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Publication numberUS2443614 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 22, 1948
Filing dateSep 23, 1944
Priority dateSep 23, 1944
Publication numberUS 2443614 A, US 2443614A, US-A-2443614, US2443614 A, US2443614A
InventorsOrrin D Gray
Original AssigneeOrrin D Gray
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Lock nut
US 2443614 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

I June 22, 1948.

o. DFGRAY 2,443,614

LOCK NUT Filed Sept. 25, 1944 Patented June 22, 1948 UNITED STATEfi ran-r" FFIQE LOCK NUT ()rrin D. Gray, Chicago, Ill;

Application September 23, l d igSe'rial'No; 555 493 10 Claims. 1

This invention relates to a lock nut which is simpleand' dependable in' operati-on, and inexpensive to produce. In essence, the lock is a spring, in non-rotatablerelationship with anut, exerting a force which proceeds toward the as sociated bolt-to establish therewith an=enhanced frictional resistance whereby tooppose rotation of the -nut, either direction. The springwhich may be-in the-form'ofi a ring is carried either by the nut' or by the bolt, and duringrotary advance of the nut, either way, may be distorted by the operating toolsufiiciently to relax its tension upontheabolt. A spring lockof this character may associated with the nut either separ-ably ,or non-separably. Itis readily adap able rtO" quantity production, and in use may be advancedwith the nut-to or fromits final position witha minimum of effort.

These and other objects ofmy invention will appearifromthe description tofollow, takenin conjunction with the-showings in the accompanying-drawings, wherein Figure 1 is a view in perspective of one form of the. present lock nut in operative position upon'a coacting bolt; Fig. 2 is a transverse sectionthroug-hthe bolt with the nut fitted thereon,v taken through thecollar extension in a plane just-above the spring ring; Fig. 3 is a fragmentary longitudinal section taken on line 33 of Fig. .2; Fig. 4 is a partialend elevation of and transverse section through a bolt whereon is fitted a second-form of lock nut a. portion of which is shown in section; Fig. 5 is a fragmentary front elevation-of the bolt and lock nut as per Fig. 4; Fig. 6 which is a view similar to- Fig. 4 shows a third form of lock nut; Figs. '710,' each of which isa transverse section, show four additional forms of lock nuts; and Fig. ll is a perspective view, partly broken away, of a conventional castellated unit to which is applied the spring ring of my-invention.

The =principle' underlying' the present lock nut in -all of its forms isthe-application of frictional pressure to'a bolt atone or more circumferential'points through the instrumentality of a spring -ring continuous or otherwise, that may be carried upon the bolt orupon the nut which is :to be frictiona-ll-y locked thereto, the ring being interlocked with the nut for rotation therewith and consequent. movement lengthwise of the bolt; thering is also distortable atspaced-points, with the aid of a suitable wrench employed. for operation'of thenut, to relaieat other points its pressure. uponithev boltwherebwthe. nut; during its operating-movements, maynadvance (either way) 2. substantiallyfree of frictional resistance. It is of importance that the spring rin he interlocked with the nut in such a way'as to advance therewith. While it is optional whether the ring be connected separably or inseparablyto the nut, its position relative to the bolt is always such as to exert thereon a substantiallyradial pressure in all positions of-the nut, this pressure being relaxable only at such moments as the nut undergoes adjusting' manipulations with the aid of a proper tool. With these preliminary observations, Iwill now pass on to a detailed description of the lock nut in a number of its various formsseveral of which are' suggested in the accompanyingdrawings.

The bolt B'herein illustrated in' all of the figures is-of conventional construction in that it comprises a shank having a threaded end portion adapted to receive thereon a polygonally faced nut N provided with an axial bore wherein are formed cooperating threads. The nut may be provided at one end with a'radially distortable collar extension 0 through which the threadedaxialbore is continued. A nut of the kindwith' which 'I amher'e' concerned may be produced economically in"quant ities,' desirably from mild steel, and no special problem is involved in its manufacture.

The spring ring 'R'is provided with'inwardly extended "lugs I usually two'or more of them, each adapted to ente'r'within'the nut slot '8 that is appropriately formed for thispurpose. The slots'shownin'the nutof Fig. 5 is closed, i. e., it is bounded on all-four sides, so that'the presence of. a circumferential groove is'unnecessary for holding the ring -in assembled relation with the nut; the same is true for the showing in Fig. 6. In the remainingfig'u-res,- however, the slots s are shown as" open at one end whereby special-utility. resides in the use of 'a circumfer- 'ential groove for maintaining the spring ring in operative position, assuming that a normally'in separable-relationship betweenthe nut and ring be desired at all.

Figures 1-5 illustrate nut collars c, round in con-tour, surrounded by spring rings R that are normally of ellipticalform;thetwo lugsZ extending .inwardly--.in-line with. the short axis of the ring. According to'Figl 6 the ring R isC-s hap'ed. Itsopposite arms carry inwardly extended lugs l w-hich are projected throughwide arcuate slots to reach the bolt -B 'with -which they engage.

The-nut-collar' c of Fig. '7 is oppositely flattened at f and intermediately thereof is slotted 55. to receive the lugs'lo'f 'theisu'rratnaing spring ring R. Since the nut N is here shown without an associated bolt, the ring R. appears in its relaxed normal condition wherein its opposite lugs Z are projected to a position slightly interiorly of the nut. Both the collar and ring R may be of round contour, and the provision of opposite flats 1 makes it possible to distort the ring R. inwardly at such points thereby spreading apart the two lugs l, with consequent relaxation of irictional pressure upon an associated bo'lt.

In Fig. 8 the ring R is loosely fitted upon the nut collar 0. It may be sufiiciently oversize to be potentially free of contact therewith at all points. Because of the clearance thus provided the ring may be distorted, as required, to spread apart its opposed lugs l for relaxation of pressure upon an associated bolt. In this construction the contour of the ring may be round or elliptical. In Fig. 9 the collar 0 is oppositely flattened at L1 and the ring is elliptical with two lugs 1 formed in line with its short axis. Opposed pressures upon the ring R in the direction of its long axis will produce a spreading movement of the lugs with consequent relaxation of frictional pressure upon the bolt. Ii more than two lugs are desired to enhance the area and points of engagement between the spring ring and the bolt, then the arrangement of Fig. 10 is suggested. Here the lugs l are not oppositely disposed, but nevertheless are movable toward and from the bolt, respectively, in response to resilience of the spring ring R and (2) pressure applied externally to the ring at points remote from the lugs to effect a distortion of the ring which will produce a relaxation of its pressure engagement with the bolt.

In all the constructions thus far described the spring ring R is applied to a nut N which is formed more or less specially for its reception. It is not necessary, however, that this be always the case, since the lock nut of my invention may be used with full effectiveness with a nut of standard form-for example, a castellated nut N as shown in Fig. 11. Here the ring R. is fitted around thenut collar 0, loosely or otherwise, with its lugs disposed within two of the opposite slots 8. Assembly of the ring with the nut need not take place until after the nut has been started in its rotative movement upon the associated bolt. The inner faces of the spring lugs I may, if desired, be formed with appropriate ribs 1' to coact with and track in the bolt threads so that the spring ring R is automatically advanced along the bolt as the nut itself is rotated thereupon. It is unimportant whether the ring be positioned upon the nut adjacent the shoulder at the base of its collar, since the purpose of the ring is to prevent its reverse rotation thereupon.

In each of the various forms of lock nut herein discussed, there is a spring ring exerting upon the bolt, directly or indirectly, a resilient pressure force which is relaxable in varying degrees by an appropriate tool whereby to free the nut for facile adjustment upon the bolt. The material of which the nut is formed possesses little or no resiliency, although it is yieldable or bendable to some extent. By itself the nut is incapable of locking resiliently with the bolt; the spring ring is relied upon for this purpose. When in locking relation with the bolt the spring serves effectively to oppose rotation of the nut, and continues indefinitely to do so. It is only when the spring ring is compressed properly, as with the use of a special tool, that relaxation of the rings resilient pressureengagement with the bolt takes 4 place. When the ring exerts its pressure upon the collar, rather than upon the bolt, it should desirably be continuous and endless in order to develop the necessary vforce.

I claim:

1. For use with a bolt having a continuous thread, a coacting threaded nut through which is a lateral opening, a continuous spring ring surrounding the nut and shaped to bear with resilient pressure against the nut at the opening and spaced therefrom at points remote from the openproviding portions compressible radially inwardly by a tool, and means correlated with the ring in the opening for resilient pressure against the threads only of the bolt, the shape and elasticity of the ring causing relaxation of its cor related means with the bolt in response to distortion of the ring inwardly toward the nut.

2. For use with a threaded bolt, a coacting threaded nut through which are lateral openings on opposite sides, and a continuous unbroken spring ring surrounding the nut in non-rotatable engagement therewith formed with opposed lugs projecting inwardly through the lateral openings for resilient pressure engagement with the bolt, there being spaces between the ring and nut at points intermediately of the lugs and the ring being distortable inwardly into such spaces whereby to retract the lugs with consequent relaxation of their pressure engagement with the bolt.

3. For use with a threaded bolt, a coacting threaded nut through which is a lateral opening, and a continuous unbroken spring ring surrounding the nut in non-rotatable engagement therewith formed with a lug projecting inwardly through the lateral opening ior resilient pressure engagement with the bolt, there being a space between the ring and nut at a point remote from the lug and the ring being distortable inwardly into such space whereby to retract the lug with consequent relaxation of its pressure engagement with the bolt.

4. For use with a threaded bolt, a coacting threaded nut through which are spaced lateral openings, and a continuous unbroken spring ring mounted on the nut in non-rotatable inseparable engagement therewith formed with spaced lugs projecting inwardly through the lateral openings for resilient pressure engagement with the bolt, there being spaces between the ring and nut at points intermediately of certain lugs and the ring being distortable inwardly into such spaces whereby to retract the lugs with consequent relaxation of their pressure engagement with the bolt.

5. For use with a threaded bolt, a coacting threaded nut from which is extended. a collar having spaced lateral openings therethrough and a circumferential groove therearound, and a continuous unbroken spring ring mounted on the nut within the collar groove thereof in normally inseparable relation therewith, the ring being formed with spaced lugs projecting inwardly through the lateral openin s of the collar for resilient pressure engagement with the bolt, there being spaces between the rin and groove bottom at points intermediately Of certain lugs and the ring being distortable inwardly into such spaces whereby to retract the lugs with consequent relaxation of their pressure engagement with the bolt.

6. For use with a threaded bolt, 9. coacting threaded nut from which is extended acollar having spaced lateral openings therethrough, a

continuous unbroken spring ring surrounding the nut collar formed with spaced lugs projecting inwardly through the lateral openings for resilient pressure engagement with the bolt, there being spaces between the ring and the collar at points intermediately of certain lugs and the ring being distortable inwardly into such spaces whereby to retract the lugs withconsequent relaxation of their pressure engagement with the bolt.

7. For use with a threaded bolt, a coacting threaded nut, a continuous unbroken spring ring having spaced means inwardly projected for resilient pressure engagement with the bolt and distortable toward the bolt at points intermediate of the spaced means whereby to narrow and widen the ring at spaced points, the spaced means in engagement with the bolt being at the widened points, and means interconnecting the nut and ring for unitary rotation upon the bolt.

8. For use with a threaded bolt, 2. coacting threaded nut through which are spaced lateral openings, and a continuous unbroken spring ring surrounding the nut in non-rotatable engagement therewith formed with spaced lugs projecting inwardly through the lateral openings for resilient pressure engagement with the bolt, a pair of lugs being provided at one side of the ring and a single lug at the opposite side thereof and there being spaces between the ring and nut at points intermediately of certain lugs, and the ring being distorted inwardly into such spaces in consequence of pressure engagement between the lugs and the bolt.

9. For use with the bolt having continuous threads, a coacting threaded nut through which are spaced lateral openings and a continuous spring ring surrounding the nut in non-rotatable engagement therewith formed with spaced lugs projecting inwardly through the lateral openings of the nut in normal pressure engagement with the bolt threads, the distance between the lug ends being initially less than the bolt diameter, and there being spaces between the ring and the nut at points remote from the lugs into which the ring may contract in response to a radial pressure directed inwardly at such points to produce elongation of the ring in the direction of the lugs so as to relax the resilient pressure engagement between the lugs and the bolt while distortion of the spring ring continues.

10. For use with a bolt having continuous threads, a coaoting threaded nut through which is a lateral opening and a continuous spring ring surrounding the nut in non-rotatable engagement therewith formed with a lug projecting inwardly through the lateral opening of the nut in normal pressure engagement with the threads of the bolt, the distance between the lug end and the opposing internal nut wall being initially less than the bolt diameter, and there being space between the ring and the nut at points remote from the lug into which the ring may contract in response to a radial pressure directed inwardly at such points to produce elongation of the spring ring in the direction of the lug so as to relax the resilient pressure engagement between the lug and the bolt while distortion of the spring ring continues.

ORRIN D. GRAY.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 258,497 Stevens May 23, 1882 337,801 Vaughan Mar. 9, 1886 774,418 Finley Nov. 8, 1904 838,948 Bryar Dec. 18, 1906 1,091,959 Pybus Mar. 31, 1914 1,092,256 Glauber Apr, 7, 1914 1,134,520 Dyba. Apr. 6, 1915 1,241,401 Kusy Sept. 25, 1917 1,271,643 Winton July 9, 1918 1,467,907 Miyagi Sept. 11, 1923 2,007,293 Cayonette July 9, 1935 2,108,643 Allen Feb. 15, 1938 2,395,234 Schlueter Feb. 19, 1946 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 64,486 Sweden Feb. 7, 1927 79,508 Sweden May 2, 1931 165,585 Germany Nov. 9, 1904 173,930 Great Britain Jan. 19, 1922 237,809 Great Britain Aug. 6, 1925 605,461 France Feb. 19, 1926 764,544 France Mar, 5, 1934

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US337801 *Mar 9, 1886F OneHalf to james hebvey stebnbeegh
US774418 *Apr 1, 1904Nov 8, 1904Henry L FinleyNut-lock.
US838948 *Feb 12, 1906Dec 18, 1906John M SmithFrictional lock-nut for bolts.
US1091959 *Jun 16, 1913Mar 31, 1914George William PybusNut-lock.
US1092256 *Apr 9, 1910Apr 7, 1914Joseph H GlauberCoupling or lock-nut.
US1134520 *Mar 21, 1914Apr 6, 1915Martin DybaNut-lock.
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2548874 *Oct 10, 1945Apr 17, 1951Westinghouse Electric CorpRetaining device
US2798405 *Oct 16, 1952Jul 9, 1957George L SteckThreadless nut with resiliently connected base portions
US3147662 *Jun 22, 1961Sep 8, 1964Joseph Lang JrQuick release retainer nut
US5085548 *Apr 30, 1991Feb 4, 1992The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavyNut and snap ring position locking device
US5967723 *Jul 1, 1998Oct 19, 1999Avibank Mfg., Inc.Nut and bolt locking system
US8092132Dec 5, 2008Jan 10, 2012American Axle & Manufacturing, Inc.Fastener with anti-rotation clip
Classifications
U.S. Classification411/259, 411/280, 411/940, 411/929
International ClassificationF16B39/32
Cooperative ClassificationY10S411/929, Y10S411/94, F16B39/32
European ClassificationF16B39/32