US 2445881 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 27, 1948.
APPARATUS FOR FEELINGv ONIONS INCLUDING A- CONICAL JET 0l4 GAS Filed Dec. 18, 1945 G. 1'. HEMMETR y2,445,881
I` 'Container l @vom Patented July `27, 1948 APPARATUS FOR FEELING ONIONS, INCLUD ING A CONICAL JET F GAS George T. Hemmeter, Berkeley, Calif., assignor to the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Agriculture Application December 18, 1945, Serial No. 635,811 1 Claim. (Cl. 14d- 4.8)
(Granted under the act of March 3, 1883. as i amended April 30, 1928; 370 0. G. 757) This application is made under the act of March 3, 1883, as amended by the act of April 30, 1928, and the invention herein descri-bed and claimed, if patented, may be manufactured and u'sed by or for the Government of the United States of America for governmental purposes .without the payment to me of any royalty thereon.
This invention relates to the peeling of onions and is more particularly concerned with a novel apparatus for removing onion skins.
The general object of the invention is to provide an apparatus for `the purpose mentioned which is Vsimple and inexpensive to use on a large scale. r
"I'he onions tobe peeled are prepared in the usual way by cutting oil the top sprout and root ends. This may be done by hand paring or by any suitable machine. The importance of this step is the severing of the skin layers at both the top and the bottom of the onion. 'I'he onion with the top cut oil is then placed in line with the discharge end of a gas nozzle, such as air or steam, in such a position that one of the cut surfaces `of the skin faces the nozzle directly. The gas is then permitted to discharge through the nozzle in a conical, diverging. hollow jet across the onion at high velocity and to fall over the curved surface of the onion surrounding the cut oil end. At the points where the gas impinges on the surface of the onion, near or at its largest diameter, a reduced pressure is created in accordance with aerodynamic laws. This reduced pressure will dependupon the velocity of the jet flowing from the nozzle end, if sufliciently high, will loosen the skin on the line where it has been severed and cause it to be drawn outward into the jet stream, As the skin is drawn into the stream. a portion thereof becomes trapped, resulting in a direct impingement of the stream 'on the loose part of the skin, thereby infiating it and tearing it from the surface of the'onion.
The apparatus of this invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawing, in which:
Figure 1 is an elevational view, partly in section, of a nozzle which may be used in lcarrying out the invention with an onion to be peeled in the proper position relative thereto.
Figure 2 is similar to Figure 1 showing the effect of the jet from the nozzle on the onion Figure 3 is a front elevational view of an apparatus which may be used on a commercial scale for peeling onions in accordance with this invention.
out the length thereof, upon which the capped` Referring with more particularity to the drawing in which like numerals designate like parts, the nozzle II may be -oi any suitable design for delivering a conical, diverging, hollow jet of gas, such as steam or air, steam being preferred in view oi the lower cost. shown in the drawing is provided wtih a series oi' divergent apertures I2 to deliver the gas in,
small solid streams in the general pattern of a cone. 'I'he onion I3 has its sprout and root ends removed, leaving the skin layers on both top and bottom at I4 and I5, respectively. The capped onion is supported inthe open spaced from the nozzle and in the jet. The streams of gas I6 issuing from the nozzle impinge on the onion at the curved surface Il surrounding the capped end. This causes reduction in pressure on the surface. This draws the skin outward or loosens it, permitting the streams to enter between the skin and the first layer of the onion, :nally causing the skin to become inated and `torn loose, as shown in Figure 2;
The device shown in Figure 3 provides means for conveying the onions to and supporting them in proper position relative to the nozzle. In this device an endless conveyor, such as the chain I8, is supported on sprockets I9 and 20, driven by any suitable means, such as a motor 2l. 'The outer side of the chain I8 is provided with a plurality of spaced spikes 22, extending throughonions are placed. At one end of the chain circuit, a nozzle 2-3, such as that previously described, is disposed directly over the path of the onions 24 on the spikes. 'I'he chain I8 is driven by the motor 2| and causes onions placed on` the spikes to pass beneath the nozzle 23 in proper position where they become peeled in accordance with the action described above.
A pipe line 25 connects the nozzle to a source of gas under pressure such as a steam chest, as shown in Figure 1. A valve 26 is placed in the pipe line for controlling the velocity of gas issuing from the nozzle, the valve being manually operated by lever 21.
Having thus described my invention, `I claim:
Anapparatus for peeling onions comprising a nozzle for delivering a conical, diverging, hollow jet of gas, a pipe line for 4connecting the jet to a source' of gas under pressure, a valve in the pipe line for controlling the velocity of gasissuing from the nozzle and means for supporting The type of nozzle largest diameter and surrounding the cut end.
the velocity and pressure of the iet being sum- Umm STATES PATENTS cient to cause reduction in pressure on the sur- Number Name v i Date face `with consequent loosening o! the skin* and 1.343.724 Fbnn --.L Oct. 23. 1917 tearing it from the surface. said means for sup-` 1,294,033 Bilette Feb. 1l, 1919 porting the onion comprising an, endless con- 1313.332 Kirino Aug. 5, 1919 on upon each of which the. onion may be placed, V FOREIGN PATENTS movement of the conveylor carrying-the onion Nambe-r Country Date into its. proper position re ative to the nozzle for 283.518 Great Britain A- Dec. 20' 1926 GEORGE T.
REFERENCES CITED 'nl'he following references are of record in the u ille o! this patent: