US 2437874 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
'16, 1948. J. E. BLACK 2,437,874
SHINGLE Filed June 7, 1945 Patented Mar., 16, 1948 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE SHINGLE.
James E. Black, Chicago, Ill.-, assignor to 'James E.''Black, ElamL; Black, Whitfiel 'J: Black, and
Virginia Black,;a:partnership.dongabusiness. -as Biack,syst ems,:ohicagc, Ill.
. Application June, 7, 1945, SerialNo 598, 131
2 Claims. l
This inventionrelates to shingles used for roofing andthe like; and more particularly to those made of -flexible' roofing material andadapted to interlock with one another.
It is an object of the present invention to provide improvedshingles of the interlocking type which have interlocking parts so disposed andrelate& to the main' surface covering portions of the shingles that the said'surface covering portions conform closely to the surface to which they are attache'dand the adjacent shingles whether made of 'normal or heavier weight material thereby avoiding POckets under the shingles accessible to Windand rain. v
The inventionhas for another object the pro-p vision .of shingles of irregular contour and includingtabs at their outer edges adapted to interlock with adjacent shingles, and 'in so doing to flex from the plane of the rest of the shingle, said tabs being so disposed onthe shingles that they form a v, regular and pleasing, pattern, in groups and relative to the exposed edges of the shingles.
VAs. another object this? invention comprehends the provision of interlocking parts onthe edges of shngles, so disposed and of such a size relative to the. shingles that` their flexure in looking with other shngles does not causeany undesirable exposure of other, surfaces or u establish detrimental catches for. wind or rain.
A further object of the presentinvention. isto provide an improved shingle of the interlockin'g type in which irregular contours provide interlooking parts adapted to eflective use and service in shingles made of heavy, as well as lighter weightsof roofing material.
Other objects and advantagesof the invention Will be appare'nt ,from gthe ;following description and the accompanying drawings in which similar characters of reference indicate .similar parts throughout the several views.
'Referring to the single sheet 'of drawingsz ,Figure 1 isa fragmentary plan view illustrating the structure of shingles embodying my invention in a preferred form as Well as showing the preferred manner of application of the shingles to a surface;
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary perspective view to an enlarged scale which illustrates the details of the interlocking portions of shingles assembled as shown in Fig. 1; and
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary side sectional View showing interlocked portions of assemblecl shingles and in which the section is taken substantially on a line 3-3 of F'ig. 2 and viewed in the direction indicated by the arrows.
Sh'ngles of the type disclosed are particularly adapted to be cut from sheets of-fiexible roofing material; They are also adapted to interlock with one another when assembled in the preferred manner as disclosed in Fig. 1 to'cover a surface such 'as a roof.
One consideration in the design of such shingles is that'they'shall provide a pleasing appearance when assembled. Factors eontributing to the pleasing appearance-nclude the symmetry and combination of broken lines-and the Creation of edge shadow effects unaccompanied by irregular or unsymmetrical folds orwarped surface&
' Considered structurally, shingles of the type disclosed should interlock firmly to hold' the covering portions of the shingles in place andwithoutwarping the body portionof any shingle 'so as to effect the Creation of an air pocket or a space accessible to' driven rain. In `some types of shingles it has been the practice to offer the user the choice of either a normal weight shingle material' or a material consiclerably thicker and heavier thanthe normal- Weight; The added thickness of the heavier weight material increases the difliculty 01' makes itpractcally impossible to lay some types of shingles without having bulges or undesirable warping -ofthe shingle surfaces. As will be more fully-explained with reference to the-details of structure of the disclosed shingle, it not only provides -a well designed and pleasing pattern, -but it also 'is adapted to .be easily and effectiveiy lai d when made of either the normal or heavier Weight material.
V Referring tothe drawings, shingles are illustrative of a preferred embodiment of my invention and are :substantially T-shaped, having headportions il and integralshank portions 52. As the shingles are placed uponassurface which isto be covered the head portions li are desirably placed at-the top with their: substantially strai-ght top edges-aligned and extendinglaterally of the surface so :that :the substantially parallel sidecishank portions-12 extend. downwardly., As anaid to proper lateralalignment. of the shingles relative to -one another; theylhave atopposite ends of the head portion aligning tabs !3, the outer edges of which are straight and placed in aligned abutment as shown in Fig. 1.
Although there are certain contour irregularities in the edges of the disclosed shingles which result from the desirability of the provision of a shingle shape which permits the cutting of the shinges from a strip of the desired material without appreciable waste, looking tabs M and shank tabs !5 have definite functions in the placement and secure positioning of the shingles. The locking tabs !4 are desirably substantially rectangular and extend downwardly from the head portion !lalong and adjacent opposite sides of the shank portion !2. They are also disjoined from the shank portion !2 by slots !6 so as to be flexible relative to the shank and head portions of the shingle along lines transverse to the longitudinal axis of the shingle. The shank tabs are of substantially the same size as the looking tabs !4 and project laterally in opposite directions from the bottom portions of the side edges of the shank portion !2. It is preferred that the lower edge of each of the shank tabs is aligned with the lower straight edge of the shank portion.
Each shingle including the head portion shank portion !2, aligning tabs !3, looking tabs !4 and shank tabs !5, is symmetrical with regard to a longitudinal center line thereof. In addition to being symmetrioal with respect to a longitudinal center line, the respective parts of each shingle are so disposed and of such relative sizes that when two shingles are placed side by side in a common plane with the edges of the aligning tabs !3 abutting, the shank portion !2 of a third shingle fits between the looking tabs !4 of the first-mentioned two adjacent shingles. In such relative positions the shank tabs of the third shingle are slipped under and underlie the locking tabs !4 of the first two shingles while the shank portion !2 and head portion of the third shingle overlie and extend upwardly beyond the upper edges of the first two shingles. The nailing of the shingles to the covered surface is confined to the aligning tabs !3 or the ends of the head portions which are overlapped by the shank portion of a succeed'ng shingle.
As illustrated in the various Views of the drawings, the looking tabs !4 flex outwardly with respect to the head portions when the shank tabs !5 are slipped thereunder. This flexure of the looking tabs is independent of the shank portions of the shingles and along a line transverse to the longitudinal axes of the shingles. In each instance and as particularly well disclosed in Figs. 2 and 3, the shank portion !2 of each shingle is fiexed downwardly over the lower edges of the head portions of underlying shingles adjacent the looking tabs !4. This flexure of the adjacent parts of interlocked shingles is substantially opposite but since the flexure of each of the parts is substantially linear and transverse thereto at a position in which those parts are freely flexible, the interlockng positions are assumed without undesirable warping of the shingle body surfaces. That is, the looking tabs !4 flex upwardly along lines at which they are free to flex when the shank tabs are slipped thereunder. Likewise, the shank portions !2, while mainly conforming to the plane surface of the underlying shingles, flex downwardly over the' lower edges of the underlying shingles and along lines lateral to the shank portions as well as in substantial alignment with the fiexed portions of the looking tabs.
The shank tabs !5 being of substantially the same size as the looking tabs !4, their edges are adjaoent in the ully interlocked position and there is no possibility of the shank tabs extending beyond the looking tabs to an extent such that they would underlie and warp an adjacent shank portion of another shingle.
As illustrated in Fig. 3, the body portions of the shingles lie closely together when applied to a surfac and conform to the surface to which they are applied. In addition to providing an effective covering for a surface which is well adapted to withstanding wind and weather, the interlocked shingles present a pleasing appearance and pattern as illustrated in the lower right-hand portion of Fig. 1. The exposed shingle edges present an irregular and recurring pattern of broken lines and the separately fiexible looking tabs add to that pattern of lines an additional and symmetrical pattern which is somewhat superimposed upon the pattern of lines and is particularly attractive when viewed in three dimensions.
Having thus illustrated and described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States, is:
1. A shingle of flexible weather resistant material comprising a head portion having parallel lateral edges, three downward projections from the head portion which are severally integral with the head portion but otherwise separate and distinct from each other, two of said three projeotions being symmetrical looking tabs substantially spaced from each other and equidistantly spaced inwardly from the lateral edges of the head, the other of said three projectionsbeing a shank portion substantially wider than and lying between and adjacent to said looking tabs and extending substantially downwardly beyond them, and a pair of looking tab engaging tabs projecting laterally in opposite directions from the lower end of the shank portion, each of said locking tabs being adapted to flex relative to the head portion on a transverse line of flexure without causing wind pooket forming fiexure of the proximate lateral edge of the shank portion.
2. A shingle as specified in claim 1 wherein the opposed edges of the shank portion and looking tabs are definitely spaced apart and are parallel with each other and with the lateral edges of the head portion.
JANIES E. BLACK.
REFERENCES CITED I`he following references are of record in the file of this patent: v
UNITED STATES PATENTS Abraham Aug. 4, 1936