US 2438985 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 6, 1948.
A. A. AMBROSE ELECTROMAGNET Filed Feb. 26, 1945 E 3 mu a m N 5% Pd 0 v T W m Patented Apr. 6, 1948 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ELECTROMAGNET Anthony A. Ambrose, Dayton, Ohio Application February 26, 1945, Serial No. 579,735
9 Claims. 1
This invention relates to electrical apparatus and, particularly, to solenoids.
It is a particular object of the present invention to provide an improved solenoid for actuating an armature.
It is another object to provide a unit solenoid adapted for being employed to construct either long or short, or straight or curved electromagnetic actuators.
It is still another object to provide a solenoid adapted for combination with other like sole-- noids for the construction of relatively long electromagnetic actuators.
It is another object to provide a relatively long electromagnetic actuator comprising a plurality of telescoping unit solenoids of identical construction.
These and other objects and advantages of the present invention will be more fully understood upon reference to the following description in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a perspective view of a solenoid constructed according to my invention;
Figure 2 is a view showing one use of my invention with a plurality of solenoids arranged end to end to form a long actuator; and
Figure 3 is a view of another use of my invention.
Referring to the drawings and, in particular to Figure 1, the solenoid which comprises the basis of my invention will be seen to comprise a coil having the general configuration of a cone with the smaller straight portion ID, the conical or tapered portion [2 and the larger straight portion IA.
The coil is supplied with electrical energy by the leads l6 and I8 connected to opposite ends of the said coil.
The outside diameter of the portion I is preferably small enough to be loosely received into the inside of the portion [4 for the purpose of providing a long actuator as shown in Figure 2.
The wire forming the coil may be wound on any form suitable for the purpose and a sleeve of insulating material 20 is preferably placed on the form prior to the winding so that it becomes an integral part of the wound coil. After winding, the coil may be wrapped, if desired, with fabric or tape and thereafter dipped in insulating enamel and baked.
While the particular proportions of the coil are subject to modifications, to meet varying conditions, I prefer that the straight portions be of approximately the same length and that the sides of the conical portion be disposed on an angle of approximately 30 from the axis of the solenoid, as shown.
Referring more particularly to Figure 2, the coils, generally indicated by the numeral 22 are arranged over a non-magnetic tube 24 in telescoping relationship. The terminals of the coils are connected in parallel to the wires 25 and 28 and a switch 30 provides for the selective energization of the resulting solenoid. Obviously, whether the coils are connected in parallel, series or series-parallel will be determined by the voltage supply available and the voltage for which the coils are designed.
An armature 32 is provided which is joined by a link 34 to a mechanism to be moved. The armature is positioned at rest as shown in Figure 2 and moves, when the coils are energized, in the direction indicated by the arrow at 32'. It will be evident that the particular number of coils in the solenoid is of no moment, and, hence, a solenoid of any length may be arranged and a stroke of any length obtained.
There are many instances in which such a solenoid would have distinct advantages and a particular instance would be in the case of aircraft and similar devices where many actuators are required and in which the available space is limited. A solenoid constructed according to my invention would provide an ideal actuator for bomb-bay doors and the like without having the bulk of the customary hydraulic actuator and without utilizing valuable space for connections to a source of power, the wires requiring substantially less space than the connecting pipes or tubes needed for a hydraulic actuator.
In Figure 3 is illustrated a use for my invention similar to that in Figure 2 but showing how the multi-coil solenoid adapts itself to other than linear configurations. The arrangement in Figure 3, which is diagrammatic, is that of a door or window which is to be opened about a hinge and in which it is desired to have a substantially uniform thrust. This is accomplished by shaping the solenoid about the center of rotation of the movable member and connecting the armature to the member by a link similarly curved. By means of this arrangement it is possible to provide a solenoid which acts on an armature that moves in a non-linear path. It is evident that the same unit coil is adapted for use in either the straight or the curved type'solenoid with equal facility and that special long or curved solenoids can be constructed without the expensive step of winding a special coil to fit the particular installation.
It will be understood that my invention is capable of modification according to specific needs and uses and, accordingly, it is desired to comprehend such modifications as may be considered to come within the scope of this disclosure and the appended claims.
1. As a new article of manufacture, a tubular electromagnetic coil comprising straight end portions of different diameters and a conical central portion interconnecting said end portions, the thickness of the coil being substan tially uniform.
2. As a new article of manufacture, an electromagnet coil comprising cylindrical end portions of difierent diameters and a tapered central portion interconnecting said end portions,
the thickness of the coil being substantially uniform.
3. As a new article of manufacture, a coil for an electromagnet comprising straight end portions of different diameters and acentral tapered portion interconnecting said end portions, the
outer diameter of said smaller portion being smaller'than the inner diameter of said larger portion and the thickness of the coil being substantially uniform.
4.An electromagnetic actuator for moving an armature comprising a plurality of individual coils of uniform thickness connected in parallel and arranged end to end in telescoping relationship, each of the said coils comprising straight end portions of different diameters and a tapered central portion.
5. The combination in an electromagnetic actuator of an armature adapted to traverse an arcuate path, a sleeve of the configuration of said path within which said armature is slidable, and a plurality of telescoping unit coils arranged coaxially with said tube and connected in parallel, each of said coils comprising straight cylindrical end portions of substantially equal length and a tapered interconnecting mid portion.
6. An electromagnetic actuator comprising an armature, a tube within which said armature is slidable and a plurality of unit coils mounted on said tube in telescoping end to end relationship, each of said coils comprising straight end portions of equal lengths and different diameter and an intermediate tapered portion interconnecting said end portions, the thickness of the winding of each coil being substantially uniform throughout the length thereof and the sides of said tapered portions lying at substantially a3 angle from the coil axis.
7. A solenoid comprising a plurality of turns of Wire arranged so as to have straight end portions of equal lengths and difierent diameters, the outer diameter of the smaller portion being substantially smaller than the inner diameter of the larger "portion, and an intermediate conical portion interconnecting said end portions and the sides thereof making an included angle of substantially 30 with the solenoid axis.
8. As a new article of manufacture, a hollow coil 'for an electromagnet comprising straight end portions of difierent dimensions and a central tapered portion interconnecting said end portions, the outside dimensions of the smaller of said end portions bein smaller than the inside dimension of the larger of said end portions, and the thickness of the coil being substantially uniform throughout its length.
9. An electromagnetic actuator for moving an armature comprising a plurality of individual hollow coils adapted for being connected in parallel, series, or series-parallel and arranged end to end in telescoping relationship, each of said coils comprising straight end portions of different dimensions and a tapered central portion.
ANTHONY A. AMBROSE.
The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Great Britain Apr, 30, 1923