US 2445852 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 27, 1948. H. D. HUEY E'rAl. 2,445,852
GUN TURRET Filed April 12, 1941 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 @2M Mmm www,
4 Sheets-Sheet 2 HOME?? a /UBV, GEORGE E 70W/VE@ H. D. HUEY ETAI- fl'fi- July 27, 1948.
Filed April 12. 1941 July 27, 1948. H. D. HUEY ETAL GUN TURRET 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed April l2, 1941 July 27, 1948. H. D, HUEY Er AL 2,445,852
GUN TURRET 4 Filed April l2, 1941 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 VENTOR H0 GEORGE F. TO
D Hum` wNER NEY
Patented July 27, 1948 GUN TURRET Homer D. Huey, Baltimore, and George F. Towner, J oppa, Md., assignors to The Glenn L. Martin Company, Baltimore, Md.
Application April 12, 1941, Serial No. 388,255
The invention relates to gun turrets, and particularly to power operated turrets.
One object of the invention is to provide a power operated gun turret having two guns and a large ammunition space, which is so arranged as to be very compact and thus to require relatively little space.
Another object of the invention is to provide a gun mounting for a turret which permits movement and aiming of the gun through a very substantial angle without movement either of the turret or of the body of the gunner. More particularly, this part of the invention contemplates the mounting of a sight, and its connection to the gun, in such a manner that it moves about an axis which passes through the neck of a gunner within the turret, so that by merely tilting his head he can follow the sight.
Still another object of the invention is to provide an arrangement which permits the carrying within the turret of a large quantity of ammunition.
An additional object of the invention is to provide, in a turret which turns in azimuth and in which the gun turns in elevation, an ammunition supply carried by the turret and a iiexible feed mechanism of simple construction for feeding ammunition from the supply to the guns whatever may be the elevation of the guns.
Still another object of the invention is to produce a simple and effective control for a turret.
Further objects and advantages of the inven- `tion will appear more fully from the following description particularly when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings which form a part thereof.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 shows in side elevation a turret embodying the invention;
Fig. 2 is a top plan view thereof; and
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary front elevation thereof.
Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic perspective view, showing the principal elements and their relationship, particularly the mounting of the guns and gun sight.
The turret includes a ring member 2 carrying rollers 4 which run on a track `E carried by a vehicle 8. 'Ihe turret body Ill is dome-shaped, and is preferably formed of a transparent material. This dome extends out of the vehicle. It is provided With two parallel slots to I-permit movement of the guns I2. At one side of the turret is a downwardly extending curved sheet I4 of metal, shaped to provide a back and sides for a seat. The seat bottom I6 is hinged at I8 and is held in place by a suitable catch 20. This provides a space by which the gunner can stand in firing` position if desired, and also gives an easy means of entrance and exit to and from the turret. The seat is reinforced by tubes 122 of metal extending downward from ring 2.
At the opposite side, the ring 2 has a downward shield portion 24 of armor plate. This supports a foot rest 2B and an ammunition box 28. Upstanding from opposite sides of the ring are ears, supports or frame portions 30, for the guns. A plate 32 extends inwardly from the ring 2 on the side opposite the seat I6.
The guns i2 are mounted on pivots 34 between ears 3D and uprights 36 carried by plate 32. The butts of the guns are arranged on opposite sides of seat It, so that the gunner actually sits between the guns. Each gun is carried by a frame 38, which engages pivots 34, through a suitable adjusting mechanism 40 so that the elevation and azimuth angles of the gun with respect to the frame can be varied.
Ring 2 also carries two frames 42 extending forward on opposite sides of seat i6. Pivoted at 44 on frames 42 `is a U-shaped member comprising top and bottom U-shaped members 46 and 48 respectively, joined together by members 50 and 52 to form a rigid U-shaped frame which supports a standard prisanatic gun sight `54. Links 5B are pivoted at 58 and 6U to cause the U-shaped frame carrying the gun sight, to pivot about 44 when the gun is elevated. The points 34, 44, 6U and 58 form a parallelogram so that elevation of the gun produces the same elevation of the sight. This structure, while readable on Figures 1 to 3, is more easily understood from a consideration of Figure 4.
It will be noted that the axes of pivots 44 for the U-shaped frame pass substantially through the neck of a gunner seated on seat i6. Thus the. gunner is able, by merely tilting his head, to iollow the sight at all times. This of course reduces the space necessary for the operation of the guns.
'Ihe guns are elevated by a suitable electrical mechanism. For example, gun frames 38 are provided with rigid gear segments 62. These mesh with gears 64 on a shaft 56 carried on uprights 68 from plate 32. Shaft G6 is driven through gear 10 by a gear 12 on a small shaft 14. Shaft 14 in turn .is driven through gear l5" by a worm 18 on the shaft of motor 8D, carried by plate 32.
A second motor 82 is provided for rotating `the turret. Its shaft carriesagear 84 which meshes' at an angle with gear 86 on shaft 88. A gear 90 on shaft 88 meshes with a rack 92 xed in the vehicle.
Motor 8U is controlled by a rheostat 94 having a depending operating lever 96 pivoted about a horizontal axis at 98. On this lever is mounted a rheostat for controlling motor 82. The shaft |02 is turnable about a vertical axis to control this rheostat by spaced handles IEM on a cross bar |06. With this arrangement, the gunner can change the guns in azimuth by turning shaft |02, and in elevation by rocking lever 96. Of course, stick triggers |08 are provided on handles |04. Also provided on the left hand handle H34 is a master switch |5 called the dead-man switch, which is operated by the heel of the hand in the same manner as the safety bar on an automatic pistol. If this switch is not closed by pressure of the hand, the turret cannot be operated. Convenient to the thumb of the right hand on cross bar It@ is mounted a high-speed button` |501 which, when depressed, multiplies the speed of the turret and gun moving means for both azimuth and elevation'.
In' the usual machine gun, the magazine which holds the ammuni'tion for ther gun is rigid with the gun. This requires either a large structure to hold" a great quantity of shells, or frequent changing or reloading of the magazine. Neither of `these is practical in a small turret. The present invention therefore utilizes large, fixed ammunition boxes '28?, with arrangements for. feeding the guns therefroml at varying elevations. These consist of tube H0 of rectangular cross section extending from boxes 28, and serving as guides for cartridges |f|2 carried by links H4. The mouth |^|B` of each tube ||0 is spaced from the gun at a point opposite thereceiving slot ||8A in the breech block, andV slightly 'to the rear of the slot. The mouth |||54 4is arranged so that, at anY intermediate .position of the gun inv its angular movement in elevation, that is, :between the.
solid line and broken line positions in Fig. 1, slot III-Sand mouth lil-6 are parallel. In other Words, mouth |`|f6` forms an angle with slot ||8 which is alwaysless than the possible angular movement of the gun, and preferably does not exceed about half of such possible movement, being positioned so that a line parallel to its longitudinal axis substantially bisects the angular elevation range. Because of the space between mouth IIB and' slot ||8, the belt can twist to a degree suiicient to" permit proper: feedingv to the gun` atl alll times.
Ears 30- are shaped to provide discharge channels for .the gun-s. 'I'.hese ears are hollow, and have openings in.` their inner walls opposite the ejector to receive spent cartridge cases and links. Inasmuch as ejected cases are discharged from the'l bottom of the gun, a chute ||9` is built into frame 3-8 which changes` the direction of travel of the ejected cases so that the case-s then travel toward! ears 310.. With the interior of. these ears, the discharge spout-s1 |20' communicate, to conduct the ecases and links to a point of discharge.
AWhile we' have described herein. one embodiment of our! invention, we wish it to be understood that we dov not intend. tolimit ourselves thereby except .within the scope of lthe vappended claims.
1...A gun turret for mounting on the top surface.l of a vehicle` adapted for turning about an axis substantially normal 'to said surface, com` prlsing an; annular supporting member secured in said vehicle and constituting the sole. mounting means for said turret on said vehicle, an an-A nular turret member movable in said supporting member, a plurality of spaced parallel guns mounted for elevation on said annular turret member, a unitary dome member of transparent material, mounted on said turret member and having a plurality of slots which permit the elevation of said guns, a bucket seat, the seat, back and sides of which are of armor plate, secured to said turret member and movable therewi'th which positions the gunner between the butts of the guns with only his head and neck 'extending into said dome member, the pivot point of said guns being so located that the butts of the guns remain within the turret dened by said annular member.
2.. A guny turret for mounting on the 'top surface of a vehicle adapted for turning about an axis substantially normal to said surface, comprising an annular supporting member secured inl said vehicle, an annular 'turret member movable in said supporting member, a plurality of spaced parallel guns mounted for elevation on said turret member, the pivot point of said guns being so located that the butts ofthe guns remain within the .turret defined by said annular mem.- ber, a unitary dome member of transparent material mounted on and covering said annular turret member and having a plurality of slotsv whichv permits the elevation ofA said guns, a bucket seat secured below said annular turret member andi movable therewith which positions the gunner between the butts of the guns, said seat having the` bottomthereof hinged, and a latch tosecureI the seat in the operative position whereby the seat. may beV dropped to afford the ready entrance and' exit of the gunner.
3. A gun turret for mounting on thetop surface of avehicle adapted for turning about an axis substantially normal to said surface, comprising an annular support-ing member secured in said vehicle, an annular turret member movable ini said supporting member, a plurality of spaced parallel gun-s mounted for elevation on said -turret member, a unitary `dome member of trans'- parent materiall reinforced only by the plastic material, mountedon said turret member and having a plurality of slo'ts which permit the ele'' vation of said guns, a-motor to turn said annular turret member relative to said annular mounting member, a motor to move the guns in elevati-on,` a single control lever means for said motors comprising a cross-bar pivoted for turning about an axis parallel tothe turning axis of said turret fior controlling said first motor, said` cross-bar also mounted for turning about an axis. parallel to the pivotal axis of the gun. mount for controlling said second. motor, whereby motion of the control about either axis causes the guns to be moved in elevation or train.
4. A gun; turret comprising a rin-g member mounted to turn about an axis normal to the plane of said ring member, said ring member con-- stituting the sole mounting means for the turret in a vehicle, a pair of spaced parallel guns mounted on sai-d member to turn about a second axis within said turret transverse to said rst said guns having their butts within said ring member and .their nozzles extending beyond the` periph-ery of sai-dA ring member, a seat carried by said ring member adjacent the butts-of said guns, a U'-shaped frame pivot'edon said ring member on a third axis parallel to said second' axis, the pivot of which substantiallyy coincides with the i= norm-al pivot point of the head of the gunner seat` ed on the seat, a sight mounted on said frame and means interconnecting said frame to said guns so that elevational movement of said guns produce a corresponding movementl of said sight in elevation.
5. 'A gun turret for a vehicle mounted for turning about a substantially vertical axis comprising an annular supporting member secured in the vehicle constituting the sole mounting means for the turret on said vehicle, an annular turret member mounted for turning in said annular supporting member, a plurality of spaced .parallel guns pivotally mounted for elevation with respect to said annular turret member, a seat secured to and depending from said turret frame member for a gunner so positioned that said guns will be symmetrically arranged on each side of the body of a gunner seated therein, a general U-shaped gun sight support pivotally secured to said turret member, a pivotal axis of said gun sight support being parallel to the pivotal axis of said guns, the pivotal axis of said gun sight support substantially coinciding with the pivotal axis with the head iof the gunner, a linkage connecting said gun sight frame to said gun mount whereby the gun sight frame moves in elevation with the gun and substantially in line with the line of sight of .the gunner for all elevations of said guns.
6. -A gun -turret mounted for turning about an axis in a vehicle, a pair of spaced parallel guns in said turret, means mounting said guns to turn about an vaxis transverse to said iirst axis, an annular mounting means on said vehicle, an annular member mounted for turning in said annular means constituting the sole mounting means for said turret on said vehicle, a gun sight for said guns, means for mounting said gun sight between said guns for turning movement about a third axis parallel .to said second axis, means interconnecting said gun and said gun sight s0 that elevational movement of the guns produce a corresponding of said sight in elevation, and a gunners seat secured in sai-d turret so positioned that the body of a gunner seated therein is positioned between the butt ends of said guns and HOMER D. HUEY. GEORGE F. TOWNE REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the 10 file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date Fishback Apr. 28, Granat May 24, =Grossu Apr. '3, Haberlin Dec. 12, Trim'bach et al. July 2, Trotter May 27, Trotter et al Nov. 3, Turnbull Oct. 17,
FOREIGN PATENTS Country Date France Dec. 18,
(Addition to No. 569,113) Great Britain Jan. 8, France June 4, Great Britain Dec. 14, Great Brita-in Dec. l2, Great Britain Dec. 23, Great Britain Aug. 26, Great Britain Apr. 4, Great Bri-tain Feb. 15, Great Bri-tain Nov. 3, Germany Nov. 27, Germany Oct. 17, France Oct. 7, France Oct. 15,
OTHER REFERENCES Army Ordnance, page 153, Now-Dec, 1937. "Aviation, May 1941, pages 44, 45, 146, 148, Bruschiss, vol. 40, No. 5.