US 2435884 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
G. F. GALEWSKI Feb. 10, 194s. 2,435,884 I HOMOGENIZING UNIT Filed Dec. 18, 1945 1 43 z 44 I 42 a t I Q xi I 13 22 26 Z8 ,3; a! Q 7 l 40 zfifi l I t as 32 8/30 1 111/1,111 III 2 4G281 ski,
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Patented Feb. 10, 1948 of one-third to Kermit B. Niles, Venica'and one-third to Howard D. Russell Los Angeles,
, Application December 18, 1945, Seria1No. 635,831
:1 This discovery is in industry apparatus "and methods for the homogenization "ofli'quids and semi-liquids such: as gEIS'WithiOfWithOllt "thepresence of additive solids and fair orother fga'ses heated or untreated; and "is ian"invention, :partic .ular1y,:foi apparatus for carrying :on divers m'eth- 'ods of .homogenizing an extensive variety of substances inclusive for. solids', rli'quids :and semi-liquid's and i'ga ses, "all o'f :a'ny :d'esire'd temperatures;
:and extends itoimeans'iioranahing emulsions "when so desired.
It i-isan dblecta'of this invention to provide a simple, practical. "substantial, reasonably low cost, (reliable, compact, and :highly iefiicient unit Tor :the thorough "subdivision of a icon'siderable stream or :a selected, bulk mixture of various in.- gredien'ts; the bulk mi-x being of a liquid state capable rof continuous rbull; circulation for .a time period necessary for generation of the :desired, ultimate product.
an *nbject of'th'e invention is to provide a homogenizing :apparatus "which" incorporates means whereby to perform waridus' iprocesses needed for the homogenization of numerous, greatly different bulk .miXt'uresrin avfacil'e a'nd rapid manner;
with great economy both as to machine opera tion, time and labor; and maximum efiic-iency with use 'of a minimum of waste and use'oi the several ingredients set out :ior the selected operation of producing a desired, homogenized :pr'oduct;"whether complete in itself or prepared for further utility.
It is particularly an object of the invention to provide a "homogenizing unit which will be at once recognised by "experts in numerous arts as especiall-yadaptable or the performance -of cer tain methods-which "may be either well known or, indeed; may be strict trade or industry secrets. This for the "reason that the instant apparatus incorporates numerous -feature'sall or any combination of "which can be brought into coordinate operation with close adjustments for gas and liquids control, and at prescribed temperatures.
:One of the objects "of'theinvention 'is to provide a homogenizing -unit in which a bulk of selected ingredients can be continuously circulat'ed and while circulated-kept at a desired bulk pressure", and to "provide means forthe ready control of thera'te or speed in the circuit'sothat in cases'where" critical'points are reached in the runningoperationoi the material 'speedcan be regulated. by adjustment of the circulating agency; a pump, for instance.
'" Fur th'er, an' dbject' or the' invention is to pro- 2 'vide, in a homogenizing 'unit. a "simple and reliable device provided with "parts more or less of nozzle form for -breaking a flowing stream o'fth'e bulk material, hereinafter called the mix, down into 3 a great :number of subdivisions which are ultimately so "fine as to produce the desired homogeny. In this' connection, "it is :an object of 'the inve'ntlon to :provide a" subdividing device in whichthere'ise plurality of 'freely and relatively ro'tative "wheels 'arranged in spaced relation on acommonaxial' support andwhich wheels are severally 'provided "with passageways. in cons'i dera'ble "numben'it'hrou'gh which the circulated' bulk mix is forcibly driven; was by the :above mentioned pumpflfor instance. Furtherran object is to gradually reduce the size of-the jets 'of mix discharged by the several wheels. Also, an object is to :provide a nozzle :device including a system of freely movable wheels having capacity for rotation and being given such motion -:only 'by the "reaction of the passing stream jets.
The invention consists in certain advance- 'mentsin the art of homogenizing fluids, in various selected liquids and gases mixture; as set forth in the ensu'ingdisclosure and having, with the above, 'additional' obiects andadvantages as hereinafter developed, and whose constructions, combinationsfand subcombinations, and'netails of'means, and" the manner of operation and the several possible adjustments will be made mani- -fest in the following description of the herewith illustrative embodiment; it being understood that modifications, variations and adaptations may.
be resorted to within the #scope, spirit and principles of the invention as it ismore directly claimed inconclusion. :Figure '1is a vertical, axial section of the machine.
Figure 2 ring.
Figure 3 is adetail fragment of 1a -form of one of the nozzle wheels. a Aspresently shown a funnel-form tanker-any desired size and material, is connected at its bottom 2 to a pump 3, preferably 'of the :po'sitive 'screw action type, and this pump' is preferably driven by'a variable speed motor 4 so that at critical steps as may obtain in some homo nizingprocesses iof given mixes *M, the machine at tendant may carefully change the speed of the pump "and itherefore the "rate of flow of the "mix as it is driven in-to a circulating pipe 5, in which is a suitable'fiow control valve'6.
A standing rnixin'g 'c'olur'nn "I, of tubular form, is rigidly mounted in association 1with' the tank is-a'detail fragment of a steam spray and the pipe 5 has a discharge end 5a spilling freely into the column just below a cap 8 closing the top of the column and through which turnably extends the upper end of a stem 9 having a threaded portion l engaging bore threads of the cap; the outer end of the stem having a hand wheel ll whereby the stem is rotated to effect close regulation of the homogenizing device detailed hereinafter; the stem having a gage feature l2 to indicate the state of adjustment of the stem and thereby of the said device.
A feature of this invention is that the column I constitutes a back pressure chamber, when the pump has charged the column to its capacity with a mass of the mix that is to be processed, and to effect this back-pressure accumulation the foot of the column is substantially closed by a means which, in the instant invention, consists of the device which has for another use the gradual discharge of the bulk mix from th column in the form of a large number of stream jets or subdivisions of the mass issuing from the columnunder pump pressure.
A further feature of the invention is that means are provided whereby selection can be made for the individual or aggregate infeed of various substances, such as pastes, pigments, oils, acids and reagents to the column in carefully controlled amounts, at their own desired temperatures, and moreover means are included for individually suppl ing a heating medium to the column to heat the bulk mix therein. and means are provided for inlet of air or other gas, at desired temperature, to the column; a l or some of the infeeding media being at sufficient pressure, if desired to force the mix past the foot located nozzle device. aside from or until the pump 3 comes into circulating action of the mix.
Referring to the foot nozzle device this consists of a system of vertically spaced disc-like wheels l4, l5 and I6 loosely. coaxially mounted on the lower end of the stem 9 with their rims substantially nesting with the inner conical face I! of a conical shell l8 rigidly affixed to the lower end of the column I. As here shown these wheels gradually increase in diameter, downwardly on the stem, and have conical rim faces complementary to the near, conical face I! of the shell. It may here be stated that the wheels have no attritional or grinding effect and are relatively freely movable.
For the purpose of thoroughly subdividing the mix M into numerous and size-difierentiated .iets
under pressure set up in the column each wheel I 4, I 5 and l B is provided with a very considerable number of passageways from too to bottom and are here shown as consisting of open top ducts or channels 20 formed in the conical. rim face of each wheel. The channels 20 of the top or smallest wheel M are of larger cross-section than the channels of the other wheels: the channels grading downward in cross-section in the lower wheels in the system. In Fig. 1 the channels of wheel 14 are shown as of rectangular cross-section but various other sections may be emploved as desired; Fig. 3 showing channels of -section in a wheel. Not onlv is the material finely subdivided whilst flowing from the column throu h the passageways of the nozzle wheels but additional mixing effect is secured by t e adiustment of the set of wheels as to the near face I! of theshell to form a very constrictive annular vent 2! arou d the rim of each wheel. This adjustment is made by the hand whee1 H to raise or lower 4 the set of nozzle wheels; the degree of adjustment being indicated by the gage 12.
At the upper end of the column 1 there is provided an annular orifice 22 to which a heating medium such as steam may be supplied from a pipe 23 tapping a collar 24 around the column and in which is fixed an annular spray device in the form of upper and lower rings 2526 with closely juxtaposed inner faces 21 which are suitably corrugated, as shown in Fig. 2, at 28 to form passageways directly to the column orifice 22. By this device a discal diaphragm of steam. or, if desired, other medium, is shot transversely into the chamber of the column I and the incoming discharge product from the pipe 5 is forced through the steam diaphragm as desired to very quickly bring the mix to a desired temperature.
The means for supplying separately into the column I streams of the desired oils. p stes. gels, liquids and gas, under desired and controlled temperature and pressure from storage vessels (not shown) includes apparatus as follows: at any suitable level in the column an air or other gas feeding pipe 30, having a control valve 3|, taps into a diaphragm forming collar 32 leading evenly to an annular orifice 33 in the wall of the column. By this collar device 32 a sustained diaphragm of the given gas at desired temperature and pressure intercepts the downwardly pumped bulk mix M in the column in a manner to expeditiously and thoroughly entrain in the mix.
A pipe 34 taps into the column I and has a control valve 35 outwardly beyond which is a suitable pressure pump 36 to force an ingredient, say oil, to the column. A by-pass pipe loop 3! connects to the pipe 34 at each side of the pump 36 and has a valve 38 whereby to carefully re ulate or calibrate the desired proportion of this supply of ingredient. A pipe 39, equipped with a control val e 40, supplies another in redie t, water for instance. by pressure from a relative pump 4| past a calibrating by-p ss 42. Other ingredients are supplied by like-eouiped pines 43 and 44 at desired rate of flow. pressure and temperature. It is understood that all components can be brought to temperatures other than n rmal (atmospheric). as desired by suitabl a encies most conveniently dis osed for economic operation of the exercised process.
The tank 2 may be entirelv uncovered or if preferred may have an air ti ht cover 2a fi ed t0 the parts to hold a suitable degree of fl id pressure in the tank durin operation. and to control fumes. in some instances. Dry comminuted'solids or stiff astes c n be dropped i to the top of the tank if it is open. or b way of a plu gable handhole 2b in the cover 2a.
The wheels may have means. as blades I6a to i cite rotation during liquid flow.
What is claimed is:
1. Homogen zing apparatus having. in combination. a tank. a stand ng hollow column hav ng at its foot a stream homogenizing. freely rotative disc valve choking flow at its rim from the bottom edge face of the column to the tank to form a film, a pipe for circulating contents of the tank to the top of the column and having a head discharge outlet thereto and the pipe having a positive-action pump to force the circulated material in homogenizing films past said valve, and means having inlets below the said outlet for supplying ingredients of the material to the column,
2. The apparatus of claim 1; and a ring jet means for discharging gaseous media in trans- 5 verse diaphragm form across and into the column below the pipe outlet for intermixture with the circulated mixture.
3. The apparatus of claim 1; and means forming vertically spaced jet ring orifices around the column wall for discharging separate dlscal diaphragms of gaseous media across the column and into the contents of the column. 4
4. The apparatus of claim 1; and means consisting of jet rings in the wall of the column for discharging transverse diaphragm-form jets of gaseous media into the column.
5. In apparatus of the class described; a standing column, having a conical foot shell means to introduce ingredients to be treated into the column, and mixing means disposed close to the inner face of the shell and substantially closing the foot of the column and including a set of freely rotative, conic rim, film forming coaxially spaced wheels of increasing diameter downward and having differential nozzle rimpassageways for subdivisional flow of the film past the wheels in succession; the passageways of successive wheels being smaller downward in the order of the wheels.
6. Apparatus as of claim 5; and means for varying the position of the wheel rims as to the shell wall to change the clearance space; said passageways being open along their length to 6 the said space, and from wheels.
7. The apparatus of claim 5; the angle pitch face of the said foot shell being common to the angle of the rims of the wheels; whereby the flow of the film from wheel to wheel is efiected with a minimum of detrimental turbulence.
top to bottom of the GEORGE F. GALEWSKI.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS