'as to feed the covers forward with a small space therebetween.- Thechains '3I are suitably'carried on supporting-Jamel driving sprockets 33 having a common axle mount'edin'the framework of the machine. The covers 30 are deliveredto the feed ro1lers-'24-and there :meet the'glued end sheets and crashcoming :up from beneath.

For-making- :the preferr'ed c onstr uction I of book shown in Fig. 1, a continuous strip of crash 36 or other suitable material is fed from a supply roll 37 Suitably mounted for rotation on a horizontal axle 38 carried by the framework of the machine. This strip of crash is fed between the glued end sheets 4 and the under side of the cover 3!]. It is not necessary that glue be applied to the crash, since the glue applied to the end sheet portion 4 will hold the crash in place.

Also, the glue later applied to the back of the I The next step in the mechanical procedure involves severing the folded end leaf strips and the crash as they travel along continuously and uniformly. Although we may employ a rotary knife which is so shaped and timed in its operation as v to sever the sheets between the covers, we have illustrated in the drawings what we term a flying shear that is arranged to travel at the speed of the moving paper at the time of the severing operation. This construction comprises a knife) mounted for vertical reciprocation on the flying carriage 4| which is carried by means of two pairs of rollers 42 riding on parallel tracks 43 carried by the framework of the machine. The

knife 49 is removably secured to an L shaped cross member 44 which is fastened at its opposite ends to two vertical slides 45 riding in parallel slideways' dB in the framework. The lower ends of these slide members 45 are each connected by a link 41 with a rocking arm 48 that is arranged to actuate the cutter knife 40 at the proper moment.

A presser foot 50 (omitted in Fig. 8) is mounted on the lower end of a sliding pin 5| which passes through the horizontal portion of the L shaped cross bar 44, and it is held in place by nuts 52 thereon. A spring 53 holds the presser foot in its lowermost position as permitted by the nuts 52. This presser foot is intended to be brought down into engagement with the top surface of the book cover 30 just prior to the moment when the knife travels downwardly to sever the end sheets and crash, and the presser foot remains in contact with the paper until after the severing operation has been completed and the knife has been withdrawn, as is shown in Figs. and 11.

The lower stationary knife edge 54 is so located beneath the travelling paper that the u per knife 40 will shear againstit to cut the paper as it travels past. The top surface of the plate 55, which has the knife edge 54, serves as a table support for the paper and against which thepresser foot 58 holds the paper during the cutting operation. A tension spring56 (Fig. 10)

connects between the slide 45 and the carriage,

4| and aids in holding the knife and the presser foot in an uppermost position except during the cutting operation.

The covers, which have been previously printed and otherwise prepared, may be initially cut tosuch a size that they should not be further out during this severing operation. Hence, we so arrange and time the parts of the operating mechanisms that the covers are fed forward with a slight spacing, such as 1%", which permits the knife to cut only the end sheets and crash between the spaced edges .of the covers. This timing of the various operating parts is accomplished by driving all of the mechanisms from a single motor 60 suitably supported on the framework of the machine (see Figs. 8 and 9). The motor is connected by a drive chain 6| toa sprocket 62 on a crankshaft 63 which has a further gear thereon connected by a chain 64 to a sprocket 65 on a counter-shaft 66. From a sprocket on the counter-shaft 66 a further chain 68 runs to a sprocket 69 on another shaft which has a gear Hi thereon meshing with a further gear 1| mounted on a parallel shaft and which thus reverses the motion and transmits driving power through a chain 12 to the sprocket 13 on the shaft '24 that carries the glue rollers l8. Another chain 15 driven from the counter-shaft 66 drives the upper one of the pinch rolls l6 which serve to crease the folded paper as it comes from the V- shaped folder l5.

The shaft 63 which is driven directly from the motor has two crank arms 1'! connected by pins with pitmans I8 which are pivotally connected at'their right hand ends to opposite sides of the carriage. Thus, as the shaft 63 revolves, the crank arms 11 cause the flying carriage 4| to move back and forth once for each revolution of the crankshaft. The length of the crank arm 11 is such that it moves the carriage forward through a distance equal to the length of the cover 30 that is being fed forward by the pressure rolls 24 and 25, and the cranks H are so located on their shaft 63 that the carriage is moved at maximum speed and substantially that of the travelling paper at the moment when the knife severs the paper.

The vertical oscillation of the knife all is effect-- ed by means of two revolving arms 89 mounted on short shafts 8| carried in suitable bearings 82 on the framework at the sides of the flying carriage. Each shaft 8| carrying the striker arm is revolved by a drive chain 83 (Figs. 8 and 9) driven from the main counter-shaft 55. The two rocking arms 48 (Figs. 9 to 12) which move the knife slide up and down are secured to a rock shaft 84 which has two pairs of striker arms 85 and 86 (not shown in Fig. 8) fixed thereto and each having a suitably mounted roiler on its end. This rock shaft 84 is rotatably mounted in bearings on the flying carriage. The parts are so located and timed that, as shown in Fig. 10, the striker arms 80 revolve downwardly into contact with the rollers on the arms 85 and cause the knife to cut the three strips only between the two adjacent covers-"3B that are fixed relative to and are travelling with the flying carriage as it is moved forward by the crank arm 73. The striker arm 86) gives a quick blow to the arm 85 and thrusts the knife downwardly to sever the paper and this happens while the arm 85 is travelling toward the left with its supporting carriage. The steps of the severing operation are shown in Figs. 10 to 12. As indicated in Fig. 11, the roller on the arm 86 (moving with the carriage) is approaching a cam surface 88 on a stationary part of the framework as the cutting is completed.-

The roller on the arm 36 strikes this cam because of the forward motion of the carriage and thus kicks the operating arm 85 again to the left. At the same time, it raises the rocking arm 48 and thus thrusts the cutter knife upwardly and releases the presser foot from contact with the paper. This motion is completed (Fig. 12 by the time the crank arm '18 passes over dead center 9 folded strip onto each cover, and means for simul taneously feeding a continuous super strip in position between the moving end sheets and the covers and attaching it thereto where it will reinforce the back of each of the books.

5. A machine for assembling parts of a book cover comprising mechanism for progressively folding two paper strips medially to form end sheets, means for progressively moving the strips forward with their folded edges adjacent to but spaced from each other, means 101 applying adhesive to the face of one flap of each folded strip, means for forcing the adhesive coated faces into contact with a series of covers progressively fed thereto and thereby providing fly leaves secured tothe cover by the adhering flaps, and means for feeding a super strip into position adjacent to the cover between the fly leaves and beneath the folded edge portions'of the strips so that each super is securedin position'by the adhesive on the under face of the end strip.

6. A machine for assembling parts of a book cover comprising mechanism for progressively moving forward two paper strips folded medially to form end sheets, means for guiding the strips so that their folded edges are adjacent to but spaced from each other, means for applying adhesive to one face of each folded strip, means for moving the adhesive coated faces into contact with a series of covers progressively fed thereto and thereby providing fly leaves secured to the cover, means for feeding a super strip into position adjacent to the cover between the fly leaves and beneath the folded edge portions of the strips so that the super is secured in position by the adhesive on the under face of the end sheet, and cutter mechanism for progressively severing the super and end sheet strips and thereby providin a series of covers with the end sheets and super secured thereto.

7. A machine for assembling parts of a book cover comprising mechanism for progressively feeding two folded paper strips into contact with a series of covers serially presented thereto, means for progressively inserting the edges of a reinforcing super strip beneath the folded edges of the end sheets and into contact with the middle portion of the book cover, means for applying adhesive so as to secure the end sheets and super to the cover, and cutter mechanism which operates intermittently as the covers and strips move forward continuously for severing the strips and providing a series of covers having the end sheets and supers attached thereto.

8. A machine for assembling parts of a book cover comprising mechanism for progressively feeding two folded paper strips into contact with a series of covers serially presented thereto, means for progressively inserting the edges of a reinforcing super strip beneath the folded edges of the end sheets and into contact with the middle portion of the book cover, means for applying adhesive so as to secure the end sheets and super to the cover, cutter mechanism which intermittently operates as the covers and strips move forward for severing the strips and providing a series of covers having the end sheets and super attached thereto, and power driven mechanisms operating in timed relationship which cause the covers to be fed to the strips in a spaced relationship and the severing knife to cut the strips only between the spaced covers.

9. A machine for assembling parts of a book cover comprising mechanism for progressively feeding forward two folded paper strips arranged with their folded edges adjacent to but spaced from each other, means for applying adhesive to one leaf of each folded strip, means for feeding a strip of reinforcing super progressively into contact with a set of covers serially presented thereto in spaced relationship, means for attaching the adhesive coated leaves of the folded strips to the covers and the outer edges of the super and there by providing fly leaves attached to the cover by said adhering leaves, and timed mechanism for severing the strips only between the spaced edges of adjacent covers as the parts are fed forward.

10. A machine for assembling parts of a book cover comprising power driven mechanism for progressively feeding a set of separate covers serially in spaced arrangement, means for moving two extensive folded strips of end sheets forward continuously with their folded edges in parallelism and spaced by approximately the thickness of the book to be covered, means for adhesively attaching the end sheets to the separate covers as the parts move forward at a uniform rate, and power driven cutter mechanism which operates intermittently in timed relation with the cover feed mechanism to out said strips between the spaced covers without interrupting the forward movement of the covers and strips.

11. A machine for assembling parts of a book cover comprising mechanism for moving forward two folded paper strips with their folded edges adjacent to but spaced from each other, means for applying adhesive to an under leaf of each folded strip, means for feeding covers serially in spaced relationship, means for presenting the adhesive bearing faces of the leaves against the inner sides of the cover, means acting simultaneously to insert a strip of reinforcing super into contact with the cover and with its edges beneath the folded edge portions of the strips so that the super is attached to the cover by means of the adhesive on the folded leaves and its edge portions are concealed, and timed mechanism for intermittently severing the strips between the spaced edges of the covers as the parts move continuously forward.

12. The method of making a book cover comprising the steps of continuously folding two separate extensive strips of paper to form two sets of double end sheets for a series of book covers, guiding the folded sheets into a spaced relationship with their folded edges juxtaposed in parallelism and spaced by approximately the thickness of a book to be covered, feeding a series of separate covers forward in sequence into position with the inner surface of each cover in contact with one leaf of each folded end sheet and gluing each cover to the adjacent leaf of each folded end sheet.

13. The method of making a book cover comprising the steps of folding two strips of paper med al y to form double end sheets, continuously feeding them forward and guiding them into a spaced relationship with their folded edges juxtaposed in parallelism and spaced by approximately the thickness of the book to be covered, progressively feeding a cover and a super strip to positions where the inner face of the cover contacts with one leaf of each folded end sheet and the super strip is located between the cover and the folded end sheets and its edges are overlapped by the sheets, and gluing one flap of each folded end sheet to the cover and to the underlying edge of the super strip.

14. The method of making a book cover comprising the steps of continuously moving forward two eicte'n's'ivestrlps of paper folded medially to' form'end sheets, guiding them continuously intoa spaced relationship with their'folded edges 'juxtaposed inpa'rallelism and spaced by approximately the thickness of the book'to be covered, progressively feedinga series of separate covers forward; with the inner face of each cover located adjacent to' one page of each folded end sheet strip, adhesively securing thestrips' of end'sheets to the covers, and'thereafter severing the end sheet strips between the covers.

15. Them'ethod'of niak'ing a book cover comprising the steps of continuously moving forward two extensive paper strips which are folded medially to form'a'series of end sheets, guiding thern'into' 'a spaced relationship with their folded edges juxtaposed in parallelism and spaced by approxiinately'th'e thickness of the book to be coveredfpfogressively feeding forward a series of separate covers and a continuous reinforcing sixper strip to positions where the two edges of the super strip are located between the moving strips ofend sheets'and each coverand the inner face folded'stn endstrifis' as thus located: and thra-ft'er s'ev ing the strips between the' covrs. 4 V v *KrBAYNEMARTINg W: PAUL ROWLAND.-

"REFERENCES" CITED he f qllow'i'r'fgirefere'nces"are of record int'ii file or this patent:

V rUNITED-STATES' PATENTS I Name "Date f 'zerendenberg Jan; '31, 1393' eg Eaton "-se' t;4, 1934' 2 32:34 1, :Griip'e M64; .1938 2,1545% :iiinnmht Apr; 1 1939* 23132801 "Frazier -JDb." 12,1939

' FREIdN'PATENTS e??? uii i' l "23,091 -GreatBritain 1905

Patent Citations
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2640207 *Jul 13, 1948Jun 2, 1953Florez Company Inc DeApparatus for applying jackets to books
US3190678 *Nov 9, 1962Jun 22, 1965Peterson Electronic Die Co IncCasings for books
US3847718 *Nov 1, 1971Nov 12, 1974Xerox CorpAdhesive binding means for edge binding assembled pages together in book fashion
US4405156 *Mar 30, 1981Sep 20, 1983Book Covers, Inc.Reinforced hinge for book cover
US4511298 *Mar 7, 1983Apr 16, 1985Moore Business Forms, Inc.Protective binder
US4906156 *Jun 21, 1988Mar 6, 1990Axelrod Herbert RMethod of binding a book
US20040119278 *Dec 18, 2002Jun 24, 2004Vandewalle Kristin OlsonKit and method for producing a perfect bound book
US20060034672 *Aug 8, 2005Feb 16, 2006Vandewalle Kristin OKit and method for producing a perfect bound book
US20070209752 *Mar 9, 2007Sep 13, 2007Dirk RygolMethod and device for feeding a cover
DE2810074A1 *Mar 8, 1978Sep 13, 1979Tfh Publications IncHard-back book binding method - with collated folded sheets cut to form flat spring to which flowable adhesive is applied for retaining cover
DE3742424A1 *Dec 15, 1987Jun 29, 1989Hesselmann Planatolwerk HBook with hard case and method for binding
Classifications
U.S. Classification412/1, 412/27, 412/28, 412/19, 281/21.1, 281/29
International ClassificationB42D1/02, B42D1/00
Cooperative ClassificationB42D1/02
European ClassificationB42D1/02