US 2437263 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
F. w. MANNING 2,437,263
IBTHOD MID APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FILAMENTS FROM SOLIDS Filod Sept. 29, 1943 Max:119, 1948 Patented Mar. 9, 1948 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE m!) AND APPARATUS FOR THE PRO- DUCTION OF FILAMENTS FROM SOLIDS Fred W. Manning, Palo Alto, Calif. Application September 2 1943, Serial No. 504,525 11 Clalms. (CL 1H) My invention relates to devices for the dispersion of fusible solids into the filaments to form fabric coverings, and droplets to form film coatings, and particularly relates to guns for such purposes. This application is a continuationin-part of my eopending applications, "Method and apparatus for spinning unwoven fabrics," Serial No. 414,809, filed October 13, 194i, and Method and apparatus for making unwoven and composite fabrics, Serial No. 423,733, filed December 20. 1941, subsequently issued as Patents Nos. 2,336,743. and 2,338,745, respectively.
Prior practice has been to limit the use of spray guns to the disruption of substances into droplets, which were projected against surfaces where they flattened out into overlapping scales and then became indurated into hardened coverings. Some of these materials. such as certain metals, were instantly sprayed from a solid state into droplets without there being any apparent intermediate period or position in which the metal could be recognized as existing in a fluid state. As far as I am aware, no attempt has ever been made to use a spray gun to bring a solid to a fiuid state before its disruption into droplets, or to attenuate such a fiuid into a plurality of filaments and disperse and deposit the filaments to form anon-woven fabric.
It is therefore the primary object of my invention to provide an inexpensive method and means for bringing a solid to a fluid state. disrupting it into a plurality of filaments, and proiecting the filaments in an adhesive state upon the object to be coated or covered by interseating filaments. Such a non-woven fabric can then be sprayed by droplets to form a film thereover, which coating may cover the filaments alone to protect the latter and leave the fabric pervious, or the film may also cover the interstices and leave the fabric impervious, or the film covering for filaments and/or interstices may leave the fabric pervicus to certain fluids and imprevious to other fiuids. These composite fabrics may then be sprayed or otherwise coated by treating fiuids or solids in finely divided form, such as the usual fire retardants, water repellents, wetting agents. lacquers, adhesives, solvents, nonbinder fibres, etc.
In accordance with my invention, I propose to use spinning materials which are usually thermoplastic but may be thermosettlng. A great variety of plastics may be used for as many different such as: vinylidene chloride, vinyl chloride acetate, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl butyral, polystrene, polysulphide, polyvinyl alcohol. p01!- vinyl acetate. methyl methacrylate, and polymeric amide resins, urea-formaldehyde and phenolformaldehyde compounds, latex compositions, ceilulosic and petroleum derivatives, proteinbase materials, glass, mixtures of organic and inorganic materials. such as the plastics now called siiicones. and almost all materials that are now spun or extruded into filaments. films, and foils. These materials may be modified by other materials. such as plasticizers, coloring agents, volatile solvents. etc.. but which are most suitable for any particular purpose will depend upon the temperatures involved, corroding eiiects of contacting fiuids, cost of the plastics, and many other factors. Such plastics may be fed in powder, granular, rod, or other solid form, into a reduction zone, the solid subjected to heat and/or pressure to reduce it to a fluid state, the fluid plastic attenuated or disrupted into filaments, or other discrete particles. at a given speed by a pressure differential, and the said particles stretched or/and dispersed and deposited by propelling movements of adjacent or enveloping elastic and/or liquid fiuids moving at a greater speed than the extrusion speed.
All plastics that can be spun directly into such filamentous structures can also be sprayed in droplets to make film coatings for the structures, but many materials that can be sprayed in drop lets cannot be spun into filaments. There are many ways of making a non-woven fabric of intersected filaments impervious to fiuids and fluids containing moisture, etc. If the fabric is to be made homogeneous the individual filaments may be caused to flatten out and assume an oval shape by projecting them against a retaining wall with considerable impact. and ultimately an impervious fabric of promiscuously intersected filaments will result; or both filaments and droplets of the same material may be deposited in a plastic state by the same fluid stream and from the same gun, the filaments being extruded from an integral mass in a reduction chamber into the fluid stream where they may be further extended I disrupted and dispersed. and the droplets resulting from the introduction of the plastic in finely divided solids from another source of supply into the same stream and reduced therein to droplets by the heat of the stream; or the droplets may be. sprayed subsequently to the filaments and from the same reduction zone by varying the disruption viscosity of the plastic. pressure and direction of the air blast, etc. If the fabric does not require to be homogeneous. a composite structure may be spun from a variety of plastics,
ass-mos the spinning being accomplished simultaneously or extrusion temperature. which will usually vary by using a difiercnt gun for each plastic. or diibetween 250 I". and 600' I". for organic thermoferent plastics may be spun successively irom the plastics but may reach as high as 2200' F. for me gun: or a composite structure may be built inorganic thermoplastics, the latter fluid being up of materials that can be spun into filaments. g maintained at a lower temperature for rapid such as those already mentioned. and fusible quenching and indurating purposes, which will solids that can only be sprayed in droplets. such usually vary between 50' F. and 60' F. out may as certain metals and enamels. Any homogenebe anything above freezing point: and the prious or composite structure of fusible materials mary fiuid may or may not be immiscible in the may al e sprayed r otherwise coated with secondary fiuid. And either or both rimary fusible synthetic fibres, such as ny on, yo and secondary fiuids may be given a whirling 8 w. etc or with non-fusible natural fibres. such motion by means of heltcoid vanes or tangential as cott n. wool, ha fea 0 5. shredded openings within the primary and/or secondary leat r. et to inertia-50 t Wa t o t e a nozzles to aid in stretching the filaments during improve its appearance. stren h n its Structure. their conveyance, or to twist a plurality of fila- Gtc. when non-binder liltllill fibres are bonded men about, one another to form a yarn or a by thermoplastic or tbermosetting fibres in an stronger fabric structure,
adhesive state. the latter may by m The strength of the deposited filaments and 1mm 6 t p cent or Over of the formerand the structure formed by the union or the interasindicated above, the binder and non-binder eating filament will depend on mgnyjacwrs. fibre! be Wmmmikd dun! mm/gimme such as the plastic used, the amount of stretchlnd be P mixed they may ing given to the extruded filaments. the temperabe conveyed separately and deposited i turn at which the filaments are stretched. etc.;
their adherence and the mama and the stretching may be increased by lncreasof the binder be accomplished as ing the propelling speed of the conveying fluids during conveyance or over the extrusion speed of the filaments, and
A plurality or elastic or quid fluid blasts also by controlling the direction of their proor stream may be M in the gun for pulsion beiore any substantial dispersion is almd ovum: object E 7 lowed to take place. as by use of a nozzle of submd dmplet's' A or .nqmd stantial length. Ifthe stretching of the filaments column md mud by pnmary is to be accomplished wholly by the heating or nozzle, may be positioned adjacent to, or
primary conveying fluid the primary nozzle may envelope the extrusion now mere be short, or it may be irom one to six leet or $2232 3 gg z ig gz a i tga f xg more in length. in which case the secondary p q nozzle and quenching iluid will usually not be recooperating with a or ether means quired; if the filaments are to be cold drawn aims: s: i mers s: W be or tnlded filaments; maintaining the extrusion block length' one to m or more length However for most purposes both primary and and extruded filaments at a suitable temperature 40 v so that the latter may be conveyed and deposited Wm be used Stretching m lune state; dim-mm co m nous mm poses, and the length of each nozzle will have a menu? they an extruded. s lengths; definite relative relation. to the amount of stretch Ind y n reducing, and dispersin a liquid required lrom the movement 01 the fiuid director finely divided ends for comma pw-msei ed by its respective nozzle, and the length'of bonding indlu-ated filament together, bonding the nozzles and the time of their outlets will demdumted filam nt; by droplet;- m A secondary termine the dispersion or the deposited filaments. elastic or liquid fiuid,- enclosed and directed by a The length 0! me mlmem's 905mm Wm mondary nozzle may be posmoned adj ce t to. depend on the extent they are subjected to opor gnyelope. m 911mm g m and n w at a posing forces during. conveyance and stretching. greater velocity than the'latter for the purposes k of p the y m y be stretched n of; controlling d directing th primary fluid deposited continuous lengths and in a unin t regulate the deposition m m rormly intersected condition. with or without aid and/or droplets. and to prevent the plastic on f m the n y n u by r pr ati roments from contacting the nozzle barrel; increass5 ta ivc. or other regular movements 0! either. 1 ing the velocity or impacting force of filaments both. gun and oblect being coated: or they may as deposited; regulating the oxidizing action of be deposited lnbroken lengths in a promiscuously the primary fiuid; and for quenching or/and intersected condition. in which case the actual .shrinking the filaments during their conveying lengths of the filaments in an integral fabric will and stretching period. or after their deposition. so seldom be apparent.
There may be used for the above mentioned The invention is exemplified in the following purposes: fiulds that will sustain combustion, description. and a preferred arrangement is llauch as oxygen and such as steam and carbon iustrated by way oi example in the accompanydioxide; non-oxidizing fiuids, acetylene; proding drawings,lnwhich: ucts of combustion. such as helium, nitrogen, Figure 1 is a vertical section oi a gun for spinbydrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide: and in ning and spraying purposes.
some cases liquid iluids may be substituted for Figure 2 is a cross-section taken on line 2-! elastic fiuids. such as a cold water spray or stream of the propulsion cylinder shown on Figure l. for quenching and shrinking the filaments or Figure 3 is a fragmentary section taken on line the newly-formed fabric. l'or most purposes, 3-4 between the primary and secondary nozzles however, both primary and secondary fluids shown in Fig. 1.
should be inert in their relation to the plastic The gun consists of three major parts: a fluid filaments and droplets, the former fiuld being motor ior ieeding a solid rod I or filament or maintained at substantially the same-temperadroplet iormlng substance into a gun barrel, the ture .as. or only slightly lower than. the molten barrel in which the rod is reduced to a fiuid state and then disrupted into filaments or droplets, and a gun stock to which both are attached.
The motor has complementary forward and rear cylinders 2 and 8, respectively, separated by a division plate 4 and closed by forward and rear threaded cylinder heads 5 and t, respective ly. the latter having a hole therethrough which is reduced to a diameter slightly less than that of the rod to act as a sealing ring therefor. The forward and rear pistons I and 8, respectively, are similar in construction, and each encloses a plurality of gripping balls I, ball ring it, spring ll, closure plate if for the spring, snap ring l3 for the closure plate, sealing ring H for the rod, and a snap ring II for the sealing ring. A reduced portion It of the pistons traps air in receased portions ll of the division plate and the rear cylinder head to cushion the rapid rearward movement of the pistons. The valve chamber i8 is closed by forward and rear plugs i8 and 20, respectively, and encloses a piston valve havin division heads ll, 22, 23 and 24, through the first and last of which are small exhaust passages 25 and 28, respectively. Air pressure enters the valve chamber at port 21, and the exhaust escapes from the chamber through ports 28 and 19. A passage so runs the length of the cylinders and is connected thereto iy forward and rear ports 3| and 32, respectively. and to the valve chamber by port 33. The cylinders are connected by pasuse 34, and to the valve chamber by parts 35, it and 31.
The gun barrel II encloses: concentric mica insulating tubes and 40 for enclosing the heating element 41, concentric mica insulating tubes 42 and 43 for enclosing the heating element 44, a-concentric air heating chamber 55 between the two heating elements, and a guiding tube 46 connected to the forward cylinder head for the pinstie rod. An extrusion head 41 is. attached to the end of guiding tube and has a plurality of openlugs 48 to aid in disrupting the molten plastic .into .fiiaments, and a plurality of openings 49 connected to the concentric air heating chamber. A primary nozzle 50 having an outlet SI, and a secondary nozzle '2 having an outlet 83. are adjustable within the end of the gun barrel, and the annular chamber between the two nozzles is connected by tangential openings 64 through the and with the annular space 55 within the ring The gun stock I! has therein a main air passage ll opened by means of the trigger it, which is supported by a pin 40, making pressural contact with the valve I, the latter being held in normal position by a spring 62 within the cap 43. Leading from the underside of the valve is an air passage H. which is divided into a num ber of branches; an air passage 85 to the piston valve chamber, which is controlled by an adjusting screw 80- within a packing nut 61; an air passage I to the pipe ll, which communicates with the opening in the annular gun ring and is controlled by an adjusting screw 10 within a packing nut 1|: and an air passage 12 to an annular opening 11, which communicates with the concentric air heating chamber and is controlled by an adjusting screw 14 within a packing nut II. A passage II also runs through the gun stock for the electric wires 11, which are conheated through passages II and I! with the thermostat It and the heating elements. The gun barrel is attached to the stock by a screw thread, and the motor cylinders are held in a recess portion of the stock by bolts II. An injector l1 and 6 cock I! control admission of fluids or solids into the quenching or secondary fluid, and opening #4, which is shown closed by plug 45, may be used for .feeding fluids or solids into the heating or primary fluid, the movement of the secondary and primary fluids through their respective passages being sufflcient for such injection purposes.
The operation of the gun thus constructed has been indicated in connection with the foregoing description with the exception of the movements of the feeding cylinders and piston valve. The rearward movement of the pistons cause the gripping balls I within the piston: to move slightly forward relatively against spring pressure so as to offer no resistance to the movement of the pistons, but their forward movements cause the balls to jamb between the internal conical structure of the pistons and the rod thereby gripping the latter and causing it to travel with the pistons. In the position of pistons as shown,. ai r pressure flows from the supply branch 86, through ports 21 and 33 of the valve chamber into the longitudinal passage "land from the latter through end ports 3i and 12 into the extreme ends of the forward and rear cylinders, respectively. The forward piston I, being under no load, flies back instantly to division plate 4; the rear piston moves forward as quickly as the forward end of the rod is reduced to a fluid state by the heating elements and the molten plastic forced through the extruding openings st by air pressure on the piston; and in both cylinders the exhaust air escapes through passages 34 and 36 to the valve chamber, and from the latter through the exhaust port 2! to the outside air. As the rear piston approaches the division plate the passage 31 is uncovered. passage 35 remaining covered, which allows air pressure to enter the rear end of the valve chamber to drive the valve forward, the exhaust from the forward end of the chamber escaping through passage 25 in the valve head and through exhaust port 28 to the outside air. Both rear piston and valve having reached the forward end of their stroke, air pressure entering at 21 flows through port 36 into passage 34 at the bottom of the division plate thereby causing the rear piston to fly back instantly under no load and the forward piston to move forward as quickly as the rod is reduced to a fluid state and extruded under the pressure exerted onthe pistons, the exhaust in both cylinders escaping from the end ports into passage so and from the latter through port 33 into the valve chamber and then through exhaust port 29 to the outside air. As the forward piston nears the end of its forward stroke, port 35 is uncovered allowing air pressure to enter the forward end of the valve chamber to drive the valve rearward, the exhaust from the rear end of the valve chamber escaping through passage 28 in the valve head and the exhaust port 29 to the outside air.
It'will be obvious from the foregoing description that either one or a plurality of pistons may be used as a fluid actuated motor to propel a rod, or other shaped solid, of uniform cross-section through a guiding tube, or heating chamber, or reduction zone, and that because of the very rapid retractive piston movement the progression of the rod will be substantially continuous whether one or two pistons are used. The extrusion outlet from a guiding tube may be of the same cross-section as the rod, and the latter fed through the outlet without prior heating, and the entire heating and disruption of the rod into filaments or droplets occur simultaneously and as a result of a blast of heated conveying fluid; or the rod may be gradually heated to a semi-fluid state in a heating chamber, and moved in that condition through an extrusion outlet or the same cross-section as the rod. and the final heating and disruption of the rod into fllaments or droplets occur simultaneously with and as a result of a blast of heated conveying fluid; or the rod may be gradually heated to a molten state in a reduction zone, and the fluid end of the rod moved through an extrusion outlet of the same cross-section as the rod, and the disruption of the latter into filaments or droplets result from a blast of heated conveying fluid; but in all three methods the propelling speed of the rod can not be in excess of the speed with which the rod may be'disrupted into fllaments, and up to that and in either ease the felt compacted by pressure point may be regulated by an adjusting screw for admitting air pressure to the cylinder. How-' ever, it is usually more desirable that the extrusion outlet contain one or more openings of smaller cross-section than the rod, and the flrst disruption result irom the propulsion of the molten plastic from areduction zone into streams through the openings, the movement of the pistons and rod depending on the speed with which the rod may be reduced to a fluid state and forced through openings, which speed can be regulated by the length and thermostatic control of the heating elements and the adjusting screw for the fluid pressure to the cylinders. The reducing ofthe rod to a moltenstate within a reduction zone may be wholly due to pressure of the rod against a solid heating surface having extrusion openings therethrough. but it will usually be found preferable to bring the rod to a molten state progressively and use piston Pressure to force the near-molten and deformable end of the rod against enclosing walls adjacent to the outlet openings for flnal heating and extrusion of the molten rod through the openings. The fliaments may be extruded and conveyed and dep ed in relatively great lengths, but for most purposes are disrupted by the primary conveying fluid into comparatively short lengths, which may be made substantially uniform by a periodic interruption in the blast of the fluid .by means of a rotating valve in the fluid feed line or a uniform intermittent pressural contact on the gun trigger that may control a valve in the feed line. It will be noted thstthe entire propulsion mechanism may be replaced by an upright airvented container for a molten plastic or a plastic solution, the container having a side flange for insertion into the recessed portion of the gun stools and the guiding tube 48 forming the outlet connection from the center of the flange to the extrusion head. and the liquid being forced through the latter under a differential pressure as in ordinary liquid spray guns.
It will also be evident that solids and fluids of various types may be introduced in either or both of the conveying fluid streams: smooth surface fibres, such as glass, asbestos. rayon. nylon, etc., some of which may be potentially adhesive possessing latent coalescent characteristics and become binder flbres when subjected to heat or/and pressure, but which cannot be felted by ordinary means. may be fed into the streams for commingling with binder fibres in a plastic state, and both binder and non-binder flbres then deposited to foi'm a felt: or the non-binder fibres, and the binder fibres in a plastic state. may be deposited in successive or alternate layers to form a felt.
either before or subsequent to complete induration of the binder fibres in the felt. Or, it because of the distance the filaments have to be thrown to form a covering. or for other reasons, they become indurated or lose their adhesive characteristics too soon, a solvent for the filaments, such as acetone for cellulose acetate flbres. maybe fed into one of the conveying streams to' increase and/or maintain the adhesiveness of the binder flbres for the non-binder fibres introduced in the other of the conveying streams. Likewisc,'saturated or superheated steam of any desired temperature and moisture content may he introduced into one of the conveying streams for the same reason, as well as for heating purposes.
It will furthermore be evident that a fusible material that cannot be reduced to filaments, may be reduced to droplets by exactly the same methed and apparatus used to reduce other fusible materials to fllaments; and a fusible flbre-forming material may be reduced to droplets by modifying the conditions required for reducing it to filaments, such as by varying the temperature and viscosity of the fluid material. direction and pressure of the dispersing fluid at the time and point of disruption, etc.; or a fusible fibre-forming material may be reduced to droplets by finely dividing it, and introducing the discrete particles into a conveying stream of suitable temperature to reduce the particles to a fluid state while the latter are in a dispersed condition, and the deposition may be accomplished simultaneously and in mixture with the filaments, or subsequently to the deposition of the filaments.
It will still furthermore be evident that the word "spraying" is equally applicable to the disversion of various discrete solids, such as hisments, and the CUSPCISlOII OI the very flnely divided liquid particles, referred to in the speciflcations and claims as "droplets"; and it will be understood that the word rod" is meant to include shaped articles of uniform cross-section. such as ribbons, sheets, and the like.
I claim as my invention:
1. The method of producing filaments of substantiai strength from a thermoplastic material comprising: feeding the said material in a solid rod of uniform cross-section into a reducing zone; subjecting the said material to heat and pressure in the said zone to reduce the material to a fluid condition; alternating the said fluid material into a plurality of fllarnents by pressure of the oncoming solid rod: and stretching and conveying the said fllaments by a blast of elastic fluid.
2. The method of producing filaments of substantial strength from a thermoplastic material comprising: feeding the said material in a solid rod of uniform cross-section into a reducing zone; subjecting the said material to heat in the said zone to reduce the material to a fluid condition; attenuating the said fluid material into a plurality of filaments: dispersing and conveying the said fllaments by a stream of an elastic fluid; and progressively feeding fresh rod material into the said zone in direct ratio to the rate of reduction of the solid rod material to a fluid condition.
3. The method of producing filaments of substantial strength from a thermoplastic material comprising: feeding the said material in a solid rod of uniform cross-section into a reducing zone: subjecting the said material to heat and pressure in the said zone to reduce the material to a fluid condition: attenuating the said fluid material into a filament by extrusion of the material from :1 wasain a.
names filament into a plurality of filaments of irregular lengths by a blast of an elastic fluid: and pro- 10 in the forward movements of the pistons and releasing the rod in the rctractive movements of the pistons; a receptacle connected to the said chambcr and having an extrusion outlet therefrom:
gressiveiy feeding fresh rod material into the so :i heating means for reducing a portion of the said none in direct ratio to the rate of extrusion of the rod within the said receptacle to a fluid condifluid material from the zone. iion: and means for supplying fluid pressure to 4. The method of producing filaments of suhthe said chamber to reciprocate the said pistons atantial strength from a thermoplastic material in opposing directions whereby the said rod is comprising: feeding the said material in a solid iLtl continuously from the chamber into the said rod of uniform cross-section against the solid receptacle and as rapidly as the said portion withsurfaco of a heating element possess-inn a tcrnin the receptacle is reduccdto a fluid condition perature sumciently high to reduce to a fluid conand extruded from the receptacle. dition that portion of the rod adjacent to the. 9. The method of producing filaments from a said surface: attenuating the said fluid material thermoplastic material comprising: progressively into a plurality of filaments by forcing the mafeeding the said material into a melting zone: torial from the said surface through an extrusion subjecting the said material to heat in the said outlet by pressure of the oncoming solid rod: and zone to reduce the material to a fluid condition: stretching the said filaments by a blast of elastic disrupting the said fluid material into a plurality fluid. go of heated filaments: stretching and conveying the 8. In a spinning device. the combination of: said heated filaments by movement of a primary. a feeding chamber; a receptacle connected to the fluid to attenuate the filaments: and quenching said chamber: propelling means in the said and conveying the said attenuated filaments by chamber for progressively feeding a solid matemovement of a secondary fluid to deposit' the -rial into the said receptacle; heating means in filaments. e the said receptacle for reducing the said material 10. The method of producing filaments from a to a fluid condition: an extrusion outlet from the thermoplastic material comprising: progressively laid receptacle.for disrupting the said fluid lllifeeding the said material intoa melting zone: terlal into a plurality of filaments as the said subjecting the said material to heat in the said solid material is fed out of the receptacle: means zone to reduce the material to a fluid condition: for supplying an elastic fluid for stretching and disrupting the said fluid material into a plurality conveying said filaments as they are extruded: of heated filaments: stretching and conveying the andmeans for introducing a treating arrcnt into said heated filaments by movement of a primary the said elastic fluid to render the said filaments fluid to attenuate the filaments: quenching and adhesive during the said conveyance. conveying the said attenuated filaments by move- 6. In a spinning device, the combination of ment of a secondary fluid to deposit the filaa feeding chamber; a receptacle having a heatmeats: and introducing a treating agent into. the in: surface therein: a. conduit from the said said secondary fluid during the said quenching chamber to the said receptacle: an outlet from and conveying to make the said filaments adherthe said receptacle: propelling means in the said eat to one ancther upondeposition. chamber for feeding a solid material at a uni- 11. In 2. spin 1g device, the combination of; form speed through the said conduit. and asain t a feeding chamber: a receptacle having a heatthe said heating surface in the said rcccpi-a c. inn surface therein: a conduit from the said and extruding a melted portion thereof th ough chamber to the said receptacle: an outlet from the said outlet into a plurality of fliamcnt-: the said receptacle: propelling means in the said means for supplying an elastic fiuid to the said chamber for feeding a solid material at a unifilaments and for moving the fluid in a helical form speed through the said-conduit. and against path to stretch and convey the filaments as they the said heating surface in the said receptacle. are extruded. and extruding a melted portion thereof through '1. In an apparatus for disintegratin a solid to the said outlet into a plurality of filaments: and rod of uniform cross-section, the combination of: means for supplying an elastic fluid to the said a feeding chamber: a piston adapted to rcciprofilaments. and for moving the fluid in a helical cats inforward and rctractive movements within path to-a stretch and convey and wind the said the said chamber: means within the said piston filaments about one another as they are exfor gripping the said rod in the forward moremine I ment of the piston and releasing the rod in the FRED W. MANNING. ,rctractive movement of the piston: a receptacle connected to-tho said chamber and having an REFERENCES CITED extrusion outlet therefrom: heating means for a r I reducing a portion of the said rod within the Sitlf'i no f in the receptacle to a fluid condition; and means for this patent supplying fluid pressure to the said chamber to TED reciprocate the said piston whereby the said rod Um STATES PATENTS is fed from the chamber into the said receptacle Number Name Date as rapidly as the said portion within the reccpas 7, 95 Drill Dec. 23. 1941 taclo is reduced to a fluid condition and extruded 9 7.976 Lucas May 17, 1910 from the receptacle. 2,130,948 Carothers septum, 1938 8. In an apparatus for disintegrating a solid 2.253.089 Nydecger Aug. 19. 1941 rod of uniform cross-section. the combination of 2.357.392 Francis ,Sept. 5, 1944 a feeding chamber: a pair of pistons adapted to 2.212.7 2 Graves Aug. 27, 1940 reciprocate in opposing fonrard and retraetive 2.335.757 Hall Nov. 30. 1948 movements within the said chamber: means 2,264,345 Tucker et al Dec. 2. 9 within the said pistons for gripping the said rod 2,306,781 Francis Dec, 29, 1942 I I I I J OlZER Certificate of Correction Patent No. 2,437,263. March 9, 1948: FRED W. MANNING It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the ibove numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Column 8, line 52, claim 1, for the word "alternating" read attenuating; and that the said Letters Patent should be read with this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Oflice.
Signed and sealed this 1st day of June, A. D. 1948.
THOMAS F; MURPHY, v
Aln'atant Commissioner of Patenta.
Certificate of Correction Patent No. 2,437,263. March 9, 1948:
FRED W. MANNING It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Column 8, line 52, claim 1, for the word alternating read attenuating; and that the said Letters Patent should be read with this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Office.
Signed and sealed this 1st day of June, A. D. 1948.
THOMAS F. MURPHY,
Assistant ''onwnissioner of Patents.