US 2434533 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 13, H. WURZBURGER 2,434,533
IMITATION FILAMENTS, ROPES, YARNS, AND THE LIKE Filed May -24, 1945 INVENTOR ATTORNEY Patented Jan. 13, 1948 AND THE Hugo Wunburger, New York, N. Y.,
assignor to Paul D. Wurzburger, Cleveland Heights, Ohio Application May 24, 1945, Serial No. 595,642
4 Claims. 1
This invention relates to individual filaments of synthetic organic plastic material and so configured as to aiford a desired flexibility in use and further so as to simulate the appearance of ordinary spun or twisted textile filaments, cords or ropes.
As such, the present invention is a continuation in part of my prior and copending application, Serial No. 556,003, filed September 27, 1944, for Filaments and imitation fabrics formed therefrom.
Among the objects of the present invention are to provide filaments of the type generally set forth hereinabove each of which may be formed as single filaments as distinguished from filaments built up from a plurality of individual filaments, and wherein provision is made to im part increased flexibility to the single filaments of the present invention so that the fact that they are made as a single filament as distinguished from a bundle of such filaments will not cause them to be unduly rigid or stiif and will permit their use in many places where a single filament of round or other cross-sectional shape would not be feasible. At the same time, the filaments of the present invention have their strength substantially unimpaired by the provisions which impart the increased flexibility thereto; and in certain instances. such strength may be increased.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a single filament with an exterior conformation such as to simulate threads. yarns,
cords or ropes made up of a plurality of filaments spun, twisted or otherwise assembled together, so that from the point of view of outward appearance. the filament of the present invention closely resembles such prior art articles.
Further and more specific objects of the present invention include the provision of a plurality of grooves which are preferably, but not necessarily, arranged in helical form around the fi ament and wherein each of the grooves extends at least one-third the way around the axis 01 the filament, so as to increase the flexibility thereof. the grooves extending at a substantial angle to the axis of the filament. A further object of the present invention is to provide a filament with grooves therein as aforesaid, such as may be made by passing the filament, while the material thereof is soft and deformable, between a pair of rolls having shaped filament-contacting surfaces such as to form in the filament the grooves as aforesaid.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a filament with grooves of two types, one
type of which is a part or complete helical groove or grooves and the other group of grooves extend substantially longitudinally. This filament close- 1y resembles in outward appearance the usual plural stranded rope or cord, wherein each strand is formed of twisted filaments or groups thereof. A further object in this connection is to form in a filament 'while the material thereof is still soft, one or more helical grooves extending from end to end of the filament by suitable apparatus which may be employed in conjunction with the apparatus by which the filament itself is formed.
Other and more detailed objects of the present invention will become apparent in the following specification and appended claims, when taken in connection with the accompanying drawing, in which:
Figures 1 and 2 are respectively a side elevation and a transverse section (on the line 2-2 of Fig. showing a filament having substantially helical grooves on two diametrically opposite sides thereof;
Figs, 3 and 4 are similar views (Fig. 4 being a transverse section on the line 4-4 of Fig. 3) showing a filament having a plurality of continuous helical grooves formed therein;
Figs. 5 and 6 are a'similar pair of views (Fig. 6 being a transverse section on the line 6-5 of-Fig.
'5) illustrating a single filament formed to simulate a plural stranded rope or cord;
Figs. 7 and 8 are similar views (Fig. 8 being in transverse section on the line 88 of Fig. 7) illustrating a filament formed to simulate a rope or cord similar to that of Figs. 5 and 6, but such as may be formed in part by a pair of shaping rolls between which the filament is passed; and
Figs. 9 and 10 are similar views (Fig, 10 being a transverse section on the line l0-l0 of Fig. 9) showing a filament with but two continuous helical grooves extending deeply into the filament and from end to end thereof.
Referring now to the accompanying drawings, asshown in Figs. 1 and 2, a filament l which may be formed in any suitable manner, as by extruon of suitable organic plastic material through an orifice. following which the plastic material may be rigidified in any suitable way depending u on the characteristics thereof. For example, if a thermoplastic material, such as a cellulose ter is used, the. rigidification may take place merely upon cooling, the material being extruded at a suitably high temperature to have desired characteristics of plasticity. On the other hand. some materials, such as viscose, may be rigidified by extruding them into an acid bath, which serves to regenerate the cellulose as is usual in the viscose rayon process. The composition of the material of which the filaments of the present invention are to be made forms per se no part of this invention, it being understood that suitable treatment will be had to eilect rigidification of the material after it has been formed to the desired shape.
A filament formed by extrusion through an orifice will have a substantial uniform cross-section throughout its.length, although that cross-section may be of different shapes, depending upon the shape of the orifice. The filament l is shown as a conventional round filament subiect, however, to the provision of further changes in the shape hereinafter described.
If a round or cylindrical filament were used as such, it would be found to have substantial rigidity, depending both upon the characteristic of the material itself and upon the cross-sectional area. In order to afford a desired reduction in this rigidity, so as to make it possible to use single filaments rather than groups thereof, there is provided in accordance with this invention, a plurality of grooves formed in the filament and extending a substantial distance thereinto. These grooves, which are shown at 2 and 3 (Figs. 1 and 2), are formed at a substantial angle to the longitudinal axis of the filament. In the present case they are substantially helical, although it is contemplated that a plurality of grooves at right angles to the axis might also be used. Each groove extends as best shown in Fig. 2, an angular distance around the axis between /3 and /2 of the circumference. As shown, there are two series of grooves 2 and 3 on diametrically opposite sides of the filament, which is the preferred form; although it is contemplated that but one such series might be used and many, if not all, of the advantages of the present invention be attained.
It is contemplated that grooves as shown in Figs. 1 and 2 may be formed in a filament prior to the complete rigidification of the material thereof by forming the filament between a pair of shaping rollers, arranged on substantial parshape of such grooves and the number thereof. In Figs. 5 and 6 is shown a filament indicated generally at I and having two sets or groups of grooves in it, one, a, set of helical grooves I extending from end to end of the filament, and the other a set of substantially longitudinal extendgrooves 9 in the portions between the helical ,grooves 8. While with this form of the invention as with others heretofore described and later to be described, the filament may be made in any suitable manner, it is contemplated that these grooves 8 may be made in the same manner as described for forming the grooves 6 of Figs. 3 and 4 and thereafter. the filament I may be formed by passing the filament I through another shaped orifice ring aligned with the extrusion orifice and with the first named orifice ring which retates, but wherein the second orifice ring is formed with projections to provide the grooves 9 and is not rotated during the extrusion of the material. It may, however, be desired to rotate this second orifice ring in the opposite direction from that of the rotation of the first one or in 1 in the same manner.
allel axes and bearin upon diametrically opposite portions of the filament as it passes therebetween. The portions of these rollers contacting with the filaments may be formed with suitably shaped raised portions at suitable intervals to form the grooves shown at 2 and 3 in the filament. This will, of course, necessitate there being substantially plain or unshaped portions at the sides as shown at 4, wherein the filament will have a shape imparted to it by the orifice through which it is passed in the forming thereof.
In Figs. 3 and 4 there is shown another form of the invention wherein the filament generally indicated at 5 is also basically of circular crosssection, but is provided with a plurality of substantially parallel continuous helical grooves 6,
all of the same pitch. This filament may be of the same or similar types of material as those discussed above and may be formed, for example, by providing in conjunction with the extrusion orifice, a shaping orifice preferably aligned with the extrusion orifice and rotated about their common axis continuously during the extrusion at a substantially constant speed. Here it ill be understood that the ratio between the speed of extrusion and the speed of rotation of the shaping orifice will determine the pitch of the groove 8, while the shape and number of the protusions of such rotating shaping orifice will determine the the same direction and at a different speed, so as to provide a second series of grooves as shown at 9 at an angle to the axis of the filament I. All such shapes are to be considered within the purview. of this invention. The form of the invention shown in Figs. 5 and 6 is intended to simulate a plural stranded rope or cord, wherein each strand is made by twisting or spinning a plurality of individual filaments or groups thereof.
The form of the invention shown in Figs. 7 and 8 illustrates a filament having plural helical rooves, which-are-individually somewhat similar to the grooves 6 of Fig. 3, but wherein the diametrically opposite. sides only of the filament are grooved, so that it maybe formed in the manner above described for Figs. 1 and 2. As shown in this figure, there is a filament [0 having part helical grooves ii and i2,- similar respectively to the grooves 2 and 3 and which may be formed Intermediate these two grooved portions are unformed or plain portions l3 similar respectively to the portions 4 described for Figs. 1 and 2.
In Figs. 9 and 10, there is shown a filament ll having two helical grooves l5 and i6 each of which is quite deep in respect to the cross-section of the filament and both of which extend from end to end thereof. It is contemplated that this form of the invention may be made by a method similar to that above described in connection with Figs. 3 and 4, although a rotating die which might be used to form the helical grooves l5 and i6 must, in forming this type of a filament, be closely adjacent to the extrusion orifice and careful control had of the viscosity or softness of the material at the time of the extrusion and formin While there is herein shown a number of different forms of the present invention and there have been set forth possible ways and apparatus for making such filaments, the present invention is directed specifically to the filaments, per se,
rather than to the method of making them, so that any other method by which filaments of the present invention may be produced is to be con-.
5 cept by the scope of the appended claims, whic are to be construed validly as broadly as the state of the prior art permits.
l. A single filament oi synthetic organic plastic material having a helical groove formed in its outer surface and extending continuously from end to end of said filament with a. predetermined pitch, and a plurality of substantially longitudinally extending grooves formed in said filament intermediate the several portions or said helical groove, all said grooves serving to impart flexibility to the filament in use and serving to simulate the appearance or a plural stranded rope.
2. A single filament in accordance with claim 1. wherein a plurality of substantially parallel hell-- cal grooves are formed, each of the same pitch and all extending irom end to end of said filament, and wherein the substantially longitudinally extending grooves are formed between adjacent turns of said helical grooves.
3. A solid, substantially round, flexible, monofilament of substantially homogeneous synthetic organic plastic material for use as a textile filament, having a plurality of open. substantially parallel grooves therein, which are outwardly exposed and devoid of undercuts, each groove extending at a substantial angle to the axis of the filament and extending at least about one-third of the way around the axis of the filament, so that when the filament is formed into a fabric. the grooves will impart flexibility thereto and will simulate the appearance or a twisted textile filament.
4. A filament in accordance with claim 3, having at least one of said grooves extending helically from end to end of said filament.
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