US 2436038 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 17, 1948. R, B. FARRELL l SMOKE, FUME AND GAS EJECTR APPARATUS Filed July 24, 1944 2 sneets-sheet 1 W\ l-2y @53.
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INVEN TOR. 852cv B. FARRELL.
Feb. 17, 1943. R, B. FARRLL 2,436,038
SMOKE, FUME AND GAS EJECTOR APPARATUS Fglled July 24, 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. B520( B. #Anm-:LL
Patented Feb. 1v, 1948 l 2,436,033
WPATE-NT oir-#mics GAS EJET@ liquid pmibi mum displa e The diamete ,11d-fof 12,..
pireferailyi'im the 55 havingjs'uitbleha to engage over-:affxed part on the center or body section I4.
Referring particularly to Fig. 6 which shows a building or room I8 having a fire indicated at I9, two of the re fighting apparatuses are disposed in the opposing window openings and 2| the apparatus 22 in window 20 serving to eject the smoke from the ire while a vsecond apparatus 23 may be disposed inthe window opening 2i for injecting fresh air into the room I8 and thereby driving out the injurious fumes and gas through the remote window openings 20 and 2l. While the two apparatuses may be used in such co-operating relation, if desired, it is intended to use them singly since the air displacement is so large, by reason of the spray piston, that one apparatus alone will sumce to readily change the gaseous lcontent lof the room in a very brief interval of time.
The practical illustration shown gives the alternate uses of the apparatus,either as a smoke ejector or as a fresh airinjector, It is made portable by the handles I5 so that the fireman may carry the device in front of him and use it as a fresh air 'injector as he ,enters the smokefilled room'through the doorway 25.
In use, it isA onlynecessary that the firemen piace the device either inthe position indicated at 22 where it will be used as a smoke ejector for quickly clearing the room or building of the obnoxious gases or he may place it to function as a fresh air injector, .as shown at 23. The shield I4 with its extensions I6 are of suiiicient size to provide a mount -i'or the apparatus which will either t -withinpr overhang the window opening, suitable ,meansinot shown) being employed to interlock the shield in position. The iire hose which is usually provided with the shutoff valve 26 will enable the ready attachment of the hose to the apparatus,r either to the right hand or the left handbranch coupling I3, while the unused branch will be closed by the check valve Il'. l
The mixing chamber 2 Vmay be extended by means of a telescopic section v28 on the housing I. By extending this section, the mixing chamb'er will, in eiect, be lenthened for carrying the smoke-saturated spray discharge from the room; or if desired, a collapsible exible tubing or conduit 29 may be substituted therefor and attached varied usage. Y ..ln some elds o f'useit may ,be desirable to provide a twinldevice as shown in Fig. 4 whereindicated at 6', for discharging in opposite directions within the T-shaped mixing chamber 2'. The housing I' has a fresh air inlet I entering the chamber between the oppositely moving piston forming sprays which latter discharge through the outlet openings 9. The iire hose with its high pressure water stream may be selectively connected to one or the other oi the two branchesV II', as in the'caseof the"V embodiment shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3. The displacement of this modification will be enlarged and thereby increase the velocity of the air stream entering the inlet' 'I'.
' The apparatus is of simple and durable construction. Its operating power is derived from the fire righting equipment. When used as a smoke ejector the smoke is intermingled with to produce oppositely directedcones of spray. as
the spray in such a manner that the resultant discharge is in the form of a shaft of mist or an atomized spray, the cross sectional shape of the discharging body of spray being imparted by the discharge orice 1 The device is readily mountable Within a window or door opening whereit may be firmly anchored. The twin arrangement shown in Fig. 4 provides an arrangement wherein one spray is caused to react against the companion spray toward the stabilization of the apparatus when in use.
By reason of the piston forming spray a relatively large mixing'chamber may be employed to augment the air displacing capacity of the device and thereby make it practical for eiecting a quick change of the air content in a room or building. This will yexpedite the firemens work in safely combating the flames or coniiagration with a minimum property damage. In practical demonstrations the ai r displacement has varied in accordance with the diameter of the mixing chamber as well as the pressure on the water line. For example with a 22" drum at hydrant pressure, which is 'about 55 pounds, approximately 5,000 cubic :feet of air per minute at 70j F. weredisplaced, while under a 200 pound engine pressure on the water spray, approximately 11,750 cubic feet of air per minute were displaced. The reading on'the U-tube (water) increased from 1/2" to 21/2". With a nozzle having an oriiice of 3A inch diameter operating in the 22 inch cylinder the eiective area of the cylinder with respect to the effective area of the nozzle is substantially in the ratio of 861vto 1; with a 14 inch cylinder and a nozzle having an orice of 1/'2 inch diameter the ratio will be approximately 779.7 to 1. With these approximate ratios the greatest eiiciency is secured. Substantial variations in this ratio, as well as substantial variations in the included angle of the spray cone will change the efiiciency in that it may require a larger pump, more power to drive the same, and a greater back pressure or suction generated. With a mixing chamber having a 14" diameter the air dispiacement'vunderthe same engine pressure displaced 4,200cubic feet oi air per minute. The air exchangedevice is not coniined to re iighting apparatus, but is applicable to other iields of use where the circulation of air is to be accomplished in a practical and expeditiousmanner. Furthermore, the device actually adapts the usual nre hose, when equipped with a spray type nozzle, as ar medium for removing the objectionable smoke and gases from a building. For this reason the bracket 3 may detachably support the nozzle 4 so ,that the latter may be removedand used alone with the vtire hose independently of the housing I; Because of its portable charac- 5 ter the device after attachment to the re hose may be carried about and maneuvered to the best advantage in suppressing the fire, the shield serving to baille the heat from direct contact with the firemen.
It will be understood further that the apparatus and system described and shown herein is merely illustrative of the inventive principles involved, which may be applied to other physical embodiments Without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention claimed.
What is claimed is:
1. A re fighting apparatus of the class described comprising a mixing chamber having an inlet and an outlet, a spray forming nozzle disposed axially within the chamber and arranged to produce a spray of liquid iiaring outwardly against the interior wall of the chamber under a forward impetus toward the outlet end of the chamber, and means for connecting the nozzle to a fire hose for receiving water therefrom to produce the piston forming spray, said means comprising branched couplings selectively engageable with the fire hose, with a check valve in each coupling adapted to close the same under the water pressure delivered by the hose when engaged with the companion coupling.
2. A re lighting apparatus of the class described comprising a mixing chamber having an inlet and an outlet, a spray forming nozzle disposed axially within the chamber and arranged to produce an atomized spray cf liquid llaring outwardly against the interior wall of the cham-ber to provide a body of mist moving toward and discharging from the outlet end of the chamber, means for connecting the nozzle to a fire hose for receiving water therefrom to produce the body forming spray, and a mount for the chamber to enable placement of the same in an opening in the wall of a building, said mount being provided with handle means by which it may be carried about, said connecting means comprising branched couplings selectively engageable with the re hose and having valve means responsive to the liquid pressure for closing the unconnected coupling.
3. A blower comprising a cylinder of substantially uniform cross sectional area throughout its length and open at each end, a relatively small nozzle connected to a high pressure water line and located centrally of the cylinder adjacent one of its open ends, said nozzle having an annular spray opening disposed centrally of the nozzle and the cylinder for forming and directing a hollow cone of water under high pressure directly against the inner wall of the cylinder adjacent its opposite open end, the eiective area of the cylinder with respect to the eiective area of the nozzle being substantially in the ratio of 800 to 1,
whereby the water of said cone in rapidly moving from the nozzle to the inne-l` wall of the cylinder forms a broken spray the globules of which move dlvergingly and permit slippage of air therebetween thereby reducing the vacuum eiect at the inlet end of the cylinder and upon impingement upon the inner wall of the cylinder the glob ules of the spray further disintegrate to form a mist, therapidly moving globules of the spray and the mist combining to move a larg-e volume of air through the cylinder.
4. A blower comprising a cylinder of substantially uniform cross sectional area throughout its length and open at each end, a relatively small nozzle connected to a high pressure water line and located centrally of the cylinder adjacent one of its open ends, said nozzle having an annular spray opening disposed centrally of the nozzle and the cylinder for forming and directing a hollow cone of water under high pressure directly against the inner wall of the cylinder adjacent its opposite open end, the effective area of the cylinder with respect to the effective area of the nozzle being substantially in the ratio of 800 to 1, and the included angle of the cone of spray being substantially 60, whereby the water of said cone in rapidly moving from the nozzle to the inner wall of the cylinder forms a broken spray the globules of which move divergingly and permit slippage of air therebetween thereby reducing the vacuum effect at the inlet end of the cylinder and upon impingement upon the inner wall of the cylinder the globules of the spray further disintegrate to form a mist, the rapidly moving globules of the spray and the mist combining to move a large volume of air through thecylinder.
ROY B. FARRELL.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the le of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 871,209 Cotton Nov. 19, 1907 1,067,653 Hearing July 15, 1913 1,318,750 Hawkesworth Oct. 14, 1919 1,320,866 Jarman Nov. 4, 1919 1,779,009 Negro Oct. 21, 1930 1,830,853 Osterhage Nov. 10, 1931 1,870,570 Hueglin Aug. 9, 1932 1,874,573 vMoore Aug. 30, 1932 1,916,907 Sargent July 4, 1933 1,936,246 Carter et al Nov. 21, 1933 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 2,597 Great Britain 1895