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Publication numberUS2441517 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 11, 1948
Filing dateMar 16, 1946
Priority dateMar 16, 1946
Publication numberUS 2441517 A, US 2441517A, US-A-2441517, US2441517 A, US2441517A
InventorsJulius L Sussman
Original AssigneeJulius L Sussman
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Means for shaping metal articles
US 2441517 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

May 11, 1948. J. L. SUSSMAN 2,441,517

MEANS FOR smmne METAL ARTICLES Filed March 16, 1946 lom ZA T/OA/ CONTROL 53 A TTORNEY.

Patented May 11, 1948 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE mums roa sumo METAL narrows Julius L. Bosnian, New York, N. Y. Application ms is, me, sum No. 854,933

This invention relates to new and useful improvements in metal shaping apparatus, and more particularly it relates to apparatus for shaping tubular articles, such as lamp stands, corrugated pipe or tubing, but the invention is. however, not so limited and may be applied to the shaping of other objects, such as cutlery and the like. Such articles have heretofore been shaped by swaging or pressing in the cold, but these processes have not been altogether satisfactory. High speed hammers operating at about 500 strokes a minute have been employed but the formations in the work material have been made as a result of sudden severe pressures, which frequently cause breaks or cracks. If lower pressures were used the time required for the shaping of the article would be so greatly prolonged that the operation at such speeds, even of 500 strokes per minute, would not be economical enough.

One of the objects of this invention is, therefore, to provide a simple device for shaping the aforementioned articles which enables the application of rapid impacts on work stock.

Another object is to provide an easily and closely controlled device for obtaining rapid impacts.

A further obect is to provide a device for shaping articles by impact and which will have a minimum of reciprocation parts.

A still further object is to reduce the weight of moving parts in the machine for hammering out articles.

An additional object is to provide an electrical circuit for electro-percussive machines; while Another object is to provide a hand tool which will eliminate a considerable portion of exertion during the hammering of metal.

The inventive feature for the attainment oi the objects are shown in connection with an electro-magnetic hammer for shaping objects which briefly stated includes a shaping member and electro-magnetic means for actuating same, and means for discharging a condenser through the electro-magnetic means.

In the accompanying drawing showing, by way of example, three of many possible embodiments of the invention:

Figure l is a side elevational view of an example of an object shaped by the invention.

Figure 2 is a partial vertical sectional view of a form of the invention as applied to external die-blocks.

Figure 3 is an end view of a modification oi the device shown in Figure 2 and partly schematic.

Figure 4 is a transverse, vertical, sectional view or the modification of Figure 3.

Figure 5 is aschematic representation oi another form of the invention, while Figure 6 is a diagram of means ior actuating the shaper.

An article, such as a lamp stand column l0, may be formed between upper and lowerdieblocks II, it, having inner iaces ll, ii complementary to opposite outer hali surfaces of the column ID. The lower block i2 is preferably mounted fast on a stationary mounting member I8, while the upper block is adapted to be vertically vibrated by a vibrator generally designated it.

The vibrator It comprises a horizontal support plate it above the die-blocks and is provided with a plurality of heavy rods 20 iast on and rising from the outer portions of said plate II. The rods 20 pass slidably through a suspension plate 2| and are provided with end lugs 22 to prevent complete separation of the two plates. An electro-magnet 24 including amoil 2i and a centrarpolemnuntedme plate 19, said pole and plate being provided with a vertical bore 2 through which a, reciprocatory actuating rod 20 passes. The lower die-block Ii is secured fast to the lower end of the rod 28 and an armature 29 is likewise secured on the upper end thereof.

The plate 21 is raised and lowered by suitable means, such as piston 30 and cylinder 3|, the latter being secured fast to fixed means 32. In operation, a tube of the work material is laid between the blocks ii, I! after a raising of the vibrator, and the block II. The vibrator I8 is then lowered by hydraulic or pneumatic pressure applied to the piston 30, or by gravity. It is desirable to have heavy compression springs 84 around the rods 20 and between the plates i9 and II, so as to absorb any too severe dead pressure on the die blocks.

Since it is desirable to have the vibrator as a whole movable to facilitate inserting of the stock between the blocks, and the effective work movement of the vibrator depends on relative movement of the magnet and the die-block, it is desirable that the mass of the magnet and its mount be great relative to the die-block. Thus the magnet 24 is substantially stationary during vertical vibration of the rod 28 and block ll.

As the die is set in a state of vibration by means described later herein, the stock is rotated so that a large number of rapid die blows will be struck on the stock and the stock vibrated so as to cause rapid flow of the metal. The amplitude of the die motion is so slight that there is a minimum of danger of the tube stock collapsing even if no mandrel die is used.

However. if an interior die is necessary a small die 12' rigidly mounted at one end may be emplayed, as shown in Figures 3 and 4, in cooperation with a vibrating outer die piece H which is actuated by the vibrator l8. Means for rotating the tube stock will be apparent to those skilled in the art.

The die-block i2 is preferably of cast iron with a. small nickel content for hardness. In fact, such cast iron die-blocks are generally preferable, since their cost is very low and they have proved to be superior to blocks of tool steel. In addition the magnetic properties of such a die enables the use of a very simple shaper or harnmer 35, as shown in Figure 5. The hammer comprises a rod or bar 36 of magnetic material and a magnetizing coil 38 therearound.

When intermittent current is applied to the coil, as in a manner described later herein, the attraction of the bar 38 to the die-block I2 will cause an intermittent pressure to be applied to the tube stock 39 so that a hammering effect is obtained. A resilient handle 40 enables the hammer to be used as a hand tool, although the bar may be mounted on a mount such as the plate l9 of Figure 2. The effect of the hammer may be enhanced by making the bar 38 of magneto-strictive material.

Current is supplied to the leads LiLa of the coil 25 or the leads 1sL4 of coil 38 by means of condenser discharge, as shown in Figure 6. A suitable source of current, such as a commercial supply 45 is translated to a high voltage, such as from 1,000 to 5,000 volts D. C., by means of a transformer 46 and rectifier 48 for charging a condenser 49. Conductors 50 and connect the respective sides of the condenser to the aforementioned leads. A high voltage mercury arc discharge tube switch 52 is interposed in the conductor 5| for periodically discharging the condenser through the coil 25 or 38. The vapor content of the tube 52 is ionized by external igniter electrodes 54 and 55 connected to an ionization control 56, for periodically applying an ignition current of high voltage, but which may be of extremely low amperage. The control 56 is preferably such that the frequency of the ignition current may be varied by change of reluctance by means of a foot pedal 58 which can be readily improvised by one skilled in the art. Likewise a variable resistor 59 is interposed in the conductor 58 to control the quantity of current to flow through the coil, and the resistor is varied by means of pedal 60.

The frequency of discharge of the condenser 48 may be varied widely for the vapor of the tube 52 will delonize in about 150.000 second. Of course, the ionization control need not necessarily be provided with a frequency control and may be only a transformer connected to a 60 cycle current and have an output voltage suillcient to ignite the tube 52. Such an arrangement will give strokes of 7,200 per minute.

The eflect of rapid strokes is that no great deformation need be made by one blow, and the metal will have a chance to vibrate and yield or flow during amore gradual deformation.

Condenser discharge is preferable as a source of current, since my high voltage of a surging current will give a quick, strong impact to the dieblock and stock.

The invention claimed is:

1. In combination, a pair of opposed die-blocks, one being movable and the pair adapted to receive work stock therebetween, a vibrator secured fast to the movable block for vibrating same toward and from the other block, said vibrator comprising a supporting plate and rods p olect l D penclicularly from the outer marginal portions thereof and secured fast thereto, a suspension plate slidable on the outer end of the rods, and means for keeping the suspension plate and rods together, an electromagnet having a core directed inwardly from the supporting plate and coil therearound and mounted on the inner face of the supporting plate, said core and supporting plate being provided with an opening therethrough, a reciprocating rod in the opening and having the outer end thereof fast on the movable die-block, an armature on the inner end of the last mentioned rod, and near the face of the core, heavy springs coiled around the said rods and compressed between the two plates, said plates being sumciently far. apart to permit vibration of the armature and movable die-block.

2. In combination, a pair of die-blocks one above the other, the former being vertically movable and the pair adapted to receive work-stock therebetween, a vibrator secured fast to the movable block, said vibrator comprising a horizontal supporting plate and vertical rods rising from the outer marginal portions thereof and secured fast thereto, a horizontal suspension plate vertically slidable on the upper end of the rods. and means for keeping the suspension plate and rods together, an electro-magnet having a vertical core and coil therearound and mounted on the upper face of the supporting plate, said core and supporting plate being provided with a vertical opening therethrough, a vertically reciprocating rod in the opening and having the lower end thereof fast on the upper die-block, an armature on the upper end of the last mentioned rod, and near the upper face of the core, heavy springs coiled around the said vertical rods and compressed between the two plates, said plates being suificiently far apart to permityertical vibration of the armature and upper die-block, and means for raising and lowering the vibrator.


REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,093,301 Vande Apr. 14, 1914 1,434,068 Schlafly Oct. 32"., 1922 1,847,085 Flint Mar. 1, 1932 1,934,979 Hopkins Nov. 134, 1933 1,966,446 Hayes July 17, 1934 2,393,131 Vang Jan. 15, 1946 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 2,671 Great Britain 1888

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2746813 *Nov 16, 1951May 22, 1956Massa FrankMeans for reducing static friction
US2966740 *Dec 30, 1953Jan 3, 1961Westinghouse Electric CorpMethod for making metal articles
US2976907 *Aug 28, 1958Mar 28, 1961Gen Dynamics CorpMetal forming device and method
US3001279 *May 28, 1956Sep 26, 1961Eva R LemertMethod of working hard brittle metals
US3016604 *Oct 9, 1958Jan 16, 1962Grant Oil Tool CompanyValve seat puller
US3201967 *Feb 23, 1960Aug 24, 1965Cavitron Ultrasonics IncMetal forming
US3218838 *Jan 21, 1963Nov 23, 1965Pines Engineering Co IncTube end shaper
US3486400 *Dec 22, 1967Dec 30, 1969Algemene Kunstzijde Unie NvPositioning apparatus for moving a body into a desired position
US4926677 *Dec 3, 1987May 22, 1990Kurt WaldnerDie apparatus
US5471865 *Sep 9, 1993Dec 5, 1995Gemcor Engineering Corp.High energy impact riveting apparatus and method
US5575166 *Jun 7, 1995Nov 19, 1996Gemcor Engineering Corp.High energy impact riveting apparatus and method
US6923031 *Mar 27, 2002Aug 2, 2005James M. AkinsApparatus and method for removing dents from metal
US7143627 *May 26, 2005Dec 5, 2006James M. AkinsApparatus and method for removing dents from metal
US20060016239 *May 26, 2005Jan 26, 2006Akins James MApparatus and method for removing dents from metal
DE1147909B *Jul 10, 1957May 2, 1963Zentralinstitut Fuer AutomatisWerkzeug zum Umformen von Blech
DE1177570B *May 13, 1961Sep 3, 1964Dr Med Georg KruegerElektromagnetisch betaetigter Hammer
WO2003035297A1 *Oct 18, 2002May 1, 2003Akins James MSystem for removing dents from metal
U.S. Classification72/430, 29/DIG.460, 425/DIG.260
International ClassificationB21D31/06, B25D13/00
Cooperative ClassificationB21D31/06, Y10S29/046, Y10S425/026
European ClassificationB21D31/06