|Publication number||US2444246 A|
|Publication date||Jun 29, 1948|
|Filing date||Nov 20, 1942|
|Priority date||Nov 20, 1942|
|Publication number||US 2444246 A, US 2444246A, US-A-2444246, US2444246 A, US2444246A|
|Inventors||Burns Darsie, Irwin Chase|
|Original Assignee||Electric Boat Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (27), Referenced by (13), Classifications (18)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. CHASE ETAL 2,444,246
GUN TURRET l0 Sheets-Sheet 1 @E s a 5 R E a 7 0 T 6Q W M M A A V C D w. w N w w U m I 5 .m n 5 mm mm \K m G m. .m 3w mm mm MN June 29, 1948.
Filed Nov. 20, 1942 June 29, 1948. 1. CHASE ETAL GUN TURRET l0 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Nov. 20, 1942 INVENIORS IR WIN CHASE BUQN-S DAAQS/E ATTYS June 29, 1948. 1. CHASE ET AL 2,444,246
GUN 'runnm- Filed Nov. 20, 1942 10 Sheets-Sheet" 3 June 29, 1948. 1. cHAsE ET AL GUN TURRET l0 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Nov. 20, 1942 INVENTORS IRWIN CHASE BURNS [DA/25H:
June 29, 1948. l. CHASE ETAL 2,444,246
GUN TURRET Filed Nov. 20, 1942 10 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTORS lRW/N CHASE BURNS BARS/E June 29, 1948. l. CHASE ETAL 2,444,246
GUN TURRET Filed Nov. 20, 1942 10 Sheets-Sheet 6 M m l g (D k. r r m H 3 2 INVENTORS. IRWIN CHASE BURNS DARSIE.
ATT s June 29, 1948. CHASE ETAL GUN TURRET 10 Sheets-Sheet 7 Filed Nov. 20, 1942 INVENTORS W/N CHA SE June 29, 1948. 1. CHASE ETAL GUN TURRET 10 Sheets-Sheet 8 Filed Nov. 20, 1942 QNEN 5E W R W W R. A mw V D m W m /1 VI. B N U53 dD I June 29, 1948. CHASE ET AL 2,444,246
mm TURRET Filed Nov. 20, 1942 10 Sheets-Sheet 9 ATT 'ys W O n W 95.5% H E W O vm .11
June 29, 1948. I. CHASE ET AL GUN TURRET l0 Sheets-Sheet 10 Filed Nov. 20, 1942 ZOFCWOQ UZEE Mun-23x6 NEPQQE 20m.
E 5 I V! A C D N N W W m WWW Patented June 29, 1943 omcs GUN runner Application November 20, 1942, Serial No. 466,260
14 Claims. l.
Our invention relates to ordnance, and contemplates a new turret mounting guns particularly for anti-aircraft fire from small naval craft.
The broad object of our invention is to provide a self-contained protected unit for a battery of guns, for a single gunner, and to enable him to aim his guns rapidly and to control their fire with ease. In the accomplishment of that object, we fixedly mount appropriate guns and their operating mechanism on a platform in the form of an armored cab or cradle, which the gunner is to occupy, said cab or cradle being hung from horizontal trunnions in bearings supported on a turn-table rotatable on a vertical axis upon a base bolted to the deck; thus, the gunner at all times maintains a relatively fixed position relative to his guns, and the platform has universal movement whereby he can get on and follow the target.
Within that broad object, our invention has numerous specific objects, which will be made point of as this description proceeds, and which are accomplished, as will be seen. Among these are the inherent steadying of gun recoil, special protection for the more vital regions in the turret, safety features which permit continued operation notwithstanding damage to some of the parts, simplicity of construction and operation and sensitiveness of control, and selective firing.
Although, as stated, the turret of our invention is particularly conceived for use on small naval craft, it is of course adaptable to larger vessels, and, as will appear, it may also be useful on military land vehicles or as a stationary outfit.
The turret of our invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawings in which- Figure 1 is a side elevational View, part of the housing being shown in section in order to reveal part of the means for mounting the turn-table;
Figure 2 is a front elevational view, parts being broken away and shown in section to reveal the means for operating the turntable and for mounting the cab;
Figure 3 is a plan view, part being broken away to show a horizontal section at a lower level;
Figure 4 is a front elevational view, with the front of the cab removed in order to reveal the arrangement of the equipment within it;
Figure 5 is a longitudinal vertical sectional 2 view taken on the plane of the line 55 of Figure 4 and looking in the direction indicated by the arrows;
Figure 6 is a view similar to Figure 4, except that it is schematic in part in order to show the arrangement of certain of the parts and mechanisms within the cab;
Figure '7 is a view similar to Figure 1, without showing details, but illustrating the action of the cab about its horizontal axis;
Figure 8 is a diagrammatic view of the hydraulic system for operating the cab in train and in elevation;
Figure 9 is the electrical wiring diagram; and
Figure 10, 10A and 10B are diagrammatic Views of the hydraulic system for firing the guns.
The same reference characters are applied to the same parts throughout the various figures.
Referring first to Figures 1, 2 and 5:
The entire structure is mounted on a single stationary base II, which is circular about the vertical axis indicated by the vertical dot-anddash lines in Figures 1, 2 and 5, and which is a casting of substantial size and weight and is suitably bolted to the deck.
A turn-table is mounted on this base, and this turn-table comprises a main supporting ring 12, carrying the circular crowned covering apron 13 of iron sheet, this apron being formed with a transverse tunnel housing It, forming the bight of a yoke to which further reference will be made presently. A downwardly extending flange i5 carries the housing band I511 about the periphery of this apron.
The ring I2 is provided with a plurality of short inwardly extending arms I6, each of which is provided with a bearing IT, in which is mounted a stub shaft l8 carrying a roller 19, and these rollers run upon the circular track 20 formed on the base II. Extending centrally downward, from the inside of the apron l 3, is a tube 2 I, which centers the turn-table on the base, with the rollers 59 on the track 20, by engagement in the central bearing 22 on the base, the lower end of the tube being provided with a hold-down nut 23 by means of which the turn-table and base are held together, with adequate play for free rotation of the one upon the other.
Concentric with and inwardly of the track 20, an upwardly extending rib 24 is provided on the base I l and a ring gear 25 is fixed upon that rib. Within the tunnel housing It, two hydraulic motors 2'6 are mounted, each with its shaft vertical, on the supporting plates 2'! fixed to the ring l2, and the shaft of each motor is provided, at its lower end, with a pinion 28 meshing with the ring gear 2-5. Although but one such hydraulic motor may be used, there are preferably two such motors, with pinions engaging the ring gear, one on each side of the turn-table.
The yoke, which has already been referred to, comprises the tunnel housing 14 and the hollow iron sheet uprights 23, 29; and: the gun platform, in the formwof a cab or'cradle, is hung. in this yoke on the horizontal axis indicated by the horizontal dot-and-dash line in Figure 2.
This cab is formed of armor plate, comprising the bottom 3!], which curves into the back wall 3|, side walls 32 and 33, and front wall 34, which, at its upper part, curves upwardly and backwardly to the top plate 35, hinged at 33. The cab is hung on its horizontal axis by wayof tubular trunnions 37, 31, secured to the side walls 32and 33 over alined openings therein, these trunnions being mounted in bearings 38 in the upper ends of theuprights 29; as shown particularly in Figlire-2.-
Reference is now made to Figure 1, wherein is illustrated the means for swinging the cab on its horizontal axis. This elevating device is in the form of a hydraulic ram, comprising a cylinder 4| and piston 42, the former being pivotally connected-at 41 by. means of a stem 46 to a lug 48 formed on the adjacent upright 29 of the yoke near the bottom thereof. The piston 42 has its connecting rod -43 pivotally engaged at 44 in a socket plate 45 secured in the side wall 33 of the cab. The cylinder has connected thereto flexible hydraulic conduits, leading from within the cab, as will be described more fully later in this specification. A cylinder and plunger arrangement such as this is provided also on the other side of the cab, as indicated in Figure 3.
The hydraulic systems will be later described. For the present, let it be understood that when theh'ydraulic motors 26'are operated, the pinions on theirshafts, engagingthe fixed ring gear 25, willZeffect-rotation of the turn-table, and with it the yoke and cab, about the vertical axis, and that the supplying of fluid under pressure to one end or the other-of the cylinder 4| swings the cabin the yoke about the horizontal axis, the latter action being illustrated in Figure 7.
A plurality, of guns are mounted in the cab, fixedly and with their barrels parallel, and extending forwardly. through the front wall 34 and top. plate 35. Some of the guns are mounted on the side Walls of the cab, as will be seen; others on the cab frame-work 49, 50. They are automatic guns, of appropriate caliber, and there are shown six smaller caliber guns and two of larger caliber, arranged relatively to each other as best illustrated in Figure 2, where it will be seen that the larger caliber guns are at the middle of the cab with the smaller caliber guns variously grouped about them. This arrangement of the guns is dictated by the desire to have the heavier guns, with the heavier recoil, near the center of thestructure, by the nature of the gunsand their attendant mechanisms, and by provision for the gunners position.
The gun .constructiomper so, is not. part of this invention, andfor simplicity, there is just sufficient showing of them to indicate their nature, .to illustrate their mounting, and to repre- 4 sent those parts thereof that are directly concerned with their incorporation in the turret and in the firing system.
The smaller caliber guns are shown at 5|, 5i, two of them being located at the sides, and higher than the other four, being supported from the side walls 32 and 33, respectively, by means of brackets 52, 52; the other four are mounted in a row upon brackets 53, 53 on the frame-work 49, 55.
The ammunition for these smaller caliber guns is in the form of cartridges held together in the form of a 'belt by clips, the belt of cartridges being fed to the chamber of the gun at one side thereof, the clips being ejected at the other side, and the shells being ejected at the bottom. As best shown in Figure 4, the two side guns of this small caliber group are fed, by way of a chute 54, from a magazine box 55 in a magazine compartment below. The clip ejector chute 56, on the other sideof the gun leads through an opening in the side wall 32 or 33 to the outside, and the shell ejector chute 51 leads from the bottom of the gun through another opening in the side wall 32 or 33 to the outside.
Each of the other four smaller caliber guns is fedfrom a magazine box 55 below by means of a chute 58, but in these cases the clip and shell ejector chutes are differently for-med, as indicated respectively at 59 and 60. Utilizing the fact that there are both right and left feed and ejector arrangements, the ejector chutes for the two right hand guns and those for the two left hand guns are respectively merged into a common ejector chute. 6| leading downwardly and rearwardly through the bottom of the cab to the outside.
Access to the magazine compartment is had by twodoors 62, B2, hinged at 53, 63 and clasped at 64, through which empty magazine boxes may be removed and charged ones substituted.
Thisma-gazine compartment is specially protected .by the secondary oblique armor plates 65, 65,.welded in the positions shown in Figure 3. By this arrangement it is impossible to register a square hit on both outer and inner skins.
The larger caliber guns 66, 66 are fixedly mounted on the cab frame-work by means of the support bar and bracket 61 and 68. These guns are fed from magazines 69, 69 which are brought to and attached to the guns in a known manner, the shells being ejected from the guns at the bottom thereof and being carried away by means of'the chutes 10, 10, leading downwardly and rearwardly through the back of the cab to the outside- It will be observed that these larger caliber guns are considerably longer than the smaller caliber guns, extending substantially from the backwall of the cab forwardly through and considerably beyond the front wall. The smaller caliber guns, on the other hand, are considerably shorter, extending only about half way back from the front wall, leaving room behind those on one sidefor. the gunner. A seat H, with a back and headrestflZ, 13 is provided for him in one of these open corners, and he occupies this seat in a relatively fixed position at all times during the aiming and firing of his guns.
In front of him, and between his knees when in seated position, is a directional control han- (119.14, which handle has movement forward and back, and from side to side, for purposes now to bedescribed. The position of this handle will be seen from Figures 3, .5 and 6. In its movement from side to side, and through a. connecting rod IE, it operates a control valve I5, this valve being a three-position valve enabling a flow of operating fluid in one direction, or the reverse direction, or no flow at all. By the use of this valve, the gun platform is trained, i. e. it controls the movement of the cab about the vertical axis. It is only movement of the control handle I4 from side to side that is transmitted to the valve I6, back and forth movement thereof having no effect on that valve. Back and forth movement of the control handle, without effect on the valve 76, is transmitted to another valve, Ti, which is similar to the valve 16 in that it also has three positions, one for flow of operating fluid in one direction, one for flow in the reverse direction, and one for no flow at all; by this means the gun platform is operated in elevation, i. e. the cab is swung about its horizontal axis.
Sighting means is provided as follows: On the side wall 32, at the left of the gunner, there is secured a plate I8 which, by way of a hinge i9, mounts a bracket fill carrying a sight 8i, preferably a unit sight, having a sighting leveller 82 carrying an eye socket 83. The sighting device is swung on its hinge I9, out of the way, in order to enable the gunner to get into his position, after which it is swung down before him into position for use. In position on the seat, the gunner, with his sight before him, and with the control handle M between his knees, as will be seen, is enabled to impart universal movement to the cab, training it by moving the control handle from neutral to one side or the other, and elevating it by moving the control handle from neutral backward or forward.
The operating system, thus governed by this control handle, will now be described.
An electric motor 84 is mounted on the back wall of the cab, and another similar motor 85 is conveniently mounted somewhat lower and at the side opposite the gunner, and these motors, connected in parallel, are supplied with current in the following manner:
As already stated, it is a feature of our turret that it is structurally entirely self-contained; all it requires from outside source is a supply of electric current and this is done by cable leads from any suitable source to the slip rings 85, 8! fixedly mounted on the disc 88, of insulating material, mounted on the stationary base I i, under the apron I3 and tunnel housing Id, and engaged by the brushes 89, 89, as shown in Figure 5.
Referring now to the electrical wiring diagram, Figure 9, it will be seen that one of these brushes 89 is grounded to the turret structure, and the other is connected, by means of conductor 99, with one terminal of the relay switch 9!. This relay switch is in the cab and the conductors from the brushes are run through the terminal housing I4 and one of the uprights as. The other terminal of that switch leads, by way of conductor 52, to the terminal bus 93, which is connected, by way of conductor 94, to one terminal of the electric motor 84-, and by way of conductor 95 with one terminal of the electric motor 35, the other terminals of the motors being grounded, as indicated. The relay switch 9! is of known type, in which an operating coil is normally con nected, in effect, across the leads 99 and 92 in series with the operating switch 95, to actuate a switch blade into and out of bridging relation to the conductors 90 and 92. The operating switch 96 is conveniently placed on the end of the control lever I4 and is preferably made a dead mans control, i. e. a normally open push button which is closed against spring pressure and which automatically opens the circuit when pressure on the button is released. If desired, storage batteries may be disposed in the cab for emergency use in the event of failure of the outside source of current, and they may, if desired, be placed toward the rear in order to provide additional counterweight for the gun barrels.
Each of the motors 84 and 85 operates two hydraulic pumps, one at each end of its shaft, these pumps being marked 91, 98, 99 and I00. These are the pumps which supply the pressures to operate the hydraulic motors 26, 26 and the hydraulic rams ll, ll. The operating fluid is preferably oil.
The hydraulic system embodying these driving and driven elements, and their controls, will now be described by reference to Figure 8. Referring first to the means for training the turret:
The hydraulic motors 26, 2B are connected in parallel, the left hand connection of each being connected, by means of conduit I EH, with the transverse control valve 16, to which the high pressure outlets of the pumps 91 and 99'are connected by means of conduits I02, I 02. The conduits from the hydraulic motors are passed through the tunnel housing IA, through the uprights 29, and through the tubular trunnions into the cab. Each of the conduits I62 has in it a check valve I63 and, where they come together, they enter a pressure relief valve I04 leading to the control valve 78. Excess fluid released by the pressure relief valve I94 is conveyed by conduit IE5 to return conduit I66 leading back to the reservoir Illl, which tank is connected with the low pressure inlets of the pumps 91 and 99 by way of the conduits I63 and I09, respectively. The reservoir Hi1 is shown in detail in Figure 6. It has in it a piston IIl'ia, loaded by a spring Hill), and a check valve IIll'c is provided in the piston. Oil filled at the upper side of the piston is charged into the system, past the check valve, by raising the piston by means of the handle IIl'Id. The three connections to the reservoir are below the piston, and the effect is to maintain a small pressure on the low pressure side of the system. The piston and check valve are fit to a slight leakage, permitting rapid passage of air but only very slow leakage of oil. The purpose is to keep out of the system air which would tend to cause the oil to foam. The control valve I6 is connected with the return conduit I06 by means of conduits II?) and III, and conduit IIZ connects it with both of the right hand connections of the hydraulic motors 26, 26.
As already stated, the control valve I6 is a three-way valve, enabling (a) the pressure coming in by way of the conduits I02 to be applied to the conduit IllI, the return flow being by way of the conduits H2, H9 or Ill, and IIlB, to operate the hydraulic motors 255, 26 in one direction, (1)) that pressure to be applied to the conduit H2, the return flow being by way of the conduits iIlI, H8 or III, and I05, to operate these motors in the opposite direction, or (c) to bypass the pressure com-ing in by way of the conduits I02 directly through the conduits Ill) and II I to the return conduit I05.
When the gunner, in his position, moves the control handle M to the left, condition (a) prevails to operate the hydraulic motors and their pinions in that direction to train the cab counterclockwise. When he moves the control handle V the main hydraulic supply tank I01.
to the right, reverse action takes place to train the cab inclockwise direction. When the jCOIltrol handle is in mid-position, athwartships, it is in neutral, 1. e. (a) position, the hydraulic motors are at, rest, and there is no training of the cab. In this way, the gunner'is enabled easily to train his .cab, either rapidly by wide ,open movement of the transverse valve or slowly by slight movement of it, to get hisbattery of guns quickly in the vertical plane ofhis target and to follow'as slowly as its speed may require. It will be observed that there are two pumps and two .motors, each pair in parallel, so that, if either pump or either motor is disabled, there will still be one motor and one-pump in effective action. While such disabling will reduce the speed of operation to one-half, there can .still be operation.
Still referring particularly to Figure 8,. we shall now describe the means for elevating the cab andfor I controlling such operation.
The other two hydraulic pumps 98 and I00; on the motors 84 and-85, respectively, have their high pressure outlets connected to the control valve 11 byway of conduits H3 and H4, respectively, each of these conduits having in it a check-valve I I5, these conduits uniting at a pressure relief valve H6 which has its normal outlet directly ,connected with the control valve TI and its excess outlet connected with the return conduit I06 which, as already stated, leads back to The control valve H, which, as already indicated, is of a character similar to that of the control valve '15, governs the operation of the hydraulic rams i in manner as follows: The upper end of each cylinder 4| is connectedwith the valve TI by means of the conduit Ill, and the lower end thereof is connected with the valve by means of the conduit IIO, these conduits being flexible and passing'from the rams into the uprights 2-9 and through the trunnions 31. The low pressure outlets from valve "I I, by way of the conduits H9 and I20, are connected with the return passage I06 leading back to the supply tank I01. The valve His such that the pressure coming from the pumps 90 and I00, by way of the conduits H3 and H4, respectively, may be applied to either of the outlets II! or II8, either to move the plunger inwardly wardly, respectively; and, in either case, the fluid return is by way .of the other and the conduits H9 or I20 and I06. When the control handle M, which operates thevalve I1, is moved rearwardly, pressure is applied to move the pistons 42 inward in their cylinders 4 I, thus to swing the cab backwardly about the horizontal axis, ultimately to the position shown in dotted lines in Figure '7; when the control handle is moved forwardly, pressure is. applied to move the pistons outwardly, and the cab swings down toward and to its normal position shown in Figure 1. The relief valve H6 serves to prevent the build-v ing up of excess pressure at the limits of movement of the pistons in their cylinders. When the control handle is in mid-position, fore-andaft, the incoming high pressure is by-passed to the return conduits IIB, I20 and I00, i. e. it is in neutral and thereis no operation of the cab in elevation. Here again, it will be observed that there are two rams and two-motors, each pair in .parallel, .so that, if either ram or either-motor is disabled, there will stillbe onexram and one motor ineffective action.
Thus, as the. gunner sits in position-relain the cylinder, or outtively fixed to his sight and his guns, he may quickly bring his guns upon his target, both in train and .-in elevation, thereafter keeping on his target by careful manipulation of the con.- trol handle 14, always. with his finger down on the button of the switch 05 in order to keep the turret in operation.
We shall now describe the means for firing the guns. As before stated, they areall automatics, i. e. they continue to fire-shots in rapid succession so long as the trigger is held down and cartridges are fed, and they are fired in bursts as occasion may require. Devices for applying pressure .to the trigger hydraulically are known, and they have therefore been indicated merely diagrammatically at I.2I for the small caliber guns and at I22 for the large caliber guns. These .actu ators comprise.essentially.a,..cylinder and piston and are operated simply by the application of hydraulic pressure, and the manner in which that is done in' the. present instance will now be described, reference being had .to Figures .3, 5, 6, 10, 10A and 103.
The meansfor this purpose is a static hydraulic system, governed by foot pressure, with selective control in respect of choice of guns and in order of firing if desired.
A master cylinder I23 is, provided, the piston in that cylinder being-operated by an appropriw ately placed treadle I24 through suitable linkages IZS. This master cylinder, on the pressure side of the piston, is connected, by way of conduit I26, with the hydraulic operating mechanisms of the guns through three-port two-posie tion control valves on a selector panel I21 mounted on the side wall 32 of the cab .at the left of the gunner. Accordingly, in the arrangement herein shown, this selector panel comprises six such valves I28 for the small caliber guns and two such valves I29 for the large caliber guns. The high pressure ports of these valves are all connected with the conduit I26. The second port of each of these valves is connected with the actuator of a particular gun, these conduits being indlcatedat I30, I30. The third port of each of these valves is connected with the low pressure end of the master cylinder bymeans of conduit I.3I. Each of these. valves has an operating finger piece I32 and it may thereby be set either directly to connect the high pressure end of the master cylinder with the gun actuator, with the release outlet closed, which is the firing position, as shown in Figure 10A, or to connect the gun actuator directly with the low pressure side of the master cylinder, with the high pressure inlet of the valve closed, which is the safe posi-v tion. as shown in Figure 10B.
When the gunner depresses the treadle I24, pressure is exerted upon the actuator of which.- ever guns have been selected for operation by the turning of valves on theselector panel, and in this wise any combination of guns can be fired. Also, the pressures at which the various triggers operate may be so fixed by spring adjustment that, as the operator depresses the treadle I24 he will bring the selected guns successively into action, for instance beginning with the two outside small caliber guns and ending with the two large caliber guns. The cab and all that it contains, hung from the trunnions, itself constitutes the necessary mass to steady the gun recoil.
In the foregoing, we have described-the particular turret which we have actually built and operated, attaining the objects of our invention,
and it will be understood that numerous modifications might be made without departing from the spirit and scope of our invention, particularly in its broader aspects. The appended claims are drawn accordingly.
1. A turret comprising upright hollow supporting members, an armored gun cab hung from trunnions on a horizontal axis in said upright supporting members, a hydraulic ram pivoted at one end to said gun cab at a distance from said axis and at its other end to one of said upright supporting members, a pump in said cab, a conduit connecting said pump and said ram passing through one of said supporting members and its associated trunnion, a valve in said conduit, an electric motor in said cab operating said pump, and conductors for said motor passing through one of said supporting members and the associated trunnion.
2. A turret comprising upright supporting members, a gun platform hung on a horizontal axis on said upright supporting members, a pair of hydraulic rams each pivoted at one end to one side of said gun platform, and at its other end to the adjacent upright supporting member, said rams being hydraulically connected in parallel, a pair of hydraulic pumps connected in parallel on said platform, and conduits connecting said pumps and said rams for supplying to the latter liquid under pressure.
3. A turret comprising a base, a circular track on said base, a ring gear fixed on said base, a turn-table rotatable on said track, a pair of hydraulic motors connected in parallel fixed on said turn-table, each having a pinion meshing with said ring gear for rotating said turn-table, a gun platform hung on a horizontal axis on supporting uprights on said turn-table, a pair of hydraulic rams each pivoted at one end to one side of said gun platform and at its other end to the adjacent upright, said rams being hydraulically connected in parallel, a pair of electric motors on said gun platform, each electric motor having two pumps on its shaft, conduits connecting one pump of each electric motor in parallel with one pump of the other electric motor and with said hydraulic motors for supplying thereto liquid under pressure, a supply tank on said platform connected to said pumps, conduits connecting the other pumps of said electric motors in parallel and with said rams for supplying thereto liquid under pressure, and return conduits leading to said tank for returning thereto liquid from said hydraulic motors and'from said rams.
4. A turret comprising a cab with a bottom and front, back and side walls, said cab being hung to swing on a horizontal axis, guns mounted in fixed position to said cab and extending through the front wall thereof, a gunners seat at the back and side of said cab, and sighting means hingedly mounted on the adjacent side wall of said cab in front of said gunners seat movable upward into a position clear of said seat and downward into a position overlying said seat.
5. A turret comprising a box-like armored cab substantially rectangular in plan mounted for rotation about a vertical axis and about a horizontal axis with its major portion below the latter axis, a plurality of guns mounted in fixed positions in the upper portion of said cab extending forwardly therefrom, certain of said guns being of relatively small caliber with their breech ends spaced a considerable distance from the back of said cab and certain others of said guns being of relatively large caliber with their breech ends in proximity to the back of said cab, said large caliber guns being disposed remote from the sides of said cab and certain of said small caliber guns being disposed adjacent the sides of the cab, a gunners seat in the lower rear portion of said cab adjacent one side thereof in back of certain of said small caliber guns, power means for turning said cab in either direction about either of said axes selectively for moving it and with it said guns in traverse and in elevation, and means within said cab in front of said seat for controlling said power means.
6. A turret comprising a box-like armored cab substantially rectangular in plan mounted for rotation about a vertical axis and about a horizontal axis with its major portion below the latter axis, a plurality of guns mounted in fixed positions in the upper portion of said cab extending forwardly therefrom, certain of said guns being of relatively small caliber with their breech ends spaced a considerable distance from the back of said cab and certain others of said guns being of relatively large caliber with their breech ends in proximity to the back of said cab, said large caliber guns being disposed remote from the sides of said cab and certain of said small caliber guns being disposed adjacent the sides of the cab, a gunners seat in the lower rear portion of said cab adjacent one side thereof in back of certain of said small caliber guns, power means for turning said cab in either direction about either of said axes selectively for moving it and with it said guns in traverse and in elevation, said power means comprising primary power units within said cab adjacent the other side thereof in back of certain other of said small caliber guns, and means within said cab in front of said seat for controlling said power means.
'7. A turret comprising a box-like armored cab substantially rectangular in plan mounted for rotation about a vertical axis and about a horizontal axis with its major portion below the latter axis, a plurality of guns mounted in fixed positions in the upper portion of said cab extending forwardly therefrom, certain of said guns being of relatively small caliber and certain other of said guns being of relatively large caliber, said small caliber guns being spaced apart transversely of said cab with certain thereof adjacent the sides of the cab, said large caliber guns being disposed remote from the sides of the cab and generally at the transverse midportion thereof, and power means for turning said cab in either direction about either of said axes selectively for moving it and with it said guns in traverse and in elevation.
8. A turret comprising a box-like armored cab substantially rectangular in plan mounted for rotation about a vertical axis and about a horizontal axis with its major portion below the latter axis, a plurality of guns mounted in fixed positions in the upper portion of said cab ex- H tending forwardly therefrom, certain of said guns being of relatively small caliber and certain other of said guns being of relatively large caliber, said small caliber guns being spaced apart transversely of said cab with certain thereof above and certain others thereof below said horizontal axis and said large caliber guns being disposed substantially in the plane of said horizontal axis taken transversely of said cab, and power means for turning said cab in either direction about either of said axes selectively for moving it and 11 with it said guns in traverse and in elevation.
9. A turret comprising'a box-like armored cab substantially rectangular in plan mounted for rotation about a vertical axis and about a horizontal axis with its major portion below the latter axis, a plurality of guns mounted in fixed posi tions in the upper portion of said cab extending forwardly therefrom, certain of said guns being of relatively small caliber and certain other of said guns being of relatively lar'gecaliber, said small caliber guns being spacedapart transversely of said cab with certain thereof'above and certain others thereof below said ho'rion'tal'axis and said large caliber guns being disposed substantially at the transverse midportion of said cab in the plane of said horizontal axis taken transversely of said cab, and power means for turning said cab in either direction about either of said axes selectively for moving" it and with it said guns in traverse and in" elevation.
10. A turret comprising upright supporting members one of which is hollow, an armored ca b hung on said members for turning movement about a horizontal axis, a hydraulic ram attached to saidcab and to one of said uprights" for turning said cab about said axis, a hydraulic pump in said cab, conduit means emanating said pump to said ram passing from said cab into said h'ollow upright member and thence to said ram, and valve means in said cab coanoning communicm tionbetween said conduit mearisga esaid pump.
11. A turret comprising u'p'ri'ght supporting members one of which is hollow, an armored cab hung on said members forturnin'g movement about a horizontal axis, a hydraulic ram" attached to said cab and to one of said uprights for turning said cab about said axis, a hydraulic pump in said cab, conduit means connecting said pump to said ram passing from cab into said hollow upright member and th co to said ram, a gunners seat in said cab, valv'efmea'ns in said cab controlling communication between said conduit means and said pump, and a control handle in front of said seat for operating said valve means. e
, 12. A turret comprising a covered armored turntable rotatable about a vertical axis, hollow upright supporting memberson said turntable, an armored cab substantially rectangular in plan hung between said upright members for turning movement about a horizontal xis by hollow trunnions opening into said members and into said cab, hydraulic rams adjacent said upright members attached to said turiitableand to said cab for turning the latter about said horizontal axis, 4
power driven pumps in said cab, conduits passing from said pumps through said trunnions and upright members to said rams rar supplying thereto liquid under pressure, return conduits passing from said rams through said upright members and trunnions to the interpret said cab for discharging liquid from said rains, means comprising hydraulic motors underlying" said I turntable for rotating the latter, oonduits passing from said pumps through said trunnions arid upright members to said motors for supplying thereto hydraulic liquid under pressure, return conduits passing from saidmotor s through said uprights and trunnions to the interior of said cab for discharging liquid fr om said motors, and means in said cab controlling flow of liquid through said conduits to and from said rams and motors. r
13. A turret comprising a covered armored turntable rotatable about a vertical axis, hollow upright supporting members on said turntable,
anarmoredcab substantially rectangular in plan hung between said upright members for turning movement-about a horizontal axis by hollow trunnions opening into said members and into said cab, hydraulic rams adjacent said upright members attached to said turntable and tosaid cab for turning the latter about said horizontal axis, power driven pumps in said cab, a hydraulic liquid reservoir in said cab, conduits connecting saidpunips and reservoir to said rams for supply thereto of liquid under pressure and discharge of liquid therefrom, said conduits passing through said upright members and said trunnions, means comprising hydraulic motors underlying said turntable for rotating the latter, conduits connecting said pumps and reservoir to said motors for supply thereto of liquid under pressure and discharge of liquid therefrom, said second mentioned conduits passing through said upright members and trunnions, and means in said cab controlling flow of liquid through said co'nduits to and from said rams and motors.
14. A turret comprising a turntable rotatable about a vertical axis having an armored covering and a substantially transversely extending armored tunnel housing, hollow upright supporting members carried by and opening at their lower ends into sai'dhousing, an armored cab substantially rectangular in plan hung between said upright members for turning movement about a horizontal axis by hollow trunnions opening into said members and into said cab, hydraulic rams adjacent said upright members attached to said turntable; and to said cab for turning the latter about said horizontal axis, electric motors in said cab,- slip rings underlying said tunnel housing, leads to said slip rings from an external source of electric current passing through said tunnel housing, leads passing irom'said slip rings through said upright members and trunnions to said motors, pumps in said cab driven by said motors, a hydraulic liquid reservoir in said cab,
conduits connecting said pumps and reservoir to said rams for supply thereto of liquid under pressure and discharge of liquid therefrom, said conduits passing through said upright members arid said trunnions, means comprising hydraulic motors underlying said tunnel housing for rotating said turntable, conduits connecting said pumps and reservoir to said motors for supply thereto or liquid under pressure and discharge of liquid therefrom, said second mentioned conduits passing through said upright members and trunnions, and means in said cab controlling flow of liquid through said conduits to and from said rams and motors.
IRWIN CHASE. BURNS DARSIE.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 480,215 Spiller Aug. 2, 1892 1,385,755 Roche July 26, 1921 1,387,678 Anderson Aug. 16, 1921 2,029,692 Zindel Feb. 4, 1936 2,066,326 Brett Jan. 5, 1937 (Other references on following page) Number 13 Name Date Radelet et a1 Nov. 28, 1939 DeGavardie Dec. 5, 1939 Fey Mar. 4, 1941 Tarris et a1 Jan. 27, 1942 Bruno July 28, 1942 Trotter et a1 Nov. 3, 1942 Haberlin Jan. 5, 1943 Pontius et al June 29, 1943 Trotter July 6, 1943 Adams et a1 June 6, 1944 Steb'bins July 18, 1944 Klemperer et a1. Nov. 30, 1944 Sutton Jan. 1, 1946 Number FOREIGN PATENTS Country Date Italy Sept. 2, 1935 Italy July 16, 1936 Great Britain Feb. 11, 1935 Great Britain July 15, 1935 Great Britain July 21, 1938 France July 1, 1935 France May 11, 1936 France Mar. 14, 1938 OTHER REFERENCES British Navy, Life Magazine, page 80, No- Phillips Mar. 12, 1946 15 Vem'ber 1939-
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|U.S. Classification||89/37.1, 89/136, 89/41.1, 89/41.12, 89/37.17, 89/41.2|
|International Classification||F41A19/55, F41A27/00, F41A19/00, F41A9/54, F41A9/00, F41A27/18|
|Cooperative Classification||F41A19/55, F41A9/54, F41A27/18|
|European Classification||F41A19/55, F41A9/54, F41A27/18|