US 2445400 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 20, 1948. l l.. JoHNs'roN 2,445,400
DES CENT RETARDEH Filed Nov. 27, 1944 2 sheets-sheet 1 Fi .2 n INVENToR.
LoREENE JoHNsToN yJuly 20, 1948. 1 JOHNSTON DESCENT RETARDER Filed Nov. 27, 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 l 5 3 gi Patented July 20, 1948 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE DESCENT RETARDER Loreene J ohnston, Cleveland, Ohio Application November 27, 1944, Serial No. 565,236 5 claims. (ci. 244-139) Another object is to provide a device ofthe type mentioned which may be made to operate automatically in emergencies.
A further object is to constructsuch device as a separate unit, that may be standardized for easy interchange or replacement;
Astill further object is to utilize a pneumatic form of quick and easy operation for a device of this type.
These and other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from a reading of the following speciiication and claims,` t-
gether with the accompanying drawings in which like parts are referred to and indicatedby like reference characters and wherein:
Figure 1 is a plan view of a conventional singlemotored plane equipped with the instant safety speed retarding device; f
Figure 2 is a side elevation, partly in section, of the plane shown in the Figure i, and taken alongthe line and in the direction of the arrows 2--2 thereof;
Figure 3 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of an airplane wing containing the device;
Figure 4 is a bottom view of the portion'of the wing shown in the Figure 3 and taken along the line and in the direction of the arrows 4-4 thereof ;v
`Figure 5 is an enlarged vertical cross-sectiona view of the device in its open or emergency position; Y
Figure 6 is an enlarged vertical cross-sectional View of the device in its closed or normal position; and Y Figure 7 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of a portion of the housing, spindle and air lock used with the device. i
This invention -consists primarily of three elements: the housing, the repeller and the pneumatic control apparatus. Each of these elements will be described in detail hereinafter and in the order just set forth.
The housing unit consists of a shallow chamber 2| and a deep chamber 22 concentric therewith and opening thereint'o. These chambers are built into parts of the airplane in balanced positions' similar to the -ones shown in the Figure 1, of the drawing. Two devices may be mounted in the.`
wings I2, one on each side, and two may be mounted in the fuselage fore and aft. The
bottoms of both the chambers are open and face' downward and may be made of fairly thin or e depending upon the size and weight of the plane.
The deep chamber 22 opens into the shallow V chamber 2| and may be six to twelve inches in diameter and two to six feet deep, depending upon the size of the plane, Both of these chambers are mounted, in suitable recesses, as shown.
The deep chamber 22 is divided horizontally into l two sections. The top section forms an air cylinder 23 and the lower section contains the bearing 28 for the hereinafter described rotor spindle 32.
The top end of the air cylinder 23 has a port or orifice 2|! for the entrance of air which affects the hereinafter described piston 33. The bottom part of the chamber is separated from the top part by the ring 29 which closely encircles the spindle 32.
Just below the ring 29 and on the outside of the deep chamber 22 there is attached an air lock 24. This is simply a pneumatically operated pin 4or bolt v25 having a head or piston 26 that works against a compression spring 21 in the small airV cylinder l1. The bolt 25 projects through lche opening Eiland `normally engages the hole 34 inthe spindle 32, as is shown in the Figure 6.
The repeller element consists of a pin-wheel` type rotor 3| mounted face downward as shown and which is entirely contained by the shallow chamber 2|. The blades of the rotor open downward and when in the normal or Icontained position, are not affectedby air flowing past the bottom surface of the wing.
The rotor 3| is rigidly mounted on the shaftA or spindle 32 which is fairly substantial, slidable and-capable of practically free rotation in the bearing 28. The top end of the spindle 32A has The air-control means consists of a supply or a source of compressed air. This may be either a tank of compressed air or a small, light weight mechanical air compressor, of which tlhere are erated valve or an automatic device which funcv tionsduring an emergency and which is com-y Y, 'u l rotor,`while 1n sa1d projected position.
monly known as a dead mans control.
The devices are mounted in the planemernbers-r as shown in the Figures l, 2, 3 and 4. UvEachrotor Y, is in its normal or closed positionv andthe pistons and spindles are up in the Vdee-p chamber as v shown in the Figure 6. The air lock 24 engages the spindle 32 in the mannerl heretoforementioned and the rotor and spindle, aswell as all the other elements, are xed or stationary.k
When in these positions, the plane is flown and piloted in the regular manner and its performance is unaiected in any way. TheV chambers 2l` and 22 arebuilt in the machine as part of the bracing structure and no additionaly weight is added lfihereto. The repeller member or rotor is flush with the lines of theplane and theyopen-y ing does not affect normal flight thereof.
In an emergency, the pilot operates the valve or the automaticvalve 'comes into play, which-v ever one is on the plane. Compressed air is immediately forced into the air lock 24 and acts on`l the bolt side of the. small piston 25 and against the tension of the spring 21. ously, air forces the piston 33 downward and moves the rotor outside of theush line of the planel body.
Either gravity or the force oi the air intheA f cylinder forces thepston down.` to its fully extendedposition, as 4shown in the Figure 5'. The air lock, because of the spring 21, engages the top end of the spindle adjacent to the neck 35 and thus prevents the force of the outside air from moving the repellerelements back into their respective chambers'.
The pin-wheel type of rotor, having a large;
air capacity;V rotates freely. This rotation, being necessarily limited to'some degree by the friction of the hearing 28 and thedisk `29, has a retarding or braking Yeffect on the otherwise normal descent of the plane, the retarding" action being very similar to the retarding eiect caused by the rotat-ionof helicopter or autogyro vanes.
It is obvious that two or more of these novel devices may be mounted anywhere on the plane,
making due allowance for other necessary appatype shown may also be used efectively in this invention. However, no limitations of the in'- vention are intended except those imposed thereon by the following claims.
Smultane- 1. In combination with an airplane having a body including a Wall provided with an outwardly facing recess, a vertically extending cylinder mounted within said body and communicating with said recess, a piston slidably and rotatably mounted in said cylinder, a rotor carried by said piston and disposed for movement into and out of said recess, and means for locking the piston againstrotation when thepiston Vand thereby the rotorv is movedA to inoperative;l position within the recess, and for locking the piston and thereby j the rotor in projected position while permitting free and independent rotation of the piston and 1.2. Thecombination as set forth in claim 1, wherein there is means for simultaneously releasing 'the locking means when the rotor is disposed-in its inoperative position Within the recess of the'body and for projecting the piston and thereby the rotor to operative position.
3. In combination with an airplane having a bodyV including awall provided with an outwardly'iacing recess, a rotor movable into and out of said recess, and a single locking means forholding the rotor against movement when the latter 'is inits inoperative position within said recess and for holding the rotor in its operative-l position when thesame is movedoutwardly of y the recess while permitting freerand independent rotation ofthe rotor in its last l named position.
4. The vcombination as set forth in claim 3, wherein the locking means is normally biased to operative, position and wherein there is vpneu- I matic means vfor. moving the same to inoperative position while simultaneously projecting therotor outwardly of'said recess.
'5.-'In`-combination with an airplane having a badi/.including av wall* provided with an out-A wardly facing recess, a rotor mounted for move- -menti`nto andv outl of`said recess to inoperative and operative positions respectively, locking 'v meansfor holding the rotor against rotation in its-inoperative position within the recess and for' LOREENE JOHNSTON.
REFERENCES CITED `Iy'he following' references arelof recordln the Vle of this patent:
.UNITED STATES PATENTSy Number Name Date' 1,135,537 vLake 1 Apr. 13 1915 1,140,444 Clark May 25, 1915 1,270,200 Peterson June 18, 1918 1,662,406 "Thompson -`Mar. 13,l 1928 1,719,048 Eh'mig Julyv 2, 1929 1,765,818 Alvistur l June 24, 1930 1,856,999 Kiss f 1 May 3, 1932 2,052,086 Dornier Aug. 25, 1936 2,094,105 Myers 1 Sept. 28, 1937 2,227,204 p Sepko Dec. 31, 1940 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date Great Britain Dec. '7, 1936v