US 2444912 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 1.3,A 1948. A. cs. BQDINE, JR
METHOD Mm APPARATUS Fony rumrme original Filed Feb. 8, 1944 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 HrroAzNEY July 13, 1948. A. G. BOBINE, .JR
METHOD AND APPARTUS FOR PUHPING original Filed'Feb. s. 1944 6 Sheets-'Sham 3 A. G. BQDINE, .JR
Hamon AND APPARATUS Fon Pma'rme Original Filed Feb. 8. 1944 R la E. N m O B a A METHOD Am: Armmfrus Fon' Puurma Original Filed Feb. 8, 1944 e Smets-Sheet 4 A giu /QrroQ/VEY A. G. BQDINE JR METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PUMXING 6 Sheet-Sheet original Filed Febgs, 1944 a I @g www@ July T13, HM@ A. G. mamma, JR
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PUMPING 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 Original Filed Feb. 8, 1944 Patented July 13, 1948 Continuation of application Serial No.. ZL5'36, February 8, 1947A. This application .liuly i', 1941*?, Serial No. 761,456
(El. S-l) i6 (Claims.
My invention relates to a novel method and apparatus for pumping and, more particularly, to a pumping system particularly applicable to the pumping of liquids from wells ment of sonic principles.
This application is a continuation-in-part of my prior application Serial No. 521,576, illed February 8, 194e, entitled Method and apparatus for pumping, allowed March 18, 1947, now abanboned, Reference is made to my divisional and continuation-impart applications as follows: Deep well pump, illed March 6, 1948, Serial No. 13,422; Pumping apparatus, iiled March 15, 1948, Seria1 No. 14,959; Sonic system for augmenting the extraction of oil from oil bearing strata, filed February 17, 1948, Serial No. 8,799.
The present invention is applicable to various types of pumps, but may be illustrated in a simple adaptation to a class of pumps having the ability to pump from a body of displaceable liquid, by which I have reference to avbody of liquid by employdownward stroke, no additional liquid will enter the inner column through the valve.
. A suiliciently rapid vertical oscillation of such a tubular member, however, will cause pumping, depending in part upon the inertia effects of the liquid. For example, if the tubular member is moved downwardly with sufficient rapidity, the well liquid does not have time to displace' into the annular space and an increment of liquid will dow through the valve. In fact, at the frequencies at which I propose to oscillate the tubular member, the inertia of the body of well liquid is such as to prevent the surface thereof in the annular space around the tubular member from substantially rising and falling with the reciprocation of the tubular member. The result is that the column of liquid in the tubular member increases in height by the supply of additional increments of liquid through the one-way valve.
displaceable into some space other than that into which the valve discharges if the valve and its associated structure is moved slowly into the body of liquid. For example, such a pump may include a relatively short tubular member extending downwardly a slight distance into a body of liquid in a well cavity, the tubular member being smaller than the well cavity so that the well liquid tends to assume equal levels inside the tubular member and the walls of the well cavity. Assume that the surfaces of the liquid within and around the tubular member are in contact with air at atmospheric pressure and that the tubular member carries a working valve, of the usual ball type common in oil well pumping, in submerged position. Such a body of well liquid below and around the tubular member forms a displaceable body of liquid insofar as anydownward movement of the tubular member, with the spherical valve member held against its seat, will displace liquid upward in the annular space around the tubular member, and this will be true irrespective of the rate at which the tubular member is lowered. If the spherical valve member is released, any slow and extensive downward motion of the tubular member will tend to admit fluid into the interior of the tubular member as soon as there is a sufficient dierential head between the internal and external columns to overcome the gravitational bias of the spherical valve member. Ii the tubular member is then pulled slowly upward an equal distance, the level of the internal column maybe raised above the level of tJhe external column. However, during the e next Another inertia effect used to advantage in a pump of this type is the inertia of the column of liquid within the tubular member above the valve. During any slow downward motion of the tubular member and its associated valve, there would be no incremental intake through the valve, as noted above, and, furthermore, the internal column of liquid would move downwardly with the tubular member, the weight of this column being supported by the now-closed valve. However, if the tubular member is forced downwardly in the body of displaceable liquid rapidly and if the ldownward,acceleration exceeds that of gravity for any instant of time, the valve seat moves from supporting relationship with the internal column, and, for an instant, the inertia of this -internal column tends to retain it suspended in space.W During this instant of time, the only downward force on the internal column of iluid is that imposed .by gravity and by the very small frictional force or drag between the internal surface of the tubular member and the internal iluicl column caused by downward movement of the tubular member at a velocity greater than any gravity-induced downwardmotion of the column.
ln other words, if the valve seat is moved downwardly with an acceleration greater than about 3'2 ft./sec./sec., a void or zone of reduced pressure tends to appear immediately above the valve seat to establish a pressure differential thereacross. This pressure differential is sumcient in itself to cause ow of an increment of liquid through the valve and into the tubular member. Such flow is aided by the inertia 4effect of the body of liquid below the valve, as pointed out ment of a ilared or trumpet-like passage facing downwardly and extending to the valve.
Not only does the downward acceleration greater than that of gravitytend to separate the inner column from the valve seat but it also tends to separate the spherical valve member from its seat las this valve member tends to be moved downwardly only by the accelerating force oi' gravity. Thus, in such a system, the spherical valve member forms no substantial impediment to upward flow of an increment of liquid into the tubular member. On the other hand, an additional bias, produced by a spring for example, can be imposed on the Valve member so long as this bias does not prevent the desired pumping action.
In pumps of this class as heretofore known, the pump tubing has been reciprocated bodily or as a whole by suitable reciprocating mechanism located at the ground surface, the reciprocation being transmitted to the valve by the pipe functioning simply as a link. For example, see British Patent No. 130,332 (1920) to Denis, French Patent No. 850,942 to Moineau, also United States Patent No. 2,056,513 to Gamberini. In oil well practice, depths run. to thousands of feet, the well holes are crooked, and the weight of a pump tubing with a column of oil in it runs to the order of 18 tons. These conditions bar use of a bodily reciprocating pump tubing, since the friction between the tubing and the earth for such depths, particularly for crooked holes, would be far beyond tolerance, and theloads involved (even if suiliciently strong tubing could be found) would require reciprocating mechanism ofenormous bulk and power.
An object of the invention is accordingly to provide a pump of the general type mentioned wherein motion can be transmitted down the pump tubing without the necessity of "bodily moving the tubing.
A more general object of the invention is to transmit reciprocative motion from a source of power at the ground surface down a solid elasticwcvolumn (such as a string of 4pipe or rod) to the fluid displacing pump member at the bottom of the well, making -use of longitudinal deformation waves of compression and expansion set up in the structure of the elastic column.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a novel method and apparatus for sonically pumping, i. e., pumping by use of sound waves, and, in the preferred embodiment, to oscillate a valved tubular member with respect to the iluid to be pumped andby transmission to such a tubular member of sound waves, whereby the tubular member is oscillated by wave motion.
Previously-proposed sonic pumping of liquids from wells has involved transmission of sound waves down the column of well fluid. Such a pump system includes a vertical pipe filled with a column of the pumped liquid and carrying a check valve at its lower end, this pipe being supported in the well so that .the check valve is submerged. The column of liquid within the pipe was employed as the wave-transmission medium, the upper end of the fluid column being in contact with 'the piston of a sound wave generator. The
mean pressure on such a liquid column increases toward the bottom end, at any section, is subfrom the top of the column at atmospheric pressure. To cause liquid to enter the bottom of such a column through the check valve requires the presence, immediately above the check valve, of a rarefaction of an intensity approaching or greater than the hydrostatic pressure at the valve. This imposes limitations on the depth from which liquids can lbe pumped by such a system, particularly in pumping crude oils containing dissolved gases which tend to be liberated from the oil during periods of rarefaction. Any such system employing a column of pumped liquid as the wavetransmission medium is also open to the objection that it must be carefully primed to establish a continuous liquid column between the sound generator and the valve'.
It is an object of the -present invention to provide a simple sonic pumping system which need not be primed before starting and which, in fact,
does not require that the pipe or tubing be completely lled with a continuous column of liquid at any time during the pump operation.
It is a further object of the invention to provide a pump capable of pumping liquids from great depths or against high hydrostatic heads, and to provide a novel method and apparatus for pumping which employs sonic principles and which Vdoes not employ and hence is not limited by the wave-transmitting characteristics of the liquid being pumped.
In one of its simplest embodiments, the tubular member mentioned above can be a part of, or secured to, an elongated pipe extending to the point where discharge of fluid is desired. For example, the tubular member may be a lower portion of a pipe suspended from the surface of the ground. It is an object of the present invention to send sound waves to such a tubular member through a metallic Wave-transmission element, for example through the pipe itself. It is another object to pump a well by applying sonic oscillations to one portion of a tubing extending in the well and to transmit wave energy through the tubing to a fluid displacing member associated with valve structure carried thereby; also, in some embodiments, to reciprocate the upper or intermediate section of such a tubing to send sound waves longitudinally therethrough in a manner to actuate or cause pumping by a fluid displacing member associated with a valve structure.
In many instances, I prefer to .increase the Wave energy transmission to the valve structure by establishing a condition of resonance in a pipe supporting the valve structure. I have found, for example, that, if the frequency of the Wave energy is properly related to the length of the pipe, the pipe at a position adjacent the movable iiuid displacing member can be made to oscillate, i. e., it will be a "free end, namely, an end that will move within the elastic range of the material of which the pipe is formed. By establishing a condition of standing Wave resonance in the pipe, a velocity anti-node can be made to occur in the fpipe at the location of the iluid displacing member, and maximum amplitude of oscillation will then be obtained for a given application of driving for-ce, It is an object of the present invention to provide a pumping system employing one or more of such principles, and to provide novel means for generating the sound waves and delivering them to a metallic wave- 4 iiuid is pumped.
- vening zones of minimum or small velocity varia- At these intervening zones, longitudinaly to-and-fro motion of the molecules of the pipe will be small or negligible, and the energyfat such sections will be primarily potential or stress energy. It is an object of the present invention to anchor such a pipe by rigid or somewhat resilient means at such intervening sections. An-
other object of the invention is to dispose a valve structure at one or more positions near or at zones of maximum velocity variation.
Further objectsof the invention lie in the provision of a pumping'system which can be satisfactorily operated to pump through straight or curved paths, and to provide a well-pumping system which can be used successfully in crooked or inclined wells; also, to provide a well-pumping system in which the minimum amplitude of sound waves employed for pumping is not necessarily-determined by the depth from which the In one illustrative embodiment of my invention, a pipe or tubing carrying a check valve near its lower end is 'supported in the weil, with the lower end of the pipe submerged in the liquid to be pumped. The pipe is of highly elastic material, capable of a range of elastic deformation which allows alternate longitudinal portions thereof to be alternately compressed and expanded. A source of powerfiu vibrations, consisting typically of a highly unbalanced flywheel driven at high speed, is .connected to the upper end of the pipe so as to deform it in rapidly reversing longitudinal directions, thus causing an adjacent portion of the pipe to be alternately stretched and compressed. These deformations in the pipe wall are transmitted down the elastic pipe as a series of alternating compression and expansion waves travelling with the speed of sound in the material of the pipe. The waves are characterized by elastic deformations causing, in
Aadjacent half-wave portions, alternating simultaneously opposed movements and forces. The pump includes an oscillatory uid displacement member in the pipe, located adjacent the valve, or included in the valve. As each wave passes through the portion of pipe containing this iiuid displacing member, that portion of pipe experiences a slight longitudinal reciprocation as a result of, the expansion and contraction movements occurring within the'pipe wall. Continuous reciprocation of the iluid displacing member results in the pumping of liquid past the check valve.
Although pumping may be achieved using a form of my invention with only one check valve in the pipe, I prefer to use a series of such check valves, preferably located a half-wave length apart along the pipe, at. velocity anti-node regions, in order to accomplish stagewise pumping. Those'which are approximately a half-wave ylength apart move rst toward one another and then away from one another, the portion of pipe between them alternately increasing in length, thus taking in liquid through the lower check valve, and then decreasing in length, thus expelling liquid through the upper check valve.
Further objects and advantages of the invention will be evident vto those skilled in the art from the following description of exemplary enibodiments of the-invention.
Referring to the drawings: Figure 1 is a foreshortened utility view showing one embodiment of the invention as applied to thepumping of a well;
Figure 2 is a sectional view of the same .pumping system showing details of upper, intermediate, and lower sections thereof; y
Figure 3 is a horizontal cross-sectional view, taken on the line 3--3 of Figure 2:
Figures 4, 5, and 6 are fragmentary views disclosing a vertical section of various forms of intake members, Figure 6 also showing a modiiied valve structure;
Figure 7 is a vertical sectional view of an alternative valve structure which can be employed for horizontal or vertical pumping; I
Figure 8 is a vertical sectional view of another alternative valve structure;
Figure 9 vis a section on line 8 9 of Figure 8 Figures 10 and 11 are vertical sectional views of two additional alternative forms of valve structure;
Figure 12 is a foreshortened utility view of an-other embodiment of the invention;
Figure 13 is an enlarged view, partially in vertical section, of the pumping arrangement in Fig-v generator, with cover attached, this view beingk taken along the line IG-IG of Figure 15;
Figure 17 is a sectional view showing a modification of a portion of the pumping system of Figure 2;
Figure 18 is a longitudinal sectional view of another embodiment of the invention;
Figure 19 is a view taken as indicated by arrows l9-.I3 on Figure 18;
Figure 20 is a utility view, partly in' section, showing another embodiment of the invention;
Figure 21 is a vertical sectional view through the upper front end portion of the pumping system of Figure 20;
Figure 22 is a view taken in accordance with arrows 22--22 on Figure 21;
Figure 23 is a vertical sectional view showing a valve unit which may be employed in the pumping system of Figure 20;
Figure 24 is a view similar to Figure 23 but showing a modication;
Figure 25 is a section taken on line 25--25 of Figure 24;
Figure 26 is a section taken on line 26-26 of Figure 24;
Figure 27 is an elevational view showing theV surface equipment of another modification of the Ibroad invention;
Figure 28 is a vertical sectional view of the under-ground portion of the pumping system Figure 29 is a fragmentary vertical sectional v iew of another modied embodiment of the invention;
Figure 30 is a view, partly in elevation and partly in vertical section, of another modified Throughout the speciilcation and in the claims I will for convenience refer to the pump as operating in a vertical well bore. However, the pump in certain lof its forms will workin a horizontal bore, and the use of such expressions as nupper" and lower are therefore to be taken as relative and not limitative.
Referring particularly to Figure 1, I show a .casing l set in a well bore Ii, this casing being understood as perforated adjacent liquid-bearing strata I'I from whichflows the liquid to be pumped. The lower end of the casing or, if desired, the lower end of the well itself, provides a well cavity vI8 into which the liquid percoiates through the casing perforations to form a body of liquid I9.
Extending downwardly in the casing l5 is a tubing or pipe formed in sections coupled together either by welding or by use of conventional threaded collars. The lower end of this tubing extends into the body of liquid I9. As shown in Figures l and 2, the lowermost end of this tubing is open and forms an intake pipe 22 terminating at a valve structure 25 adjacent a section indicated in Figure 1 by the line A-A,.this valve structure, functionally considered, comprising both fluid impelling and check valve means.
That portion of the tubing 20 between the section A-A and a section B-B a short distance thereabove comprises the vertically-movable tubular member or fluid conduit previously mentioned and indicated by the numeral 26. This impelling fluid therepast, whether or not the valve element and the actual fluid displacing member (sometimes referred to herein as included in the fluid impelling and check valve means) are structurally one and the same. While it is .desirable that the movable valve member 32 enin the cycle and restrict or impede flow of liquid in a reverse direction at another period of time in the cycle. The sleeve or fluid displacing member functions on each downstroke to displace fluid below it, causing such fluid to enter and travel upwardly through the valve controlled pasage 3i, and on each upstroke to elevate the iluid above it. all as will be more fully described presently.
In the embodiment shown in Figures 1 and 2, a second valve structure 35 is shown as disposed above the valve structure 25, a section 34 of the tubular member may be formed as a part of, or
suitably connected to, the lower end of the remaining portion of the tubing 20 which extends to the surface of the ground. The junctures of this tubular member or conduit 26 with the tubing below section A-A and above section B-B may thus be regarded asvthe inlet and outlet, respectively, of the tubular member 26. In this embodiment of the invention, the upper\end of the tubing 2h extends through a collar 28 secured to the upper end of the casing I5. Suitable attachment means is provided for anchoring the tubing to the casing at this point, for example internally-toothed andexternally-beveled slips 29. If desired, the entire Weight of the tubing 20 may be suspended from such an attachment means.
The valve structure 25.or fluid impelling and check valve means, includes in this instance, rst: a. sleeve 30 rigidly mounted in or with respect to tubular member 26 and providing an oscillatory fluid displacing member. a fluid conducting passage 3| and a. valve seat; and second: a movable valve member 32, shown in this embodiment as comprising a. rather massive ball urged l exclusive in function. Thus, the valve element 32 functions. as an oscillatory fluid displacing member to the extent ont its vertically projected area on the upstroke, and it therefore cooperates with the end areas of sleeve 30 in the performance of that function. The larger its area relative to the diameter of the pump tubing, the
more of the function of the fluid displacing member it takes over. Thus the valve element may also be a fluid displacing member. The expression uid impelling and check valve means is hence used herein and in the claims to denote the valve element and its seat together with the means for l tubing 20, of selected length, joining the two valve structures. The valve structure 35 is formed similar to that previously described and includes a sleeve member 36 secured to the tubing 20 and providing a fluid-conducting passage 31, as well as a valve seat and` a fluid displacing member. A movable valve member 3B of spherical form may move with reference to the seat member 36, as determined by the coniines of a cage 39.
The uppermost end of the tubing 20 is flangeccnnected to a head member 40 providing a disthe atmosphere or this discharge maybe through a pipe 42 leadingto the desired point of delivery of the pumped liquid. The discharge may be against an additional hydrostatic head. If desired, a spring-loaded check valve 43 may be disposed in the pipe 42, though this is not necessary to the operation of the invention. Particularly if the fluid being pumped includes large amounts of gas dissolved in liquid, the pump operates more satisfactorily if some such valve is provided to maintain a minimum back pressure.
Sound waves are delivered'to the tubing 20 to traverse the tubing in a longitudinal direction. In the embodiment of Figures 1 and 2, this is accomplished by use of an oscillation or sound wave generator 50 connected to a rod 5I' which is, in turn, connected to the tubing 20 at any suitable position below the attachment means 29. The point of connection of the rod 5i lwith the tubing 20 should be suiciently below the attachment means 29 so that an intervening section of the tubing shall comprise a resilient member 52,
which will be periodically compressed and expanded slightly when the sound wave generator .50 is in operation. This point of connection, may,
in fact, be lowered suiliciently to make direct connection with the section of pipe 26 between the planes A--A and B-B. though in such case the wave path to pipe section 26 is down the rod 6i rather than via the tube 2li. This illustrates the fact that the wave path need not be in the tubing, but may be in a solid rod. Any suitable metallic elastic column. hollow or solid, will serve as the wave transmission medium. As shown. the lower vthe upper end of the rod i.
slight vertical oscillation of the spider 53.
end of the rod El is connected to the hub of a spider 53 which, in turn, forms a part of a coupling 54 for adjacent sections of the tubing 2B. It is preferred that the hub and arms of the spider 53 be small in comparison with the internal cross-sectional area of the tubing 20, both to give a maximum-area passage for upward flow of the liquid and to avoid the transmission of sound waves directly to the liquid column within the tubing 2B.
The oscillation or ,sound wave generator 50 is of novel construction. It includes a beam or lever t pivotecl about an axis 5l by a heavy-duty bearing provided by the upper end of a post iiextending upwardly from a platform 59, shown as secured to the head member t9. One end of the lever Et carries a pin 66 extending between bifurcations of a connecting member Si attached to The other end of the lever 56 carries a pin 63 on which is journalled an unbalanced nywheel 66. The unbalance may be obtained in any suitable way but I prefer. to
accomplish this by use of a small adjustable mass 85 located eocentrically relative to the fly-wheel center. For example, a'plurality of washer-like means 66 may surround a bolt 61 extending radially from the periphery of the ilywheel 64,- being heldin place by a suitable nut 68. Such a system facilitates adjustment of the mass S5, and thus the unbalance of the flywheel 6B, by changing the number of washer-like means 66.
The flywheel 64 carries a pulley 'i0 connected by a belt 'il to a pulley 'l2 driven by a variablespeed electric motor 73 or other drive means. The pulleys and -the interconnecting belt member may desirably be of the V-type. The motor i3 is supported on the platform 59 and it is preferred, though not necessary in all instances, that the axis of the motor pulley 12 be aligned with the axis 5l, though the pulleys 'i2 and the motor shaft are spaced laterally from the bearing journalling the lever 56. l
It is usually desirable to maintain the rod 5i in tension sulcient to prevent compressive stresses therein during the operation of the gen erator 5u. This may be accomplished by controlling the overall weight of the unbalanced ywheel 6d, supplemented, if desired, by a weight 'i8 slidable along the flywheel-end of the lever 56 and connected thereto by any suitable clamping 79. l
When the motor 73 is energized, the unbalanced flywheel 64 is rotated about the pin 63.; Due to the eccentricity of the mass 65, rotation of the iiywheel 6d causes vertical oscillation of the right-hand end of the lever 56, this lever pivoting about the axis 5l.. This causes the lever 5E to rock through a small locus of motion to impart longitudinal wave vibrations to the rod 5i, this rod tending to be oscillated vertically in step with the rotation of tlhe ywheel lili. The longitudinal vibrations of the rod 5i are substantially sinusoidal and are imparted to the tubing 2t through the spider 53. The tension in the rod 5i, created by the ilywheel t4 and the Weight 58, is preferably sufficient t0 prevent compression forces in this rod which might tend to cause it to strike against the interior of the tubing at a free wave zone. The resilient member 52, comprising in the preferred embodiment an upper section of the tubing 2b, is of suicient length to permit A small vertical oscillation is thus imparted to the tubing 2D at a position between the attachment means 29 and the valve structure 25. This es= tablishes a series or train of longitudinal waves traversing the tubing 20 from the spider to the lowermost end of this tubing. The speed of the motor 13 is preferably adjusted to establish a condition of standing wave resonance in the tubing 20. A standing sound wave is thus established in the tubing and utilized for transmitting substantial amountsl of energy to the fluid displacing member 30 adjacent the valve structure 25. The wave length of the sound waves moving longitudinally through the tubing 20 will be a function of the rate of oscillation and the speed of sound -in the metal of which the tubing is formed. 1 a
At properly selected frequencies of the generator 56, the valve seat and uid displacing member t@ will be moved up and down in step with the oscillations imparted to the tubing through the spider b3. Under such conditions, the valve structure 25 is at a free end of the tubing and its vertical oscillations will pump liquid into and v up the tubing 20 to discharge through the pipe 42. Consider, for example, that the pumping system has been newly installed in the well-and that, a short column of liquid has entered the tubing through the valve structure 25, this liquid column having a surface 80 slightly below a surface 8i assumed by the well liquid in anv annularv space t2 between the tubing 20 and the walls of the well cavity. For the time being, assume that no intake pipe 22 is attached so that the valve structure 25 is at the extreme lower end of the tubing 20. Slow vertical oscillations of the valve structure 25 will not exert a continuous pumping action for reasons noted above. However, when the uid displacing member 30 is moved downwardly with an acceleration greater than that of gravity, it will displace the liquid in its path and an increment of liquid will be forced through the passage 3l to the upper side of the member Sii.
If the vertical oscillation of the member 315i is sinusoidal, it is quite apparent that the downward stroke will include an acceleration period and a substantially equal deceleration period; During the ilrst portion of the downward stroke, the accelerationwlll build up to a value greater than the acceleration of gravity. When this occurs, the member 30 is moving downwardly at a rate faster than the rate of fall of the spherical valve member 32 and the internal column of liquid. An increment of liquid thus enters the column. Depending upon the length of this lgreater-thern-gravity acceleration and upon. the
laving action of the liquid stream on the lower surface of the spherical valve member 32, this valve member will assume a position either at the extreme upper end of the cage 33 or at a somewhat intermediate position. During the decelerating portion of the downward stroke, the
valve member 32 will move closer to the seat portion of member 343.- pumping will take place if the valve member 32 engages the seat portion of member 3B at or near the extreme lower end of the stroke. However, some degree of pumping will be obtained so long as the valve member 32 seats or restricts return ow before the time that the member 3@ reaches the extreme upper end of the following upward stroke. In other words, .one way of operating the invention is to start the member 3d on its upward stroke even before the valve member 32 has been seated, in which instance there may be a slight return or downward flow through the passage 3i until the member 3b moves upward to engage the valve member al. dropping under The greatest amount of '11? gravitational force. Any remaining portion of the upward stroke, after seating of the valve mem-ber 32, lifts the internal column of liquid. It will thus be apparent that the pump acts somewhat as a ratchet. Each oscillation of the valve seat 30, which in this embodiment not only serves to seat the movable valve member but also, as a fluid displacing element, pumps, by displacement, a small increment of well liquid into the tubing .above the valve structure 25. .These increments will, of course, raise the surface 80. When this surface rises to the valve structure 35, a very similar pumping action will take place. In fact, the valve structure 35 can be considered as a second stage of the pumping system. As its fluid displacing member 36 oscillates in step with the vmember 30, it will be understood that it will accelerate downwardly at the same rate.- The coiumn of liquid inside the tubing 2D between the valve structures 25 and 35 cannot drop by gravity at the same rate as the member 36 is moving downwardly, thus accentuating the ramming effect at the valve structure 35, following principles previously noted with reference to the valve structure 25. Further, as the column of liquid rises above the valve structure 35, the inertia of the upper column prevents its dropping under gravitational influence at a rate corresponding to amplitude of the oscillations of the member are readily adjustable by changing the degree of unbalance of the flywheel 64, as by adding or removing washer-like members 66. This also controls the acceleration of the member 30 and, correspondingly, the pumping rate. Another .method of controlling the pumping rate is by choosing a rotative speed of the flywheel 54 to cause oscillation of the member 30 at a harmonic frequency rather than the fundamentalfrequency hereinafter referred to. Resonance at fundamental or harmonic frequencies can Abe established 'by adjusting the speed of the driving motor 'I3 and this controls the frequency of oscillation of the member 30.
I have found that a sonic drive for such a uid displacing member is admira-bly suited to establishment of the desired oscillations, and that vertical accelerations far greater than the acceleration of gravity can be obtained. For example, with a ,frequency of 50 pulses per second and an amplitude of motion of the member 3U of one inch, the peak acceleration approaches 8600 ft./sec./sec., as determined by the sonic acceleration formula:
where A is the acceleration, w=21r times frequency, and R equals stroke amplitude. From g this, it will be seen that a stroke amplitude of Considering now the relationships between frequency and length of the tubing 20, it is desirable that the distance between the attachment means 29 and the valve structure 25 shall be equal to an odd multiple of one quarter wave length, of the sound waves employed. This disposes the valve structure 25 at a free end or anti-node of the system and insures its vertical oscillation in step with the sound wave generator, as well as providing maximum amplitude of oscillation for a given generator drive. In using the term in step with the sound wave generator, I have reference to movement of the fluid displacing member 30, for example, and the lever 56 at the same fundamental or overtone frequency, irrespective of phase differences.
It is important to understand that the tubing 20 does not, in any such system, move up and down with equal amplitude` at all sections. f the distance between the attachment means and the valve structure 25 is one quarter wave length, there will be an intervening section of the pipe, near attachment means 29, in which substantially no vertical oscillations are present, this section being a zone oi minimum velocity variation in the wave-transmitting medium, namely, the tubing 2B. correspondingly, it becomes feasible to anchor the tubing 2D to the casing I5 by use vof the attachment means 29. Such anchoring may be rigid or resilient and serves the desirable function of centralizing the tubing 20 with respect to the casing I5.
If the distance between the attachment means and the valve structure 25 isan odd multiple, greater than one, of the wave length, there will be, in fact, a plurality of such zones of minimum velocity variation disposed along the tubing 20. 'Ihese are zones in which the tubing 20 experiences little or no vertical oscillation-zones suitable for anchoring the tubing to the casing. It will be understood that such zones are spaced from each other by a distance of one half Wave length. It will be understood, also, that a zone of maximum vertical oscillation will lie midway between each of the previously-mentioned zones. For example, in Figure 1 I have shown a system in which the attachment means 29 and the valve structure 25 are separated a distance of 2% wave lengths (wave length being indicated by A). This gives rise to four intermediate zones of minimum oscillation of the tubing 2li, indicated in Figure 1 at the sections D, E, F, and G, where the tubing can most advantageously be anchored to the casing l5, for instance, by anchoring means 85 (Figure 1) surrounding the tubing and in engagement withl the casing wall, said means incorporating resilient bearing means to damp transverse movements of the pump tubing and prevent loss of energy into the casing. For the provision of means capable of transmitting suilcient vibral tory energy to the casing to be transmitted to the surrounding formation to do useful work, and for claims made thereto, see my aforementioned application Serial No. 8,799. At low frequencies, the anchoring means may be disposed several hundred feet apart but, if the system is designed for higher frequencies, they may be correspondingly closer together. v
From a further study of Figure 1, -it will be apparent that the valve structure 25 and the tubular member 26 are located at or near a 'zone of maximum vertical oscillation of the tubing 20, i. e.,' at a velocity anti-node of the system. 'I'he same is true as regards the valve structurer-35, shown as intermediate sections F and G and as spaced one 13 half wave length from the valve structure 25. As is well known in the art of sonic wave transmission, the velocity anti-node zones of max'imum vertical oscillations move, because of their halfwave spacing, 180 out of phase. In other words, this type of energy transmission relies upon the distributed elastance of the material; and is characterized by a form of elastic motion wherein -zones spaced one-half wave length from each other move in relatively opposed directions. Therefore, assuming, for example, that a check valve is located at every velocity anti-node, as stated above, each check valve will move oyclicaily in a direction at any given instant which is opposite to the movement of the two check valves immediately above and below it.` As a consequence, only half the total number of check valves are passing liquid at any one instant-the alter nately spaced intervening valves moving at this instantin a direction opposed'to that for passing liquid now. I have found this new form of pumping motion to be especially advantageous because even during the upward motion of a valve it is causing an upward compression and acceleration of the liquid which assists the pumping action of the oppositely moving valve one-half wave length above. Therefore, by locating the valves relative to the wave length at all intermediate sections of motion as stated above, the pipe column operates as a multi-stage series of volume displacement pump sections each with inlet and discharge check valves. .This relatively opposed movement of the adjacent check valves is best accomplished by establishing standing wave resonance in the pipe. However, resonance must'be recognized as -associated with the speed of sound in the pipe material (approximately 1700 feet per secondi, and with the relation of wave length in the pipe to pipe length. Bouncing resonance associated with the total mass of pipe and the compliance of the supporting structure is irrelevant. Ina pump using that type of resonance, the total `re ciprocating mass is bouncing or reacting as a lumped mass upon lthe support springs which thus become a lumped compliance or elastanoe, the two factors controlling the resonant frequency. There are no standing waves along the pipe in a system employing that type of resonance. Standing wave resonance, on the other hand, depends upon the distributed mass (poundsper foot) in cooperation with the distributed elastance of the structure, both properties being distributed along the path to be followed by the wave. By use ofwave motion in the pipe itself 4I have been able to more eiiiciently transmit longitudinal oscillations over large distances andy also accomplish a form of pumping which is entirely distinct from prior art systems in which the pipe is oscillated as a whole with valve members moving substantially in unison. It will be understood, also, that similar valve structures can be disposed throughout the tubing 2@ at corresponding intermediate sections, if this is desired, and that, if des'ired,
'the valve structures, such as 25 and 35, may be spaced a full wave length apart .without departing from the spirit of the invention.
The matter may be better visualized when it is realized that a distinguishing feature of the present invention is use of a wave length sufficiently short relative to column length that parts of the elastic column will have appreciable and useful longitudinal movement relative to other parts of the column.
Thus far, the operation of the system has been described without reference to employment of the intake pipe 22 or any other intake member for the valve structure 25. Such an intake member is often desirable and the simplest embodiment is a relatively short intake member 90 depending from the valve structure 25, and shown in Figure 4. This tends to increase the ramming effect of the liquid below the valve structure 25 by partial confinement thereof. but does not change the fundamental mode of operation noted above. It is recognized that this short intake member 90 encompasses a lower column of liquid below the valve structure 25. As the member 30 moves downwardly at an acceleration greater than gravity, the inertia of this lower column tends to force liquid through the pas-sage 3l. A further ramming effect can be obtained by use of a flared or trumpet-shaped intake member 9i, shown in Figure 5. Figure 6 shows another flared intake member 92 of slightly diierent form employed in conjunction with a different type of valve structure. As shown, the intake member 92- provides a seat member 93 engaged by a disc-like movable valve member 94 which is, in turn, urged resiliently into engagement with the seat member -by alight spring S5 compressed between the valve member 94 alnd a pin 96 traversing a collar 91.
The type of vvalve shown in Figure 6 is often advanta geous as it has less inertia than the spherical-type shown in Figures 2, 4, and 5. The valve member 94 is actuated more in response to iiuid displacement action causing pressure differences t-'hereacross than by the inertia or gravitational.
vand 2 as the intake pipe 22. It is desirable lthat this intake pipe be of such length as to be tuned I have now described the pumping system of Figures 1 and 2 in a form wherein the effective length of the elastic column (in this instance the length between the point of attachment 29 and the valve'25) is one-quarter wave length, and in another form wherein the length of the column may be an odd multiple, greater than one, of quarter-Wave lengths. sents nearly the maximum wave length relative The first example repre-r with t'he remainder of the tubing 2li, i. e., its
` length should be in some definite relationship to the wave length of the vsonic, vibrations. If this intake pipe is made of a length equal to one half the wave length of the sound wave in the pipe material, as suggested in Figure 1, the intake pipe will. resonate in a particularly desirable manner, aiding in forcing the liquid upward through the valve structure 25. Such an arrangement ilnsures that the valve structure 25 will be at a zone of maximum motion as the extreme lower end of the intake pipe 22, if unrestrained' in its verticall l motion, will also be a zone of maximum motion if the system is in resonance.
If'the intake pipe 22 has a length corresponding to one half wave length, an anchor 99 of the type previously disclosed may be disposed halfway between the valve structure 25 and the lower end of this intake pipe, as suggested in Figure 1.
It will be understood, further, that the intake pipe 22 may be any multiple of one half wave length, though excessively long ontake pipes are usually not desired as the lowermost valve structure 25 should be in submerged position to insure self-priming of the system.
The tubular member 26 cooperates with the valve structure 25 and with the adjacent end of the intake pipe 22, or any of the intake members of Figures 4, 5 and 6, in defining a tubular structure containing two columns of liquid separated by the valve structure. Vertical oscillation of such a tubular structure will produce the pumping action previously described. It will also be recognized that the tubing portions immediately above and below the valve structure'35 form a similar tubular structure aiding in the upward pumping of the liquid. Stagewise pumping is often desirable as the pumping action exerted by the oscillations of one valve structure fneedV be only sumcient to raise the liquid to the next valve structure.
The dimensional relationships of the rod 5| and the resilient member 52, with reference to the existing wave length of the sound waves, are not of controlling importance. The; spider 53 may be disposed at a section of the tubing 20 which normally would have a maximum amplitude of vertical oscillation. On the other hand, this disposition of the spider 53 is in nowise necessary as vertical oscillations imparted to the tubing 20 at any position `above the'sectiori D can be made to establish a standing wave therein under condi-- tions of resonance noted above. The rod 5| need not be tuned to the system. However, considering that the extreme upper end of the rod 5| is a zone of maximum velocity variation, there are certain advantages in making the length of this rod substantially equal to one eighth wave length and making the total distance from the top of the rod, measured downwardly therethrough and thence upward through the resilient lmember 52 to the attachment means v29, substantially equal to one quarter wave length, in which event the attachment means 29 will be at a zone of maximum pressure variation and minimum velocity variation.
It should be understood that my pumping system is not limited to employment in a well nor to vertical pumping. For example, the tubing 20 can be disposed horizontally to extend into a mine shaft or through a slightly sloping opening penetrating a hill or substantially horizontally into any body of liquid. Such horizontal disposition of the tubing 20 is suggested in Figure 7, where the tubing is indicated by the numeral |00, the tubing oscillating in the direction of the double-headedv arrow v|0|. A collar |02 toward closed position is provided by any suitable means, such as flat springs ||0. In a horizontally-disposed system, the biasing action oi' such springs takes the place of the gravitational bias imposed on the valve members of Figures 2 to 6, inclusive. Forward acceleration of the valve structure |05 may desirably be at such rate that the seat member |06 moves forward faster than the valve members |08 can be accelerated by their associated springs ||0 or by fluidpresure on the valve members.- As to this fluid presure and related inertia. effects, it will be clear that the liquid ahead of the valve structure has a ramming effect tending "to vmove each of the valve members |08 toward open position by establishing a difference in pressure thereacross. Also, of course, the columns of liquid on opposite sides of the valve structure, while not tending to move toward or away from the valve structure by gravitional force, do have substantial inertia tending to maintain these columns stationary in space Las the valve structure moves forward, and this aids in the opening and closing of the biased valve members |08. l
It has already been mentioned that the-larger the area of the valve member 32 relative to the diameter of the pump tubing 22,l the more of the function of the oscillatory uid displacing member it takes over. In Figures 8 and 9 I have shown a modified valve consisting of a slightly elliptical buttery ||0 tted within and pivoted off-center to the pump tubing 20. It will be understood that such a valve installed in the pump of Figures l and 2 will open and close by pivotal action, and that the ymovable valve element 0 fully performs the two functions of check valve and fluid propelling member. The vertical projected area of valve element ||0 will pump just as does the end arearof the tubular member 3| of Figure 2, and as does the vertical projected area of the ball valve 32 of Figure 2. The valve element |I0 will also have a check valve action equivalent to the check valve action of ball valve 32 of Figure 2.
Figure 10 shows a modification in which the check valve structure itself has no iluid propelling function, the latter function being delegated to associatedmembers in the pump tubing. The pump tubing, again indicated by reference numeral 20, is divided by two horizontal, vertically spaced walls ||2 and 3 and a vertical connecting -partition H4, the latter having a port ||5 controlled by a vertically hung flap valve ||6 connects the tubing to an intake member |03 of A small resilient force biasing the iiapper valves which is pivoted at the top to partition ||4 as shown. This valve tends to close automatically by gravity. The uid displacing members in this instance are the upper and lower faces of walls ||2 and H3, and the valve ||6 opens and closes in response to uid propelled by the displacing members ||2 and |3 when the pump tubing is oscillated vertically at a rapid rate. For the purpose of the claims, -the members ||2 to ||6 may again conveniently be referred to collectively as uid propelling and check valve means.
Figure 11 shows another modification in which the valve itself does not participate in the fluid propelling function as a fluid displacing member. The pump tubing 20a has a lower end portion ||1 of reduced thickness, providing an upwardly facing shoulder ||8 and an upwardly facing bottom end Illia. In vertical Wall 20h is' a port v20c controlled Iby pivoted flap valve |I9 closed by spring Illia. On 'each downstroke of i the lower end portion of the pump tubing (assuming acceleration greater than gravity) the tor, is suggested in Figures 12 to 16l inclusive. r
Here, the tubing is provided with a short-type intake member 30 feeding the valve structure which, in turn, is spaced from the valve structure 35 by one half wave length. The upper end of the tubing 20 is free to move with reference to the upper end of the casing l5, as best shown in Figures 13 and 14. The entire weight of the tbing 20 is supported by two leaf springs |20 disposed on opposite sides thereof and clamped.
thereto by a support` structure |2 The ends of the spr-ings are retained in saddles |24 mounted on a pair of channels |25 spaced a suiiicient distance to receive the tubing 20. It will be understood that, if the support |2| is oscillated vertically, -a standing wave can be estab- Ilished in the tubing 20 in accordance with the principles `previously outlined. In this instance,
however, the support |2| is resilient and is at or near a zone of maximumvvelocity variation, so far as concerns resonant vertical oscillations in the tubing 20, so that the distance between this supportand the valve structure 25 should -preferably be a multiple of one half wave length to insure that the valve structure will be at a free end of the system.
The upper end of the tubing 20 comprises a nipple connected to an elbow fitting |3i, from which extends a discharge pipe |32. 'I'he upper end of 'this elbow fitting carries a flange |33 to which is secured a boX-lke housing |33 of a novel type of oscillation generator, indicated generally by the numeral |35. i
The details of this oscillation or sound wave generator are best shown in Figures 15 and 16. As there shown, the housing |36 provides a bottom wall |36 carrying two bearings |31 for respectively journalling axially-aligned shafts |33 and |39. The forward portion of the housing |34 is closed by a removable cover M0 which, in turn, carries two bearings IM for respectively journalling the shafts |38 and |39. The shaft |39 vcarries a pulley- |42 driven by a V-belt |43 extending to any adjustable-speed drive means, not shown.
Within the housing |34 are two intermeshing gears M5 and |46, respectively rotating with the shafts l|38 and |39.. Each-of these gears is dynamically unbalanced by attachment of suitable off-center weights. For example, the gear |43 is shown as including arcuate weights |48 clamped to opposite faces thereof by bolts N9. The gear |65 carries similarly-connected weights |50. The gears and |36 have an equal number of teeth and rotate in opposite directions. These gears are intermeshed in such relationship that the centers of gravity of the Voff-center weights are vertically above the shaft axes when in the position shown in Figure l1.' When the gear |00 turns clockwise through 90, the centers of gravity of the weights are in horizontal alignment with bring both sets of weights directly beneath the shaft axes. and a further 90 rotation will bring the centers of gravity of the weights between the shaft axes and in horizontal alignment therewith.' Rotation of the unbalanced gears will thus establish vertical oscillatory forces which are applied to the bearings |31 and |4|, thence to the housing |34, and thence to the upper end of the tubing 20.
It is a feature of this type of oscillation generator that any tendency for one unbalanced gear to establish horizontal oscillationsv is exactly opposed by the equal and opposite tendency of the other unbalanced gear to establish horizontal oscillations. Each of the shafts |38 and |39 tends to oscillate horizontally with corresponding forces delivered to the housing |34 but, as will be readily apparent, these oscillatory forces cancel each other, and that portion of the housing between the shafts is'subjeoted to tension and compressivestresses. However, the housing |34 experiences no net horizontal oscillation, whereby there is no tendency "for the upper end of the tubing 20 to be oscillated sidewise. Rather, the housing |34 oscillates vertically with substantial sinusoidal motion. This motion4 is transmitted to the upper end of the tubing 20 to establish the longitudinal waves therein. The resilient support, provided by the springs |20, permits the upper end of the tubing 20 to oscillate slightly in a vertical direction, and this oscillation will appear at the valve structure 25, having large amplitudes particularly when under conditions-of standing wave resonance, to effect the type of piunping action previously described.
The force exerted on the upper end of the tube by the wave generator need not be suillciently prolonged to result in bodily movement of the tube. Indeed. it is preferable that the tube experience little or no translation as a whole. It is desired that the applied force on the tubing serve primarily to slightly deform the upper portion thereof while the center of gravity of the tubing remains substantially stationary. A slight elongation strain of the tube, for instance. causes a wave of tensile stress to begin traveling down the tube (at about 17,000 feet per second in the case of an elastic metal). waves are dispatched down the tube, the tension at any point will -be periodically first somewhat greater, then somewhat less than existed when the tubing was merely hanging from its upper end in a static condition. As with other pumps, this static stress (upon which I add a stress wave) will be at a maximum in the upper portion of the tube immediately below the point of suspension and will decline uniformly to a minimum in the fibers at the lower end.
In many known pumps, a displacement force is applied and all portions of the tubing are translated simultaneously for a substantial distance.
But in the present device a force need be briey applied only to initiate a strain wave in the tube;
the shaft axes, the weights being on opposite after a peak force is reached it is immediately reversed in order that the rst wave may be followed by another of opposite kind. The point in the tubing at which the center of 'gravity may be said to be located under static conditions experiences no reciprocating movement but other parts of the tube are at thefsame time Amoving K When aseries of such I 19 invention will work while the tubing is being moved bodily.
In connection with this explanation it may be be observed that the spring supports of the' tubing, in certain embodiments of my invention, Drovide for some longitudinal freedom of movement of the tubing wall at the point of support in order to permit the passage of an elastic wave .past the pointof support without appreciable damping. Springcharacteristics of the support are not relied upon to return the section of tubing from its displaced position. The bers of the tubing wall which are stressed in the process of being deformed provide the restoring force and the spring type support is used in the embodiments of Figures 13 and 14 solely to give these fibers freedom of action and to prevent the dissipation of energy through the support into the surroundings.
By use of sonic pumping systems such as hereindisclosed, I have been able to pump from depths far greater than possible in other Isonic pumping systems. For example, I have pumped water from depths of 1500 ft. or more by a'. pumping system arranged as indicated in Figures 12 and 13, employing as the drive for the generator a 41 H. P. electric motor. No preliminary priming of the system is necessary and high pumping eiciencies can be obtained.
While the invention desirably comprehends the transmission of longitudinal waves through at least a portion of the tubing 20, it does not exclude transmission through other metallic wavetransmission paths such, for example, as might be provided by extending the rod I| downwardly into operative connection with the tubular member 26. Figure 1'? (wherein members corresponding to simi-lar members of Figures 1 and 2 are identied by like reference numerals but with primes added) shows such a modification. The rod 5|' thus extends downward to the tubular conduit member or section 28 between the planes A-A and B-B, to which it is operatively connected by spider 53' and coupling 54' forming a part of said section. The rod 5|' thus becomes the elastic column providing the wave transmission path leading from the wave generator to the tubular member 28'.
Figures 18 and 19 show another modification wherein the sonic vibrations are transmitted via. a path other than the pump tubing. In this instance, the pump tubing is horizontally disposed, and the metallic elastic column |1| ex tends transversely thereto. For instance, the tubing |10 might be a substantially horizontal pipe in a mine, and the column |1| might be a rod string extending down to it from the ground surface. Or, the tubing |10 might be intended to carry an explosive fluid, making it desirable that the generator be substantially removed from any part thereof, -so that the transversely exhind it opens valve |15 and draws fluid into the space between4 the two valves. The flexible wall |18 thus constitutes in combination with the check valves |14 and |18 the fluid propelling and check valve means of this form of pump, the elastic waves being transmitted thereto from the generator |12 down the elastic column |1|. It is of course understood that the frequency of operation 'of the generator is suilicient to establish wave action' in the column such that a portion of the column will have a lsubstantial longitudinal movement relative to another portion of the column.
Reference is next directed to Figures 20 to 26, inclusive, showing another modification of the invention in which the vibrations are transmitcheck-valves |14 and |15.
The generator i12 transmits longitudinal vi brations down the elastic column |1l, causing the ted from the wave generator down a string of sucker rods to the fluid displacing member in the lower portion of the pump tubing, the fluid displacing member in this instance, however, not being aixed to the pump tubing, but on the contrary having relative movement within the pump tubing. Here, the pump tubing is suspended within casing |8|, the upper end of tubing |80 being screwed into a central opening through tubing head |82, to which is secured casing head |83 carrying casing |8|. the latter being provided with gas outlet pipe |83a. Upstanding from tubing head |82 is a tubular extention or cup |85, the upper end of which is counterbored at |88 to receive the tubular lower end portion |81 of the base plate |88 of spring supporting means |88 for the sucker rod string |80 that extends downwardly through pump tubing |80. The sucker rod string will be understood to be of elastic material, ordinarily steel of good fatigue properties.
The upper end of string |80 is screwed into a suspension rod |8| which projects up through base plate |88 and top plate |82 of spring supporting means |88, being slidably fitted in stuiilng box |83 carried by base plate |88. Rod |8| has near its upper end an enlarged head |84 received within a recessl |85 formed in the top of top plate |82, the bottom defining wall of recess |85 being bored through, as at |81, on a diameter Just sufficient to pass the rod I8|, so as to aiord an upwardly facing shoulder |88- which is engaged by head |84. Between thebase member |88 and top member |82 are a plurality of coll springs 200, which are positioned on vertical pins 20| set tightly into base |88 and projecting with working clearance through bores 202 in top member |82. Preferably, the pins 20| are pro- `vided near their lower ends with washers 203,
'will be understood to be suitably supported to carry the load thus placed upon it by any appropriate supporting means, not shown. Tubing head member |85 will be seen to receive the flow from pump tubing |80, and is provided with ow pipes 208.
Mounted on the top end of rod |8i, above spring supporting means |88, is a wave generator 2I0 which may be of thesame general character as that disclosed in-Figures 15 and 16; The wave generator 2li) may diier from that of Figures 15 and 16 in that its two unbalanced weights 2li and 2l2 are mounted exteriorly oi the generator housing, but it will-be understood that the shafts 2I3 and 2 ld carrying said unbalanced weights are geared together inside the generator housing in the same manner as illustrated in Figure 15. One of the shafts, as 2 i3,'is provided with pulley 2id driven by belt 2 iii. It will be understood that the function of this wave generator thus connectedl to the elastic sucker rod string is to transmit longitudinal waves down said string.
The top member m2 of spring supporting means i8@ consists preferably of a plate 22@ and webs 22S forming pockets within which oil-soaked waste may be lodged in order tomaintain lubrication of the portions ofthe pins 2M that reciprocate in the bores 202 in plate 'i220` during the operation of the pump.. For thepurpose of lubricating rod i! where it passes through stuffing box E93, an'oil cup 224 may be supported on and above the stuillng box, and when illled with o il, willjmaintain proper lubrication of the parts for 4an extended period.
The lower endof rod string 'i90 is screwed into a fluid impelling and check valve unit 222 (Figure 20) which may be, for instance, of the type shown in either of Figures 23 or 24-26. Re-
ferring first to the form of Figure 23, rod i90 is stroke of the valve body 220 and diaphragm 23H.
the valve ball 233 seats, and liquid is propelled in an'upward direction by the diaphragm 236 and the vertical projected area of the valve body 23d and ball 238 operating against the duid column.
The reciprocable check valve unit shown in Figures 24 through 26 incorporates within its own structure the entirety of the fluid impelling and `check valve functions. In this instance, the
sucker rod string it@ is screwed into cylinder valve body 2M, which is of a diameter to fit slidably within the pump tubing. Within a central region of the valve body is a valve chamber 24|, and extending downwardly from the lower surface of this chamber are a plurality of 'passageways 242 leading to annular chamber24l, there being a plurality of iiuid entrance passageways 2% ex-v tending upwardly into chamber 2,43 around the outside of the screw threaded sucker rod socket 246 formed iny tthevbottom of the valve body. Valve balls 241 in chamber 24| seat `at the upper ends of passages 242, and spacer pins 240 maintain them in proper position. A plurality of passageways 249 extend upwardly from valve chamber 24| around the upper. sucker rod socket, and
. open through the upper end of the valve body as clamped by or to the surroundingpump tubing itil. Within valve body'23ll is a valve chamber 232 containing valve ball 233 adapted to seat at the upper end of bore 236 leading upwardly from annular recess 235, the latter receiving uid' by way of a plurality of upwardly inclined passage `ways 23S opening through the side of valve body shown.
Assuming again vertical reciprocation of the end portion of rod |90 screwed into plunger 24| as a result of longitudinal deformation waves of compression and expansion transmitted down the sucker rod string from wave generator 218,
230. Leading upwardly and outwardly from valve chamber 232 are a plurality of fluid passageways 231 opening through the side of valve body 230. The valve body 230 is shown formed in its lower end with a screw threaded socket 238 adapted to receive a lower sucker rod section. For the check valve unit at the lower end of the rod string, the socket 238 is not needed and might have been omitted. Just as in the embodiments of Figures 2 and 9, however, for multi-stage pumping a piu-rality of the check valve units 229 may be employed in the sucker rod string, spaced apart preferably a half-wave length of the wave generated by the generator 2N, as has been indicated in Figure 20. For the one or more additional valves above the lowermost one, -the socket 23B 'must thus be provided.
In operation, the generator 2li) is set into vertical oscillation, and transmits alternating longitudinal elastic deformation waves of compression and expansion down the length of the springsupported elasticl sucker rod string i90, the springs 2M oscillating in step with the vibration frequency of the generator, and the waves of compression andexpansion being continuously trans-l mitted down the sucker rod string to the one or more check Valve and fluid impelling units 229 incorporated therein. From what has alreadyv been said of the earlier described embodiments of the' invention. it will be understood that the sucker rod portion immediately adjacent each unit 229 will be set into vertical oscillation, and that the exible diaphragm 23i, which" becomes a ud displacing member, is oscillated accord-l ingly. On each downward movement of thecheck the valve body 240 will be rapidlyL reciprocated at the frequency of operation of the wave gener-` ator, to pump fluid in an upward direction therethrough. 0n each down stroke iluid is displaced by the lower end area 'of the valve body 240 and caused to flow upwardly through passageways 2,45 and 242 to enter the valve chamber 2M, past the unseated balls 241, and on each up stroke of the valve body, the increment of uid thus pumped into chamber 24|.is elevated by the vertical projected area of the valve body and balls 261 which are effective againstv the column of oil above, the valve balls 241, of course, seating at such time. l
It will be evident 'that the check-valved body 260, oscillated vertically by the longitudinal elastic deformation waves transmitted down the rod string, becomes both fluid irnpelli'ng and check valvemeans. As in the case of Figure 23the valve assembly of Figures 24-26 may be used either at the lower end of the sucker rod string, in which case the bottom socket 246 is not used, or a plurality of such valves may be used in the rod spring,V preferably at spacings of one-half wave length, in which case the lower sucker rod sockets in all units but the .lowermost are used.
Modifications of the invention have now been disclosed wherein the pump plunger is rapidly reciprocated through a small amplitude stroke by means of alternating longitudinal elastic deformation waves of compression and expansion transmitted down a'string of sucker rods as the elastic column. In a further modification, the sucker rod string may not only have longitudinal deformation waves thus transmitted down its length, but may also be slowly bodily reciprocated through a relatively long pump stroke. Such an embodiment is disclosed in Figures 27 and 28, to which reference is now directed. In said figures, numeral 300 designates generally a more or less conventional counter weighted walking beam, which is pvotally mounted at 301 on a suitable supporting structure 302, the walking beam being oscillated in a vertical plane by means of the usual crank 303 and connecting rod 304, driven in any conventional manner. At the forward end of walking beam 300 is a head 306 having at its bottom a projecting ledge 4301, and having demountably secured to its top a projecting plate 308, the ledge 301 and plate 308 being vertically perforated to receive a rod 309 that carries at its top end a vibrator 310 serving as a longitudinal wave generator. This generator may again be of the general type disclosed in Figures 15 and 16, being understood to have within its housing a pair of spur gears, the shaft 311 of one of said gears being provided with pulley 312 driven by belt 313 from electric motor 314 mounted on walking beam 300, preferably immediately over supporting structure 302. Shaft 3| I, and the shaft 315 carrying the other spur gear of generator 310 are provided with unbalanced weights 316, like those described in connection with the generator of Figures 15 and 16, the only difference being that the Weights are outside the generator housing in the instance of Figure 27.
Rod 309, which is vertically reciprocable in members 301 and 308, has midway between said members a head or ange 311, and a pair of coil compression springs 318 and 319 encircle rod 309 between said head 311 and the members 301 and 308, respectively.
The lower end of rod 309 is connected to the upper end of the polished rod 320 of the well through any conventional means such as indicated at 321, said means including a horizontal pivot joint. at 322 to permit the rocking action of the walking beam.
Polished rod 320 extends downwardly through stuing box 326, into pump tubing 321 suspended inside casing 328, a pump plunger 329 of any suitable character being connected to the lower end of the elastic sucker rod string 330 suspended from polished rod 320. The column of oil in the tubing is delivered by way of flow pipe 321e. The plunger 329 might be of the character known in conventional well pumps kemploying sucker rods,
The pump of Figures 27 and 28 might be op- `erated with the walking beam stationary, in "which case its operation is similar to that described in connection with Figures 20 to 26, the standingvalve 340being in this instance unnecessary. The vibration generator 310, operated at suitable speed, transmits longitudinal deformation waves of compression and expansion down the sucker rod string to the check-valved pump plunger 329, causing the latter to oseillate rapidly through a small amplitude, e. g., a fraction of an inch, such action being permitted by the springs 318 and 319 which support the `sucker rod string and wave generator for vertical reeiprocation relative to the walking beam. The oscillating plunger functions as check valve and fluid impelling means, in accordance with principles already disclosed, and the fluid column is elevated accordingly. In addition to this action, the Walking beam 300 may be slowly reciprocated so as to give the sucker rod string not only a inch, but also to have a slow vertical pumping stroke of the order of several feet. This long stroke action of the rod string and connected plunger, in conjunction with the standing valve 340, will result in Dumping in the manner of the conventional deep well plunger pump. When both types of movement of the sucker rod are used in combination, ythe result is additive. It should also be noted that pumping in accordance with the principles of the present invention can be accomplished by a sufiiciently rapid, low-amplitude oscillation of the walking beam 300. This would only require a shortening of the crank arm 303 so as to give a small amplitude reciprocation to the upper end of the sucker rod string. In order to'give the necessary Wave pattern in the rod string by which the invention is characterized, the walkingbeam will ol" course have to be oscillated or vibrated at a frequency comparable to that atwhich the wave generator 350 is otherwise driven. In other words, the walking beam in this case becomes the wave generator. It should also be noted that in such a version of the invention, the springs 318 and 319 are no longer necessary, it being suiiicient that the sucker rod string is suspended from the walking beam in the ordinary way.
In certain of the previously described embodiments of the invention, the longitudinal wave action has been transmitted down the pump tubing, the pump tubing usually having rigidly connected thereto the fluid impelling and check valve means. In a modification, the longitudinal vibrations have been transmitted down an elastic rod string to a point adjacent the iluid impelling and check valve means, where an operative connection to the tubing is made (Figure 13). In other modifications, the longitudinal waves are transmitted down a sucker rod string directly to the pump plunger, which is reciprocable within the pump tubing, rather than rigidly connected thereto (seeFigures 20-26). In Figure 29 is shown a further modification of the invention wherein the longitudinal vibrations are transmitted down the pump tubing, 4but wherein the iluid impelling and check valve means is not rigidly connected with the pump tubing but on the contrary is vertically reeiprocable therewithin. There are various evident variations of this form of the broad invention, but that shown in Figure 29 may be taken as illustrative. The pump tubing 350 will be understood to serve as a means transmitting alternating longitudinal waves of compression and expansion from an elastic wave generator coupled to its upper end to the lbarrel 351 screwed to its lower end. The longitudinal wave motion in the tubing 350 may for this purpose be set up just as in the embodiment of Figure 13, where longitudinal wave motion is transmitted from generator 135 down the tubing 20, the tubing being supported by spring means 120. Just such an arrangement may lbe utilized in connection with the embodiment oi Figure 29, it being understood that the pump tubing 350 of Figure 29 corresponds to the pump tubing 20 of Figure 13. Alternatively, the longitudinal vibrations may be transmitted down through the tubing 350 using such a rod string for the elastic column as the rod string 51' of Figure 17, it being understood that such a rod string would be connected to the pump tubing 350 at a point adjacent the lower end thereof.
Whatever the speciilc arrangements adopted,it
will be understoodthat longitudinal deformation Y for the ball 353 being provided on the upper end of plunger 352. Plunger 352 is mounted between .a pair of coil springs 356 and 351, the former o f which seats upwardly against', a centrally perforated ange 353 formed in the upper end of barrel 35i, andthe latter ofv which seats against a'flange359 on a ring 350screwed into the lower end of barrel 35i, ilange 353 being centrally perforated as indicated'at- 36E. The port 362 in flange 353 and the port 33E in flange 359 may preferably be controlled by check valves 353 and 355, respectively', thoughxsuch valves are not essential to operation of the pump.
Operation of the pump will first be considered without the valves 353 and 3591, the ports 35i and 355 being assumed to be open. First assume that the mass of the plunger or piston 352 and the stiiness of springs 355 and 351 are tuned to a much lower frequency than the frequency of the longitudinal waves transmitted down the pump tubing to the barrel 35i. rIhat is to say, the natural resonant frequency of the plunger 352 mounted between the springs 355 and 351, is to be assumed as much lower than that or the waves 552, and the less the stiffness of the springs 355 and 351, the lower will be the resonant oscillation frequency of the plunger 352; and with this understanding, the resonant frequency of the plunger 352 may readily be made less than that of the waves transmitted down the pump tubing. In this situation, the longitudinal waves transmitted down the pump tubing will result in vertical oscillation of' the barrel 35i at the frequency of the wave generator coupled to the pump'tubing, while the plunger 552 will stand substantially stationary in space. n each upstroke of the barrel 35i relative -to the plunger 352, an increment of well `iluid displaced by the wall or ilange 355 (functioning as an oscillatory fiuid displacing member) is forced upwardly through the passage 353 in plunger 352 and past the valve ball- 35d. On the succeeding down stroke of the barrel 35i, the valve ball 355 seats, and a void is created in the space between the plunger 352 and the wall 559, causing inflow of well luid into said space vby way of the port 35i. It will be seen that the result of reciprocating the pump tubing and the barrel 35i connected to its lower end is to impel successive increments of well fluid through the plunger member 352, elevating the oil column above accordingly. If the valve 35d is employed, additional well fluid is Substantialixnprovement in thepumping rate is achieved by adjusting-'the mass lof the plunger 352 relative to the Ystillness ofthe springs e and 351 in a manner to tu'ne the system to approximately the same frequency as the wave motion in the Ipump tubing. .-Reciprocation of the pump tubing and barrel 35| will then result'ln vertical oscillationl of plunger 352 atv the same frequency and in step with the barrel 35i, but at increased amplitude. In' other words, plunger 352 moves upand down with barrel 35i, but with an amplitude which may be a num-ber of times that of they oscillation oi' the barrel 35i. Operation in this mode may ilrstbe considered with valves 363 and 354 disregarded. It should be evident that operation willvbe analogous to that of the embodiment of Figures 1 and 2, excepting that the increased amplitude of movement of the plunger 352 will result in a correspondingly increased pumping rate. 0n eachdownstroke of plunger 352, well fluid will be displaced thereby and forced upwardly through passage 353 and past valve ball 353. On each upstroke of plunger 352, valve ball 355 seats, and the column of oil is elevated. 'Use of valve 35d increases the fluid that will be forced upwardly through plunger passage 353 on eachv downstroke of the latter, since outiow by way of port 35i is prevented. Thus the pumping rate is increased. IUse of the valve 353 is beneicial, since the column oi oli above is prevented from descending with each downstroke of plunger 352. The void so created between valve 353 and the plunger 352 on each downstrohe of the latter also helps in that the nuid fiow upwardly through plunger 352 is in= creased because of the suction created immedi ately above it.
Figureii shows a modiilcation of the broad invention in which the uid impelling and check. valve means embodies a fluid displacing plunger in the pump tubing and a power driven valve.
Numeral 315 designates the usual pump tubing, and extending downwardly therein is a solid rod string 31B which forms the elastic column, the other end oi said rod string having connected thereto wave generator 312, which again may be of the general typeshown in Figures i5 and i6. ln this instance, however, the belt drive of Figures l5 and 16 is substituted for by extending one of the generator shafts 313 and connecting it by means of transmission shaft 316i and suitable universal coupling 315 to the shaft 315 ci elec tric drive motor i311.
The lower end of elastic column 314i carries plunger 31d, to which is lltted exible diaphragm 315 connected aty its periphery to the pump tubing as diagrammatically indicated 4in the ngure. A by-pass tubing 335 opens 'into pump tubing 515 above and below diaphragm 319, and ccn-V tains power driven valve 33S, the'latter typically employing a portedvalve rotor 332 having drive shaft 333 connected by bevel gears at d, a vertical drive shaft 385, and bevel gears at 3, to the' shaft 315 of drive motor 311.
Generator 512 establishes longitudinal deformation .waves traveling downwardly in elastic column 31 i, causing the lower end portion thereforced upwardly through the plunger 352 on r each upstroke of the barrel 35i owing to the impossibility of some fluid escaping via port 35i. Pumping also results from the action of the wall 359 in combination with the valve 355 since this combination, connected to the lower end of the lbarrel 35i, will be recognized to be a pump of the character preliminarily described in connection with Figures 1 and 2.
of `to oscillate vertically at the frequency of the wave generator 312. The rotor 332 is so timed as to open the tubing 331i ony each downstroke of plunger 313 and flexible diaphragm 313, so that huid displaced by said plunger and diaphragm at such time will flow upwardly intubing 3d@ and ybe added to the fluid column above. On the upstroke of the plunger and diaphragm, valve rotor 302 closes tubing 380 so as to prevent reverse ow. It should be evident that the .pump of Figure 30 is a species of the broad invention disclosed herein, the primary difference being in the specific arrangement of the check valve means, which is placed in a by-pass tubing outside the main pump tubing, and which secures its check valve action by means of a synchronized power drive; thus impact of fluid or vibration of structure are unnecessary for valve operation. The specic fluid impelling means in Figure 30 is in the form of a combination plunger and diaphragm, but it will be evident that the plunger might be enlarged to slidably fit within the pump tubing, in which case the diaphragm would not be necessary, all as suggested by Figure 24.
Figure 31 shows'still another modification, in which the elastic column is folded or corrugated in a bellows-like fashion to greatly shorten its lengthas well as the wave length of longitudinal waves traversing its length. This construction makes possible arelatively compact, multi-stage, high pressure pump. The elastic column 400 is made up of a multiplicity of outwardly-folded bellows sections 40|, each flange-connected to the next, and with intervening valve plates 402 having central ports 403 controlled by check valve balls 404. To the lower bellows section is connected a box section 405 formed with an inlet 406 rto which a flexible intake pipe may be connected. To the upper bellows section is connected a box section 408 having outlet 409 to which a flexible outflow pipe maybe connected. Box section 408 is suspended from vertical rod 4I0 having mounted on its upper end longitudinal vibration generator 4H of the usual character. Rod 410 is carried by transverse plate 4l2 supported on suitable springs 413. It should now be evident that the pumping system of Figure 31 is broadly equivalent to that of Figures 12 and 13, and operation will be in accordance with the principles previously disclosed in connection with said figures. The wave lengths along the elastic column made up of a plurality of bellows sections will, however, be very considerably shortened, so so that-longitudinal wave action in the elastic column made up of the bellows section will result from vertical reclprocation of the suspension rod 4I0 by the generator 4i l. As the longitudinal waves pass the several valve plates 402 in succession, said plates function as oscillatory fluid .displacing members to force the -fluid upwardly through the valve controlled ports 403, the plurality of such check-valved plates 402 giving a multi-stage pumping action of the general character discussed in connection with the earlier described embodiments of the invention. The bellows construction, as already mentioned. makes possible a verycompact arrangement, and adapts the principles of the invention to ground surface pumps where compactness is of importance.
While I have disclosed the'invention with particular reference to the pumping of liquids and as it is particularly adapted thereto in view of the relatively large inertia effects of liquid bodies, it should not be understood that I am limited thereto. With suiliciently high accelerations, readily obtainable by sonic means, it is possible to pump other fluid, such as gases, or mixtures of liquids and gases. By the use of terms such as soundf sonics, sound waves, etc., I have reference to wave transmission which proceeds ther, as used in this specification and in the attached claims, the term column member refers to a structural member of solid material, e. g., a string of pipe or rod. It does not cover a column comprised of liquid. Hollow column members -may be used to pipe fluid but the fluid therein is not employed as a means for transmitting the elastic waves. Liquid column wave transmission of power is expressly dlsclaimed.
Various changes and modifications can be made without departing from the spirit of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
1. In a pumping system: a fluid conduit having an inlet and an outlet, fluid impelling and check valve means in said conduit between said inlet and said outlet, said means including an oscillatory fluid displacing member for pumping fluid in a forward direction in the conduit, an elastic column of solid material capable of a range of longitudinal elastic deformation allowing a portion thereof to be alternately longitudinally deformed in opposite directions relatively to another portion of the column by virtue of successive compression and expansion waves transmitted longitudinally through the structure of the column, an operative connection between said deformable portion of said column and said fluid displacing member by which said'member is oscillated as a result of said deformation movement of the column, and an elastic-wave generator operatively connected to said column adapted to continuously transmit alternating compression and expansion waves longitudinally through the structure of the column to cause said alternating longitudinal deformation thereof.
2. In a pumping system: a fluid conduit having an inlet and an outlet, fluid impelling and check valve means in said conduit between said inlet and said outlet, said means including an oscillatory fluid displacing member for pumping fluid in a forward direction in the conduit, an elastic column of solid material capable of transmitting elastic deformation waves of compression and expansion longitudinally through the structure thereof, said column having a portion operatively connected to said fluid displacing member, and a wave generator operatively connected to the column in a manner to generate alternating longitudinal elastic deformation waves of compression and expansion therein for transmission through the structure of the column to alternately compress and expand the portion thereof connected to said fluid displacing member and thereby oscillate said fluid displacing member, said wave generator being operable at a speed to generate longitudinal waves in the structure of the column having a quarter wave length which is no longer than substantially the length of the column.
` velocity node at said substantially xed mounting means.