US 2438099 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 16, 1948 P. wHn-EHoUsE 2,433,099
ROOF STRUCTURE Filed July 23, 1945 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR. ,2 new/va F1 wH/fHoz/sf rfm;
ATTOFNEYS March 16, 1948. P. WHITEHousE 2,438,099
Roor sTRUcTuRE Filed July 23, 1945 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. V//V F1 Wfl/715190052' MMM-9 this specification and Patented Mar. 16, 1948 ROOF STRUCTURE Irving P. Whitehouse, South Euclid, Ohio, assignor to Republic Steel Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio,
a corporation of New Jersey Application July 23, 1945, Serial No. 606,553
lhe present invention relates generally -to l building construction and particularly to roof structures.
Heretofore roofs have been constructed by laying boarding on rafters and then laying shingles on the boarding, with or without an intervening layer of building paper or the like. The present invention aims to provide a roof struc ture which is more satisfactory and less expensive than these prior structures. These aims are achieved by replacing the boarding and shingles of prior roofs with roof members, which are hereinafter referred to as shingles. These shingles perform the functions of both the boarding and shingles of prior roof structures and also serve as good heat insulators. Since these shingles are of large size, a small number of them will cover a considerable roof area. Since they are provided with interengagin-g edges they may be readily fitted together. Thus, by using these shingles a considerable area of roof may be constructed in a brief period of time and byv semiskilled labor. Since the shingles consist o1 liners which may be preiabricated from composition material, such as Celotex or the like, and sheet metal coverings which may be made on a production basis, the shingles are less expensive than the boarding and shingles of the prior art and in addition provide good thermal insulation.
The present invention will be better understood by those skilled in the art from the following description and the drawings which accompany in which,
Figure 1 is a fragmentary plan view of a roof structure embodying the present invention;
Figure 2 is a cross-sectional view taken on line 2-2 oi Fig. 1;
Figure 3 is an enlarged detail sectional View showing the vjoint between the upper and lower edges of two assembled shingles;
Figure 4 is a cross-sectional view taken on line 4-4 of Fig. 1;
Figures 5, 6 and 7 are, respectively, top plan'n and side and lower end elevational views of the metal covering of shingles embodying the present invention.
Figure v8 is a perspective view of one of the i purlins of the shingles ol Figs. 1 to 3; and,
Figure 9 is a perspective Vview of the starter strip or purlin-like plate of Figs. l and 2.
Figs. 1 to 4 show a portion of a roof of a building comprising shingles I supported by rafters 2. The rafters 2 are supported in the usual manner by means (not shown). A gutter 3 is located below the `lowest row of shingles.
Along the lower end of rafters 2 a starter Vstrip or purlin-like plate Il rests on the top of thev rafters and projects thereabove. The first or lowest course oi shingles I have their lower sides ence to Figs. 2 and 3, shingles I engage rafters 2.
interengaging with the starter strip 4. The lower sides of the succeeding or higher courses of shingles interengage with the upper edges of the next lower cpurse, as is shown in Fig. 2.
Each shingle I is of suiiicient length to span the space between the two or more adjacent rafters 2. For example, a shingle 8 long and 10" wide will rest on three rafters located on 4' centers. Endshingles may be 4 long. 'I'he low` er edge of each shingle I rests on and is supported by the upper edge of the next lower shingle, except in the case of the lowest course of shingles where the lower edges rest on and are supported by the starter strip 4. Near their upper edges the shingles rest on and are supported by the rafters. As will be seen by referfor a short distance near the upper edges of the shingles and elsewhere are out of contact with the rafters. This engagement and spacing is accomplished by making the lowerv surface of each shingle parallel to the upper surface except where beveled, as is indicated at 5 in Fig. 2, and by resting'the lower edges of the shingles on lower shingles or on strip 4, the space between the under surface of the shingles and the rafters bleing indicated at 6 in Fig. 2. If desired, the shingles may h'ave lower surfaces at an angle to the upper surfaces and parallel to the top surfaces of the rafters, so that the lower surface of each shingle engages the rafters from its upper edge to its lower edge and thus leaves no space, such as 6 in Fig. 2.
' along its lower inner corner to provide a notch I3 which extends for the full length of the liner and is preferably V-shaped. Along its upper outer corner liner I0 tion I4 which preferably is V-shaped to interis provided with a projecengage with the V-shaped notch I3. It will be understood that the grooves I3 and projections It may be of shapes other than the V-shape illustrated in the drawings, provided the functions of these grooves and projections are retained. The resulting interengagement of one shingle locks the next higher one against being lifted up and blown off and prevents ingress of y water between such shingles.
Each liner should have sufficient strength in shear to resist breakage at notch I3 but need not have 'great structural strength for the purlin II and metal covering I2 can distribute and carry the ordinary loads imposed on the shingles.
The purlins I I (Fig. 8) are sheet metal strips which are, preferably, as long as the shingles and which embrace the upper edge and adjacent side a filler or liner I0, a
between the rafters and thus greatly increase the resistance of the shingles to weights imposed thereon. Also, the purlins flt into the notches of adjacent shingles and locate those shingles relative to each other and to the rafters.
The starter strip or purlin-like plate 4 (Fig.A
9) includes a flange portion 20 which runs along the lower ends of the rafters, may extend from one gable end of the roof to the other and is attached to the rafters, as by nails 2|. Strip 4 is provided with a V-shaped portion 22 corresponding to the V-shaped groove of the shingles and also has a plane body portion 23 on which the grooved sides of the shingles of the lowermost course may rest.
The covering I2 (Figs. 5, 6 and '1) consists of sheet metal which may be protected against corrosion in any well known manner, as by being painted. Each covering is, preferably, of such length and width as Ato cover a single liner. This sheet metal covering I2 comprises a body portion 25 which has its upper edge bentback upon itself as at 26, one side edge 21 bent back underneath the body portion, the opposite side 28 bent back over the body portion, and a lower channelshaped edge portion 29. Added strength at the upper edge is obtained when that edge is bent back tightly on itself. The channeled portion 29 is adapted to embrace the lower side of ller I and to be disposed between filler I0 and the body portion 23 of starter strip 4, in the case of the lower course of shingles, and to be disposed between iiller I0 and body portion 25 of an adjacent shingle in the case of the remaining courses of shingles. Nails 30 serve to secure the liners I0 to rafters 2 and nails 3! which extend thru the upper edges of sheet metal coverings I2 and thru liners I0 serve to retain both the covering and liner on the rafters. The bent edges 21 and 28 of two adjacent coverings I2 are interlocked as appears in Fig. 4, and may be clinched to insure greater tightness. One covering serves to prevent dislodgment of the other interlocked covering due to wind and also to prevent ingress of water into the space between the coverings I2 and fillers I0.
In constructing a roof embodying the present invention the starter strip 4 is attached along the lower ends of rafters 2. Then fillers I0 with their attached purlins II are placed on and in inter-engaging relation with the starter strip 4 and are positioned to span the space between and rest on two or more adjacent rafters 2. Nails 30 are driven thru the liners and into the rafters 2 until the nail heads are flush with the tops of the fillers. The channel edge 29 of a covering I2` is slid onto the lower edge of such a row of fillers I0 and the body portion 25 is pressed down against the to`p surface of the filler and is nailed in place by nails 3I.
The next coverings I2 may be similarly applied, but the interlocking of the edges 21 and 28, as shown in Fig. 4, may be effected by sidewise'moveedge and adjacent portions of the side surfaces ment of one covering on the previously laid covv ering until the edges interlock and then the channel edge of the covering which is being laid is slid onto the edge of the liner and over the adjacent part of the channel edge of the liner. Preferably, coverings I2 are as long as the liners and also, preferably, their ends do not coincide with the ends of the laid liners (see Figli).
The gutter 3 may be attached to the building* adjacent to the lower end of the lowermost courses of shingles I, as is shown in Fig. 2.
It will be understood from the foregoing description and the accompanying drawings that the shingles I are large in size as compared with prior art shingles and may be inexpensively made and assembled to form a roof and that, when assembled, the roof is not only of adequate strength but is attractive in appearance and is a good heat insulator due to the characteristics of the liner material, particularly when it is Celotex or a comparable composition. It will also be noted that the boarding and building paper of prior roof constructions have been omitted but that the functions of these parts have been retained.
Having thus described my invention so that others skilled in the art may be able to understand and practice the same, I state that what I desire to secure by Letters Patent is defined in what is claimed.
What is claimed is:
l. A roof structure comprising spaced rafters, a roof member spanning the space between said rafters and resting thereon at its upper end only, and an imperforate metal purlin crimpingly embracing the upper edge of said member and resting on said rafters.
2. A'roof structure comprising spaced rafters, a roof member spanning the space between said rafters and resting thereon, and a metal purlin crimpingly embracing the upper edge of said member and resting on said rafters, the lower edge of said member being out of engagement with said rafters and shaped to interengage with the purlin of the next lower roof member.
3. A roof structure comprising spaced rafters, a roof member spanning the space between said rafters and resting thereon, said member having an undercut projection at its upper edge and a notch in its lower edge, and a metal purlin crimpingly embracing substantially the entire upper edge of said member and the projection thereof and having intertting engagement with the lower edge notch of another of said roof members, said purlin resting on said rafters.
4. A roof structure comprising spaced rafters, a roof member spanning the space between said rafters and resting thereon at its upper end only, said member having a V-shaped recess parallel and near to its lower edge and a V-shaped projection at its upper edge, and an imperforate metal purlin crimpingly embracing said V-shaped projection, resting on said rafters, and receivable in the V-shaped recess of an adjacent similar roof member.
5. A roof structure comprising spaced rafters, a roof member spanning the space between said rafters and resting thereon at its upper end only, securing means extending thru said members and into said rafters, and a metal purlin resting on said rafters and crimpingly embracing the upper of said member above and out of contact with said securing means.
6. A roof structure comprising spaced rafters,
a purlin-like starter plate at the lower ends of the rafters, a plurality of shingle liners each spanning the space between and resting only near its upper end on adjacent rafters, imperiorate metal purlins crimpingly embracing the upper ends of each of said liners, the lower ends of the lowermost course of liners interengaging with said purlin-like plate and the'lower ends of. the remaining courses of liners inter-engaging with the upper ends and purlins of the'next lower course of liners, and securing means extending thru the liners, remote from said purlins and into said rafters.
7. A roof structure comprising spaced rafters.
a metal, purlin-like plate extending to above the v tops of the rafters at their lower ends, a plurality of roof members each spanning the space between adjacent rafters, each said member having a V-shapedl gropve along its lower' end and a vshaped projection along its upper end, imperiorate sheet. metal purlins crimpingly embracing the V-shaped projections of said roof member and resting on adjacent rafters, the V-shaped grooves of the lowermost course of rooi members receiving the said purlin-like plate and the V- shaped grooves of the'remaining courses of roof members receiving. the projection embracing purlins ofthe next lower course of roof members, the under surfaces of said members being out of contact, except near their upper ends, with said rafters. v y
8. A roof member of suflicient length to span the space between adjacent rafters, said member having an under surfacebeveled near its upper edge to rest on said rafters, a notch near its lower edge, and an undercut projection corresponding to said notch at its upper edge, and an imperiorate metal purlin embracing said projection and crimpingly engaging the upper and lower side surfaces of said member adjacent to said edge,
said purlin being positioned to rest on said as '118,098
9. A roof member comprising a liner of sumcient width to span the space between adjacent rafters of a roof, said liner having a V-shaped recess in its lower edge and a corresponding V- shaped undercut projection on its upper edge, an imperforate metal purlin disposed to rest on said rafters embracing said upper edge and its projection and being crmpingly attached to said liner, and a. sheet metal covering having a channel shaped lower edgeto receive the lower edge mvmci P. wHrrEHoUsE.
The following references are ofl record in the nle of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,309,065 Gentry July 8, 1919 1,963,583 Jenkins June 19. 1934 2,231,007 Vane Feb. 11, 1941 2,248,728 Robinson July 8, 1941 2,279,382 Swenson Apr. 14. 1942 1 2,358,896 Hogan Sept. 19, 1944 2,400,357 v .Krajci May 14, 1946 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date France 1981