US 2438282 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 23, 1948.
J. H. GRUVER ET AL INDEX TAB FOR PRINTING DEVICES Filed Aug. 24, 1942 wwwww Patented Mar. 23, 1948 INDEX TAB FOR PRINTING DEVICES John H. Gruver, East Cleveland, and Carl J.
Hueber, Euclid, Ohio, assignors to Addressograph-Multigraph Corporation,
I ()hio, a corporation of Delaware Application August 24, 1942, Serial No. 455,900
This invention relates to the printing devices that embody carriers for printing plates, and desirably index cards, such cards bearing impressions from at least selected of the type characters provided on the printing plates, and this invention primarily has to do with classification means adapted to be used upon such printing devices.
Printing devices of the kind to which this invention pertains have been utilized for the print ing of a wide variety of documents, and in one such use the printing devices bear type characters on the printing plates thereof whereby each printing device may serve to print the required data upon a check or the like. Thus each printing device may be used to print the name, address and other identifying data pertaining to the payee, and in addition may be used to print the amount of the check in words or figures or both. Such printing devices therefore afford an advantageous means for printing checks and like documents, and since the amounts of checks are printed from type characters embodied in such printing devices, accuracy is assured where checks are thus printed. Under many systems of accounting, however, it is desirable to perform different types of checking, balancing or like operations in the course of the printing of a series of such checks, as for example, by entering the amount of each check into one or more accumulators as the checks are printed, and to enable this to be accomplished in a simple and expeditious manner is the primary object of this invention.
The performance of such verifying or checking operations, of course, entails the provision of numerically significant indicia upon the printing device representing the amount of the check which is to be printed thereby so that such indicia may be sensed by suitable sensing means such as that shown in Gollwitzer Patent No. Re. 21,208, patented September 19, 1939, whereby, under the control of such sensing means, the amount of the check may be entered into an accumulator or the like. Indicia indicative of such numerical values may, of course, be formed in the body of the printing device where the requisite area is available in the printing device, as is the case with the printing and control device shown in the aforesaid Gollwitzer Patent No. Re. 21,208, dated September 19, 1939, and in Gollwitzer Patent No. 2,132,412 patented October 11, 1938, but under many conditions this may be impractical due to lack of space in the body of the printing device. Thus where the major portion of the operative face of the printing device frame must be occupied by one or more printing plates in order to enable the desired number or distribution of the printing characters to be attained, there are many instances where the remaining space upon the printing device frame is insufficient to permit the inclusion of numerically significant indicia thereon. While it would uponits face appear to be a simple matter to increase the size or arrangement of the printing devices to afford a control area in the printing device frame to receive such indicia, there are many practical considerations which are controlling and which render such an expedient objectionable.
Among the most important of such objections is the fact that many machines are now in use which are designed to utilize printing devices of a predetermined size and in order to enable printing devices of the character to which this invention pertains to be utilized in such machines it is essential that these devices be of the size the machines are designed to utilize, which therefore means that the devices cannot be increased in size without rendering the aforesaid machines incapable of employing the same. I
In view of the foregoing it is a further and more specific object of this invention to enable numerical data to be represented upon printing devices of standard size in such a manner that no change or alteration'is required in the arrangement of such printing devices or in the arrangement of the printing characters provided thereon; and an object related to the foregoing is to enable numerical data to be represented on printing devices by tabs mounted on and projecting from one edge of a printing device, thereby to enable the arrangement of the index cards and printing plates on the operative faces of the printing devices to remain unchanged.
Inthe past it has been customary to utilize tabs mounted at one or more selected positions along an edge of a printing device, as shown, for example, in the Duncan Patent No. 1,015,758, patented January 23, 1912, or in the patent to Gollwitzer, No. 2,049,439, patented August 4, 1936, and such tabs have been removably held in place in selected ones of a plurality of sockets formed in the printing device frame along one edge thereof. Such tabs as heretofore used have been employed to select one or more of the mechanisms of the printing machine for operation or non-operation in accordance with the adjustment or setting of the selector mechanism of the printing machine, and it is an important object of the present invention to increase the range of the usefulness of such tabs. An object related to the foregoing is to enable tabs carried on a printing device to represent numeral amounts so that the amounts thus represented may be sensed and entered into calculating mechanism such as an accumulator associated with the printing machine.
Where tabs associated with printing devices are to be indicative of numerical amounts, it is imtioned upon the printing devices, and a further object of this invention is to enable such tabs to be readily and easily placed in position upon the.
printing devices in such a manner that reversal or improper positioning of a particular tab will be readily apparent to the operator who ismounting the tabs in position. An object relatedtothe I foregoing is to so arrange tabs of the aforesaid kind that completion of the mounting of agjtab upon a printing device will be prevented in the event that the tab has been reversed or otherwise located in an improper relationship to the printing device.
. Other and further objects of the present invention will be apparent from the following description and claims and are illustrated in the accompanying drawings which, by way of illustration, show preferred embodiments and; the principle thereof and what I now consider to be the best mode in which I have contemplated applying that principle. Other embodiments of the invention embodying the same or equivalent principle may be used and structural changes may be made as desired by those skilled in the art without departing from the present invention andthe purview of the appended claims.
In the drawings: r
Fig. 1 is a fragmental elevational view of a cation means of Fig. 3 is inserted in an improper or reversed relationship; 7 7
Fig.5 is an elevational view of one face ofthe classification means incorporated in the printing device of Fig. 1;
Fig. 6 is. a side elevational View of the classification means illustrated in Fig] 5;
Fig. '7 is a fragmental elevational view similar to Fig. 2 and illustrating a modified form of classification means;
'Fig. 8 is an enlarged fragmental sectional view taken substantially along the line 88 of Fig. 7;
Fig. 9 is an elevational view of one face of the classification means illustrated in Fig. 7
.Fig. 10 is a side elevational view illustrating the classification means of Fig. 9, the view being taken from the right hand side of Fig. 9; V
Fig. 11 is a View similar to Fig. 7 and illustrating a further embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 12 is a sectional view taken substantially along the line l2--|2 of Fig. 11';
Fig. 13 is an elevational view of one face 'of the classification means illustrated in Figs. 11 and 12;
Fig.14 is aside elevational view taken from the left hand side of Fig. 13; and
Fig. 15is a schematic view illustrating a numerical code adapted tobe utilized with the identifying means of this invention.
As illustrated in Figs. 1' to 5 the invention is embodied in a printing device D having a generally rectangular frame 25 formed from sheet metal to aiford spacing flanges 22 disposed along oppositeends thereof so as to project from the back or reverse face of the frame. The forward face of the frame 20, Fig. 2, is adapted tohave a plurality of printing'plates (not shown) and an index card (not shown) mounted thereon, and
these may be arranged,.for example, in the manner shown in Gollwitzer Patent No. 2,115,444, at ented April 26, 1938. Thus, the frame 23, as herein shown, is adapted to have three printing plates mounted thereon, and individual yieldable tongues for the respective printing plates are adapted to cooperate with retaining devices 25 as disclosed in the aforesaid Patent No. 2,115,444 to hold the'printing. plates in position. Retaining devices 26v and a rolled upper edge 21 are provided at the upper portion of the printing deviceframe 20 to hold an index card in place, and in practice, this index card carries an impression from at least selected of the'type characters embossed on one or more of theprinting plates on the frame of the printing device D.
The printing device D, as shown in Fig. 1 is adapted for accurate positioning at the sensing or printing position of a printing machine and this is attained through. the provision of a locating or positioning notch in one end thereof as shown in the aforesaid Gollwitzer Patent No. 2,132,412, and a plurality of tab sockets 38 are provided at spaced positions along theupper edge of the frame 29 in substantially the manner shown in the aforesaid Gollwitzer Patent No. 2,049,439. -Such tab sockets 39 are customarily provided in printing device frames in order that index tabs such as those shown in Gollwitzer Patent No.
2,049,439 may be employed by theuser to-indi.
cate classification of the printing devices according to subject, the'month of the year in which payments may be due, or other types of grouping or .classification. 1
Thus the printing devices D in their standard form and arrangement usually embody tabsockets 3|] in the frames 2B thereof, and in accordance. with this invention, numerically significant classification meansin the'form of tabs 35 are mounted in the sockets 39in such a manner as to project 7 beyond the upper edge of the frame 26. In accordance with-the present invention eachsuch tab 351s adapted to, bear indicia representative'of the single digit which'may-appear in an; order, of a numerical amount to be represented, and} the order" towhich such digital representation pertains is indicated and determined by the position v of the tab along the upper edge of the-frameiil.
bearing the appropriate digitally significant indicia may be mounted in each of thepositions which have been thus allocated.
In mounting the tabs 35in position on aframe 20, the two sockets 30 allocated to the order in which the tab is to function are used-in supporting the tab, and to this endeach' tab 35 isformed to provide a substantially rectangular head St and two stems Sland 33 are, formediintegrally there'- withandproject in substantially parallelrelation from oneedge of the head 36. The tabs 35-may be fabricated in the machine shown in Gollwitzer Patent No.- 2,239,847, patented Apr-i129; 1941, and insuch amachine, one or bothof the; stems I31. and
-38 may beformed --to afford latching means" for holding the tab in position on the frame 25. In
the form illustrated in Figs. 1 to 6, the stem 31 is constructed and arranged as shown in the aforesaid Gollwitzer Patent No. 2,049,439, so as to embody a resilient latching tongue 39 therein that is adapted to be displaced from the plane of the stem as shown in Fig. 3 to exert the desired latching action. Thus, as shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3 the sockets 36 are provided by slitting the material of the frame 20 to afford parallel panels 40, 4| and 42, the upper panel 49 being offset outwardly from the rear face of the frame, the intermediate panel 4i being offset forwardly or outwardly from the front face of the frame, and the upper edge of the lower panel 42 being offset outwardly from the rear face of the frame, as shown in detail in Fig. 3. A socket 39 is thereby formed which is adapted to receive one of the stems 31 or 38, and the lower panel 32 is disposed at an angle to the plane of entry of the stem so that as the insertion of the stem is completed the lower end thereof, to which the latch tongue 39 is attached, is bent so as to urge the free upper end of the tongue 39 to a latched position beneath the lower edge of the keeper panel A}. Thus the tongue 39 normally holds the stem 31 against withdrawal of the stem from the socket, but when desired the upper end of the tongue 39 may be released from its latching position by pressing the same to the right as viewed in Fig. 3.
In Fig. 15 of the drawings we have illustrated one form of code which may be employed in forming the digitally significant indicia upon the tabs 35, and while such indicia might take the form of embossures, indentations, notches or the like, we have herein illustrated such indicia as being afforded by perforations 45 which by their number and location in the head 36 of the tab 35 may be representative of zero and the significant digits 1 to 9. Thus, as shown in Fig. 15 of the drawings, a tab 35 has six possible locations indicated thereon in which perforations 45 may be formed, these locations being disposed in two parallel rows of three each, and the rows being disposed parallel to the outer or upper edge of the head of the tab.
Under the six position code herein illustrated the odd digits and zero are each represented through the formation of but a single perforation in the tab, and the six possible locations on the tab are suitably allocated to accomplish this end. Thus, as indicated in Fig. 15, the three positions in the upper row are allocated from left to right to the digits 0, 3 and 7, while in the lower row the positions are similarly allocated from left to right to the digits 1, 5 and 9. When the even digits 2, 4, 6 or 8 are to be represented, two perforations are employed, and as herein illustrated, the digit 2 is represented by perforations in the aforesaid l and 9 positions; the digit 4 is represented by perforations in the aforesaid 3 and 9 positions; the digit 6 is represented by perforations in the aforesaid 5 and 9 positions; and the digit 8 is represented by perforations in the aforesaid '7 and 9 positions. In Fig. 15 of the drawings tabs 35 are illustrated which in succession from left to right bear indicia formed in accordance with the code just described to represent the digits from 0 to 9.
It is, of course, essential that the digitally sig nificant tabs 35 be disposed in the proper relation to the frame 29 of the printing device, for it is by such proper positioning that accuracy of the digital representation is attained, and to this end means are provided on the tabs whereby the accuracy of positioning thereof may be readily verified.
It has been pointed out hereinbefore that but one latching means is required to hold a tab in position on the frame of a printing device, and in the form of the invention illustrated in Figs. 1 to 6 the tab 35 is so arranged that a latching tongue 39 is provided in the stem 31 while the stem 38 has smooth and continuous surface throughout.
In the form of the invention illustrated in Figs. 1 to 6, however, means are provided which afford a positive indication when an attempt is made to mount a tab as 35 on a frame as 20 in a reversed or improper position. To this end the tab 35 has at least one projecting shoulder 60 formed thereon in such a position that when the tab 35 is mounted on the frame 20 in a correct or accurate position as shown in Fig. 3, the abutments 60 engage with the upper edge of the strip 43. It will be observed that the abutments 60 are afforded by portions of the tab 35 which are punched so as to extend upwardly from what may be termed the rear of the tab, and when the tab is inserted in the sockets 30 in a reversed relation as indicated in Fig. 4 of the drawings the abutment B0 strikes the upper edge of the curled edge 21 thereby to prevent completion of the inserting movement.
In Figs. 7 to 10 of the drawings there is illustrated a further embodiment of the invention wherein a frame 20c has sockets 30c formed therein to receive and support tabs as 350 at any one of a plurality of positions along the upper edge of the frame. The frame 200 has securing devices 250, 26c and 210 formed thereon, and panels 400, 41c and 420 are formed therein to afford the sockets 300 in substantially the same manner as in the embodiment of the invention shown in Figs. 1 to 6. The tabs as 350 are formed with an irregular edge 48c which is af-' forded by a notch 41c disposed in this edge, and the other or opposite edge 490 is straight or unbroken, the proper positioning of the notch 410 when a tab 350 is inserted in a frame 200 affording-visual verification to the operator that the tab 350 is properly mounted in the frame. The heads of the tabs as 350 are adapted to have perforations 450 formed therein in accordance with a code such as that illustrated in Fig. 15, thereby to impart digital significance to the tabs.
Each tab as 350 has a stem 31c, and a latching tongue 390 is formed in the stem 310 to secure the tab in position on a frame 200 in the manner hereinbefore described in connection with Figs. 1 to 6. In the tab 350 as illustrated in Figs. 7 to 10, a second mounting stem 380 is provided, and this mounting stem 380 is relatively short as compared with the length of the stem 310, as will be evident in Figs. 9 and 10. The length of the stem 380 is such that when the other stem 370 is inserted into a socket 390,
the short stem 38c enters the adjacent socket 390 and extends thereinto for a distance suflicient to prevent displacement or undesired movement of the adjacent portion of the head of the tab with relation to the frame. In this form of the invention means may also be incorporated for affording a positive indication when an attempt was made to mount a tab as 35c'in a reversed or improper position. To this end one or more projecting shoulders 500 may be formed in the tab 350 in the manner hereinbefore described in connection with the tab 35b. The positioning of the shoulders 600 is such that when the tab as 350 is in its proper position, the shoulders 600 will seat upon the upper edge of the panel 400,
while when the tab as 350 is reversed or improperly located the shoulders 690- will engage the rolled edge-21c to thereby prevent completionof the tab inserting movement.
The particular form of the stems which are provided on the tabs 35 may be'varied, as is il-' lustrated by the form of the invention shownin Figs. 11 to 14 of the drawings wherein a printing device of' the character shown in Duncan Patent No; 1,375,683, patented April 26, 1921, is-illustrated. Thisprinting device includes a frame 20d having retaining devices for holding printing, means suchas a printing plate in-position, and retaining devices 26d and 21d, for holding an index card in position on the frame. Along an upper edge of the frame 20d the; plurality of sockets 39d are formed through the provision of panels 461d, 4101 and 42d which are. offset from the. plane of the frameVZDcZ in substantially the same manner as are the panels shown in Fig. 3. The sockets 30d are adapted to receive stems as 37d and 380! which extend from the body astSd of a tab as 3501, the stems 31d and 33d being reinforced by the formation of a rib-55d in each of the stems. The general form of the stems 31d and 38d, and of the sockets 30d is disclosed in detail in Duncan Patent No. 1,015,758, patented January 23, 1912, and reference maybe had to ,theaioresaid Duncan patent for further details of the construction and relation of the parts. 'It will be observed, however, that adjacent to the: lower end of each of the stems 31d and 38d, a perforation 56d is formed, and as the stems are moved into the sockets 30d, the perforations 56d are brought into registry with embossures' 51d which are formed on the portions42d of the frame. One such embossure 5101 is provided for each of the sockets 3ildso that when the perforations 58d are engaged with the embossures 51d, the'tab 35d is securely held in'position on the frame 20d. 7
The head 36d of the tab affords sixv possible locations for perforations 45d so that one or more perforations may be formed in a'tab-35d to-represent a selected digit inaccordance, for example, with the code explained hereinabove.
In this embodiment of the invention proper positioning of the tab as 35d is assured through means formed on one of the mounting stems,
and hence the visual indicating means afforded by an irregular edge on the head of the tabmay be eliminated, and the two side edges of. the tab may be straight as at 4801 and ied. In the present instance the stem 31d is substantially straight, as will be evident inFig. 14 of thedrawings, and it will be observed that this straight formation corresponds with the normalform. of the stems as shown in theaforesaid. Duncan Patent No. 1,015,758. The other stem, that is the stem 38d is, however, formed so that its lower end 65 is disposed at an angle to the balance or upperportion of the stem 38d, this arrangement being. clearly shown in Figs." 13 and 14. Thus when a tab as 35d is inserted into a socket 30d in the correct position or relation shown in Figs. 11 and 12, the angularly disposed portion 85 is in effect guided by the cooperation. of :the other stem 31d with its socket 30d and the lower end passespanel Md andthe' upper edgeof the lower panel 42d in the manner illustrated inli'ig. 12. In this position the openings 56d. in the lower ends of the stems 31d and38d engage the corresponding embossures: 51d on the frame to secure'thetab.inposition onthe frame; It will be recognizedof course, that but one such securmg means is necessary and for this reason; the opening 56d in-the portion ES-may beeliminated ifdesired. In the event that an operator attempts to put a tab as 3511 in place with-the tab in areversed or improper position it will be evident that as the stems 37d and 38d are inserted into their respective sockets 3d, thelower end of the angular portion 65 will strike the upper edge of the panel 42d thereby to prevent completion of the mounting'operation. As herein shown-the stem 38d is of the same length as the stem 31d, and the angular portion 65 is formed at the lower end of the stem 30d, but-in some instances, however, the stem 38d may; be
made somewhat shorter than the stemtld, in which case a similar angular portion may be afforded'at the lower end ofthe stem 38d in such a relation as to strike the upper edge of the upper panel 40d when theoperator attempts to.
mount the tab as 35d in place in a reversed position.
From ,the'foregoing descriptionit will be evident that the present invention enables numericalamounts to be represented on a printing device in a simple and effective manner, and this end is accomplished in such a way that the printing devices may be utilized in the machines for which'such devices were originally intended, and moreover, the incorporation ofsuch physie cally represented numerical data'in accordance with thisinvention may be accomplished without change or alteration of the printing devices: V-In accordance with the present inventionthe provision of physical representations of numerical amounts on printing devices is accomplished by removably mounted tabs, thus to enable revision 1 of the representedamounts in a simple manner, and in addition, the several digits of .a multidigit number are each represented by a single tab so that different numbers may be readily set up on a printing device'merely byproper'selection' and mounting of a plurality of pre-formed to be limited to-the precise details set forth, but
desire to avail ourselves of such changes. and alterations as fall within the purview of the fol-- lowing claims. V I
We claim: 1. A tab for use with printing and like devices including a relatively flat body formed-from sheet material and having a pair of mounting stems formed integrally withthe body andprojecting in substantially parallel relation from one edge of said body, said stems beingadapted for insertion'into adjacent mounting sockets on a printing or like device to support saidbody in projecting relationrupona printing or like device, at least one of said sternshaving a, latch element formed thereon for cooperationwith a part of a printingor' like device to hold-the tab removably, in position ona printing-or like ,de-"
vice, said body. liavingaportion thereof'cut away to impart digital-significance to said tab inac cordance. with a predetermined distal-code}. and
abutment means formed on said tab for engagement withapart of aprinting or like device to prevent completion of a mountingoperation when said tab is positioned relative to a printing or like device in other than in a predetermined manner.
2. A tab for use with printing and like devices including a relatively flat body formed from sheet material and having a pair of mounting stems formed integrally with the body and projecting in substantially parallel relation from one edge of said body, said stems being adapted for insertion in adjacent mounting sockets on a printing or like device to support said body in projecting relation upon a printing or like device with one face thereof in predetermined relation with the face of the printing or like device, at least one of said stems having a latch element formed thereon for cooperation with a part of a printing or like device to hold the tab removably in position on a printing or like device, said body having a portion thereof cut away to impart digital significance to said tab in accordance with a predetermined digital code, means formed on said tab for engagement with a part of a printing or like device to prevent completion of a mounting operation when said tab is positioned relative to a printing or like device in other than in a predetermined manner, and means on said body for visually indicating the face thereof that is to be disposed in predetermined relation with the face of a printing or like device.
3. A tab for use with printing and like devices including a relatively flat body formed from sheet material and having mounting means thereon including a mounting stem formed integrally with the body and projecting from one edge of said body, said stem being adapted for insertion in a mounting socket on a printing or like device to support said body in projecting relation upon such printing or like device, said stem having latching means formed thereon for cooperation with a part of a printing or like device to hold the tab removably in position on a printing or like device, said body having a portion thereof cut away to impart digital significance to said tab in accordance with a predetermined digital code, and at least one abutment shoulder formed to project from one face of said tab in position to engage with a part of a printing or like device to prevent completion of a mounting operation when the tab is positioned relative to a printing or like device in other than in a predetermined manner.
4. A tab for use with printing and like devices including a relatively flat body having a pair of mounting stems formed integrally with the body and projecting in substantially parallel relation from one edge of said body, said stems being adapted for insertion in adjacent mounting sockets on a printing or like device to support said body in projecting relation upon such printing or like device, at least one of said stems having a latch element formed thereon for cooperation with a part of a printing or like device to hold the tab removably in position on a printing or like device, said body having a portion thereof cut away to impart digital significance to said tab in accordance with a predetermined digital code, and said tab having a pair of spaced abutments projecting from one side thereof in position to engage a part of a printing or like device to prevent completion of a mounting operation when said tab is inaccurately positioned relative to a printing or like device in other than in a predetermined manner.
5. A tab for use with printing and like devices including a relatively fiat body having a pair of mounting stems formed integrally with the body and projecting in substantially parallel relation from one edge of said body, said stems being adapted for insertion in adjacent mounting sockets on a printing or like device to support said body in projecting relation upon a printing or like device, at least one of said stems having latch means formed thereon for cooperation with a part of a printing or like device to hold the tab removably in position on a printing or like device, said body having a portion thereof cut away to impart digital significance to said tab in accordance with a predetermined digital code, and one of said stems having the end portion thereof disposed at an angle to the other of said stems and in a relation such that when said tab is positioned relative to a printing or like device in other than in a predetermined manner the end edge of said end portion will engage a part of the printing or like device to prevent completion of a mounting operation.
6. In a printing or like device, a frame having a plurality of mounting sockets formed therein adjacent to one edge thereof, a tab having a relatively flat body and at least one mounting stem formed integrally with the body and projecting from one edge of said body, said stem being inserted into a selected one of said mounting sockets to support said body in projecting relation upon said frame, said stem having a latch element formed thereon and cooperating with a part of the printing or like device to hold the tab removably in position on the printing or like device, said body portion having a portion thereof cut away to impart digital significance to said tab in accordance with a predetermined digital code, and means formed on said tab for engagement with a part of the printing or like device to prevent completion of a mounting operation when said tab is positioned relative to the printing or like device in other than in a predetermined manner.
JOHN H. GRUVER. CARL J. HUEBER.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent: I
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,015,758 Duncan Jan. 23, 1912 1,026,253 Duncan May 14, 1912 1,082,506 Duncan Dec. 30, 1913 1,390,026 Duncan Sept. 6, 1921 1,468,613 Willink Sept. 18, 1923 1,659,137 Fellows Feb. 14, 1928 1,807,888 Bailey June 2, 1931 1,930,799 Gollwitzer Oct. 1'7, 1933 2,022,195 Gollwitzer Nov. 26, 1935 2,053,283 Gollwitzer Sept. 8, 1936 2,055,009 Gollwitzer Sept. 22, 1936 2,132,410 Gollwitzer Oct. 11, 1938 2,132,412 Gollwitzer Oct. 11, 1938 2,260,069 Whitson Oct. 21, 1941 2,289,380 Nevin July 14, 1942 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 294,724 Great Britain 1928 457,014
Great Britain Nov. 19, 1936