US 2445753 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
y 27, 1948- v A. ANHEUSER 2,445,753
' ll l l l Alfrd Anheus 1" Patented July 27, 1948 tlNl'l'hl S'i'lhlS FILE Alfred Anheuser, West Allis, Wis, assignor to Ernest A. iinheuser, Milwaukee, Wis.
Application March 25, 1944, Serial No. 528,089
3 Claims. i
This invention relates to files and has as its purpose to provide a file especially adapted for use on odd shaped surfaces and in closely confined spaces.
The removal of metal from the intricate or deep channels and other closely confined areas of dies has always been a problem due to the standardized non-fitting shapes of files. This problem is particularly acute in the manufacture of hollow welded metal airplane propellers.
Metal airplane propellers are now being made by welding sections thereof together. These sections are joined end to end by flash welding. Flash welding as is well understood by those skilled in the art leaves an objectionable fiash on both sides of the article welded. in the case of propellers this means that flash is formed both on the inside and the outside.
The removal of this flash from the external su faces, of course, presents no problem. Likev the removal of the inside flash from those surfaces which form the opposite faces of the pro peller is not too difficult, but the removal of the inside flash from the edge portions of the propeller constitutes a serious problem.
As may be readily appreciated, the removal of this inside flash from the edge portions of the propeller entails operating in a very restricted space in the nature of adeep narrow channel.
It is an object of this invention, therefore, to provide a file having its contour shaped to fit the desired contour of the article to be filed.
A further object of this invention is to provide a file which may be used with a tool especially adapted for manipulating a file inside a metal propeller.
With the above and other objects in view which will appear as the description proceeds, this invention resides in the novel construction, combination and arrangement of parts substantially as hereinafter described, and more particularly defined by the appended claims, it being understood that such changes in the precise embodiment of the hereindisclosed invention may be made as come within the scope of the claims.
Th accompanying drawings illustrate several examples of the physical embodiment of the ill-- vention constructed in accordance with the best modes so far devised for the practical application of the principles thereof, and in which:
Figure 1 is a perspective view of a complete tool consisting of a handle and file mounted in place;
Figure 2 is a perspective view of a file blank provided with milled curved teeth;
Figure3'is a-perspectiveview of the file blank m oi and illustrating the manner in which the back surface thereof is shaped preparatory to the folding operation which .brings the file into its finished shape;
Figured is a detail sectional View taken through Figure 1 on the plane of'the lined-4;
Figure 5 is a plan View illustrating another manner of mounting the file;
Figur 6 is a cross-sectional View taken through Figure 5 on the plane of the line 6-6;
Figure 7 is a cross-sectional View through the file blank after teeth have been cut in one face thereof and its opposite face has been grooved preparatory to the folding or bending operation;
Figure 8 is a cross-sectional view through the file formed by bending'the blank shown in Figure 7 upon itself;
Figures 9 and 10 are views similar to Figures 7 and 8 illustrating, by comparison with Figures 7 and 8, the way in which the depth of the V- shapcd groove in the back of the file blank determines the sharpness of the band or length of the radius of the curved edge of the file;
Figures 11 and 12 are views similar to Figures 7 and 8 illustrating the manner in which the sides of the file may be given a convex curvature;
Figures 13 and 14, and 15 and 16 are views similar to Figures '7 and 8 and showing other cross-sectional shapes obtained by difierent formationsof the back surfaces of the file blanks;
Figure 17 is -a view showing the manner in which the files may be given an arcuate formation;
Figure 18 is a perspective view of a finished file with the ends thereof shaped to adapt the same to a special holder;
Figure 19 is a plan View of the file shown in Figure 18 in its holder or handle;
Figure 20 is anend view of the tool shown in Figure 19; and
Figure 21 is a longitudinal sectional View through a propeller blade illustrating one manner of manipulating the file of this invention therein.
Before considering the specific disclosure here presented it is desired to'point out that while the file of this invention is especially useful for removing the-fiashing from the inside edge portions of hollow welded metalairplane propellers, there are many other instances where a file of special crosssectional shape is desirable. Hence, the apparent emphasis on V-s'haped files which are especially adapted for use inside propellers is .not to be taken as a limitation.
It is also desired topoint out that'in all cases the teeth of 'the .file extend uninterruptedly around its edges. For the type of service for which the file of this invention is designed, teeth milled therein are perhaps most desirable, but not essential.
However, to achieve the purpose of the invention each file tooth must have a continuous cutting edge extending uninterruptedly across the outer faces of the file and around the convex surface of the common edge connecting the two file faces. Not only does the file of this invention meet this requirement but it has the additional advantage of enabling its production by the simple and inexpensive method described and claimed in the co-pending application of Alfred Anheuser, Serial No. 752,615, filed June 5, 1947, which method comprises cutting the file teeth into one face of a flat bar or blank, cutting a groove or grooves longitudinally into the opposite or back face of the blank, and folding the blank to bring the sides of the groove or grooves into juxtaposition. The cross-sectional shape of the groove or grooves in the back of the blank determines the cross-sectional shape of the finished file.
Referring now particularly to the drawings in which like numerals indicate like parts through the several views, the numeral 5 designates a flat bar or blank of steel or other suitable metal into one face of which file teeth 6 are cut in any desired manner. In the embodiment of the invention illustrated, the teeth 6 are milled and curved. The milling of the file teeth forms no part of this invention, but inasmuch as it is desirable that the cutting edges of all of the teeth lie in a common plane, it is preferable that the teeth be cut in the manner described in the patent to Alfred Anheuser, No. 2,343,271, dated March 7, 1944, the application for which was copending with this application.
The blank for the file of this invention has a shallow V-shaped groove 1 milled or otherwise formed therein extending longitudinally down the center of the bar or blank with its apex 8 substantially on the center line of the blank and defining the thinnest portion of the bar or blank.
The sides of the V-shaped groove may be flat as shown so that the two edges of the bar are substantially wedgelike in cross-section, or for special shapes the sides of the groove may have a convex curvature as shown in Figure 11 or two or more grooves may be formed in the back of the blank as shown in Figures 13 to 16.
The bar or blank prepared in the manner described folded or bent longitudinally upon itself along the apex or bottom 8 of the groove or grooves to bring the sides of the groove or grooves into juxtaposition, as shown in Figures 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16.
The angle and shape defined by the sides of the inside walls of the propeller or other channel in which the file is to be used determines whether the half-sections of the bar or blank are folded entirely upon themselves, that is, into engagement or whether they are left spaced apart as shown in Figures 6 and 18 and also whether the half-sections where only one groove is used, are to have straight or transversely curved sides.
Where the sides of the V-shaped groove have a, convex curvature as shown in Figure 11, folding the half-sections on each other into contact, as shown in Figure 12, with all portions of the back faces engaging gives the outer toothed surfaces or sides of the finished file a convex curvature depending upon the contour of the groove cut into the back of the blank.
In all cases the thickness of the stock between the bottom 8 of the groove and the bottom of the gullets of the file teeth determines the sharpness of the bend formed by folding the half-sections on each other. Obviously, the thinner this stock the sharper the bend. This is clearly illustrated by a comparison of Figures 8 and 10.
The teeth extend continuously from the free edge of one half or section of the file across the surface thereof, around the rounded edge, and across the surface of the other half-section to the free edge thereof. In fact if desired the bent up or folded file blank may be given a bowed or arcuate shape as shown in Figure 17.
As will be readily apparent many different ways may be devised for holding and manipulating the file of this invention. In Figure 1 a handle 8 having downwardly projecting portions I0 and II spaced substantially the length of the file is arranged to clamp the file endwise. The ends of the file and the surfaces of the clamping members Ill and I I have complementary V-shaped formations, shown in Figure 4, to preclude lateral shifting of the file in the handle and. one of the members It], I I has sufficient resiliency to permit its being drawn tight against the file by means of a clamping bolt I2.
Another manner of mounting the file is illustrated in Figures 5 and 6. In this case a bladelike handle I3 is received between the sides of the file which are welded thereto.
The file shown in Figure 18 has its ends I4 cut at a transverse and crosswise angle. Thus, when this file is clamped to the head of its handle, it is secured not only against lateral displacement, but also against outward displacement. The head I5, as clearly shown in Figure 19, has a fixed jaw I6 engaging one end of the file and a movable clamping jaw l1 engaging the other end of the file, screws I8 being provided for tightening the clamping jaw.
While handles of the type shown in Figures 1, 5 and 19 are satisfactory for most uses the tool specifically shown in Figure 21 facilitates the manipulation of the file in such cramped quarters as the inside of a propeller. This tool comprises a supporting rod I9 reciprocably mounting a crosshead 20 on which the file is secured. The inner end of this supporting rod has an expansible support 2| provided with pads 22 adapted to frictionally engage the opposite inner edges of the propeller 23. A wire or rod 24 extends from this expansible support to the outer end of the sup porting rod to provide means for expanding the support, the rod or wire 24 being held in its operative position by clamping a collar 25 to the supporting rod.
The outer end of the supporting rod has a handle 26 and the crosshead 20 has a handle 21 attached thereto. Hence, by manipulation of the handle 21 the crosshead 20 is reciprocated along the supporting rod I9 to effect the cutting action facilitated by pressure applied on the handl 26.
From the foregoing description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, it will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art that this invention provides a file well adapted for use in close quarters and particularly in narrow and deep channels such as the inside edges of hollow metal propellers.
What I claim as my invention is:
1. A file comprising: a pair of bar-like sections arranged back to back by folding a flat bar on its longitudinal center line with the exterior of the fold rounded on a small radius, the thickness of said sections varying from a minimum at said fold to a maximum at the opposite free edges of the two sections; and file teeth on the outer faces of said sections extending continuously from the free edge of one section, transversely across the same, around the small radius fold and transversely across the other section to its free edge.
2. A fil comprising: a pair of bar-like sections arranged back to back by folding a fiat bar on its longitudinal center linewith the exterior of the fold rounded on a small radius, said sections being reduced in thickness at least adjacent to said fold; and file teeth on the outer faces of said sections extending transversely thereacross and continuously around the small radius fold.
3. A file made from a single blank of file stock, comprising: a pair of file elements arranged in back to back relationship lengthwise of the file, said elements having a common longitudinal edge, and said edg having a convex surface of relatively small radius joining uninterruptedly with the exterior surfaces of the file elements, one of said elements being increasingly thicker inwardly of said common edge; and file teeth on the outer faces of said file elements and the convex surface of said common edge, each of said file teeth having a continuous cutting edge extending uninterruptedly across the outer faces of both of the file elements and the convex surface of said common edge.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
6 UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 43,775 Jacobs Aug. 9, 1864 228,975 Borland June 22, 1880 10 265,975 Nicholson Oct. 17, 1882 358,026 Emerson Feb. 22, 1887 1,066,340 Thomas July 1, 1913 1,147,204 Anheuser July 20, 1915 1,645,895 Coenen Oct. 18, 1927 15 1,727,690 Anheuser Sept. 10, 1929 2,143,063 Fetterolf Jan. 10, 1939 2,186,997 Stark Jan. 16, 1940 2,255,269 Perrine Sept. 9, 1941 FOREIGN PATENTS 20 Number Country Date 2,847 Great Britain Feb. 3, 1912 19,849 Great Britain Sept. 6, 1906 26,410 Switzerland July 11, 1902 113,414 Germany Sept. 21, 1900 25 452,665 Great Britain Aug. 27, 1936