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Publication numberUS2445982 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 27, 1948
Filing dateMay 20, 1944
Priority dateMay 20, 1944
Publication numberUS 2445982 A, US 2445982A, US-A-2445982, US2445982 A, US2445982A
InventorsFred Waller, Robert Dresser Willis, Swain Robert R
Original AssigneeVitarama Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Gunnery training apparatus
US 2445982 A
Images(11)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 27, 1948. 2,445,982

F. WALLER vETAL GUNNERY TRAINING APPARATUS Filed May 20, 1944 11 SheetsSheet 1 I K TARGET NO. 2

TIME OF FLIGHT TARGET NO. I 3 TRA' IEcToRY CONTROL lslnsl I up I [oownl IRIGH'II .ILEFTI IZERol IHULTI LEE {y a L TARGET N0. 2 UN AZIMUTH RIGHT 42 o g2 TARGET No.2 m C ELEVATION r o I I "a: 4 TARGET NO. 2

'- I: AZIMUTH LEFT TARGET NO. I

l TIME OF F'LlGHT ONE 'jI9XIgGEELLNO 2 TRA OR [m4 up 1 m W EFT; 11m m| JECT Y CONTROL 0' LT AQTGZ T H SIG'HT J E Z 42 E C ET 223 ONE PI-IoTo cELL 5 E /4@ TARGET NO. I I I: AZIMUTH LEFT D f TARGET N0. 2 40 r 44ATJ4ME 4S Zl'eFdlA 44 4 1 UN lsm'zl IUP I [Dol /N] lmw'r] ILEFT| |zERo| Inuurl ONE PHOTO GELI. EAcI-I W 2 I I TARGET NO. EF Z MU H RIGHT TRAJEGTORY CONTROL um TARGET NO. 2 I: ELEVATION Z I l 45 TARGET NO. 2 C AZIMUTH LEFT TARGET No. I L TIME or FLIGHT l I TARGET NO. 2 k FIARE' lur' oowlvi Pnenrl ILEFT! izzkol INULTI /T-RAJECTORY CONTROL TARGET NO. I AZIMUTH RIGHT Li ,42 EET/HPO'N' W 3/ I INVENTORS u /w v DOWN ,Z LL 1L- M-KJ ATTORNEYS July 27, 1948.

Filed May 20, 1944 PL ATE F. WALLER ET AL GUNNERY TRAINING APPARATUS 11 Sheets-Sheet 4 U U W W0 I NTORS W/ W140 W2 068 r a g, ,mu pmfl 8 ATTORN EYS July 27, 1948. F. WALLER ETAL GUNNERY TRAINING APPARATUS ll Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed my 20, 19 4 SUPERVISORS CONTROL PA N E L fdn 7AJ%;TORS w DM Mil/ 4A BY M134 ATTORNEYS l1 Sheets-Sheet 6 'F. WALLER ETAL GUNNERY TRAINING APPARATUS July 27, 1948.

Filed May 20, 1944 ?2 VENTORS 6? 744/ WW BY ATTORNEYS July 27, 1948. v F. WALLER ET AL 2,445,982

GUNNERY TRAINING APPARATUS Filed May 20, 1944 11 Sheets-Sheet 7 TiqJZ- vENToR's 7. w ig z/zwi z/mmug '7 7 ATTORNEZLS F. WALLER EI'AL GUNNERY TRAINING APPARATUS July 27, 1948. 7

ll Sheets-Sheet 8 Filed May 20, 1944 July 27, 1948. F. WALLER E'i'AL GUNNERY TRAINING APPARATUS l1 Sheets-Sheet 10 Filed May 20, 1944 ENTORS I I AM 7?. M

ATTORNEYS July 27, 1948. F. WALLER ET AL GUNNERY TRAINING APPARATUS 11 Sheets-Sheet 11 Filed May 20, 1944 ATTORN EYS mL LI Patented July 27, 1948 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE GUNNERY- TRAINING APPARATUS Fred Waller-,1 Huntington, N. Y.,'Willis Robert Dressen-Long HilLComL, and Robert R. Swain,

"Huntington, N. Y.-, assignors to The Vitarama Corporation,Long' lsland City, N. Y., a corporation of New York 17 Claims.

This invention relates to gunnery training apparatus f the type which has come tobe identified by the services 'using'it asthe- "Waller trainer," the same being disclosed in the copendin'g'application of Fred WallerjWillisRobert Dresser and Henry Martyn Baker; Serial No. '415,374, filed October 17, 1941 now-Patent No. 2,406,574, and assigned totheassignee of the present application. This trainer uses picture film to project target images upon a screen and uses control film to registerthe gunners accuracy of aim and to produce variou's otherdesired effects. The present apparatus is designed to prepare or edit the control film used in the-trainer described in said ap'plication and is-especially ea: signed to edit the iinproved control film" described and claimed in'the copending application of'Fred' Waller, Willis Robert Dressen R'ober't R'Swain; and Raymond Wiliam Wengel, Serial No.'536,578, filed May 20, 1944,'and assigned to the assignee of the'present appli'cation.

Theimproved'controlfilm disclosed in the lastmentionedWaller et a l. application is'provided with parallel light aperture zones across the-film in eachfram'e in'whichcontrol indicia-are desired. The term frame is not used here in the strict sense in whichit is used in relation to picture-film but in a'ratherloose sense to designate the length of' filmwhich is halted at various associated mechanisms'foreach frame of picture film which is synchronously exposed at each pulldown cycle; In order to furnish a ready reference, the present-invention provides for the placing of a transverse registry line at a given point relative to the'indicia zones by which the film may be positioned or adjusted in the-projecting apparatus.

Some ofthe indicia may fall above and some below the transverse index line for any given frame on the band.

The indicia in the various transverse zones pro--' vide for'difierent functions or effects. Thus there is a zone for azimuth or horizontal location of the aim spot relative to some'fixed reference line. In the present case the reference line is a verticalmedian line onthe projection screen; which might also bedescribed as the median'line of a picture frame if it is remembered that instead of a single projector for one band or frame a plurality ofp'rojectors are preferably used to project a composite mosaic picture on a curved concave screen. Azimuth is measured to the right and to the left of "the center, hence there will betwo horizontal'zones for azimuth.

. v 2 There will also bea transverse zone allotted for elevation or the vertical location bfthe aim spot relative to some given horizontalreference line" on the projection screen. In the present case the reference line is taken as the 'topedge of the screen, 'again' rnay be "spoken of as the top edge of the picture frameif it isremembered that the resultant of the several mosaim iorming frames is meant. I

The azimuth and elevation in'di.cia-aredealt with together inasmuch as they are employed conjointly to fix the aim spot. By a conversion system they are all referred to a'singleindex or base line at or parallel to the edge of the film preferably an unmarked base line-just within the-left line of sprocket'holes asthe film will be shown herein.

In like manner as explained in the first abovementioned Waller et al application, there are a number of other zones for other functions or effects, as for example, a "zone for lag 'or time of projectile flight tothe target, and "a'zonefor certain positionatcontrol functions" for automatic gun or spot control, aim correction. or trajectory control, such as up, down, fright, left, zero, multiplier, register letter, spare, and the like.

The equipment to bedescribed herein is intended only to place indicia in the azimuth, elevation'. and lag zones and to place a horizontal registry line on the film; however, a'band will be described with allzones reserved which have been mentioned.

With this general explanation of the present intended field of the invention and with the observation that the invention aims to'pi'ovide suitable apparatus for photographically altering a sensitized control band to place the desired indicia and to provide a convenient method of obtaining the desired effects, it will be helpful to proceed immediately to the examination of one form of apparatus which has been effectively-used for the intended purpose. The apparatus may be designated as an editing machine or editor. The above-mentioned and other objects of the invention will be apparent from the following description of this exemplary embodiment,-reference being made to the accompanying drawings thereof, wherein:

Figure 1 is a face view of a short length of control film or band with indicia thereon, formed according to the present'i-nvention;

Figure 2 is a faceview of a'short length of control film according to the first Waller et a1.

3 application to show an aim spot and its locating coordinates;

Figure 3 is a face view of a short length of control film according to the second Waller et a1. application with a revised representation of an aim spot at the same coordinate location as in Figure 2;

Figure 4 is a view like Figure 2 but showing a central aim spot location;

Figure is a view like Figure 3 of the new locational representation of the aim spot of Figure 4;

Figure 6 is a view like Figures 2 and 4 but showing still another aim spot location;

Figure '7 is a view like Figures 3 and 5 of the new locational representation of the aim spot of Figure 6;

Figure 8 is a face view of a series of masks used to form the azimuth apertures;

Figure 9 is a face view of a series of masks used to form the elevation apertures;

Figure 10 is a schematic plan view of the editing apparatus;

Figure 11 is a partial elevation of the screen shown in Figure 10 showing how the target distance is determined;

Figure 12 is an enlarged elevation of an aiming device or dummy gun shown in Figure 10;

Figure 13 is a vertical transverse broken section through the photographic editing device, the section being taken on the line 13-43 of Figure Figure 14 is an axial vertical section taken on the line |4-l4 of Figure 15;

Figure 15 is a horizontal section taken on the line 15-15 of Figure 14;

Figure 16 is an enlarged partial section taken on the line I6-IB of Figure 15;

Figure 17 is a horizontal partial section taken on the line l1l1 of Figure 16;

Figure 18 is an enlarged section of a part of the apparatus shown in Figure 13, the viewing position being reversed to look from back to front instead of from front to back as in Figure 13; and

Figure 19 is an enlarged vertical section taken on the line Ill-I9 of Figure 18.

The product will be described first to show what the method and apparatus are intended to achieve. In Figure 1 a short length of control band 30 is shown with spaces set apart to indicate zones reserved for various indicia. The lines of separation between zones and the zone legends do not appear on the actual film but are used here for pictorial aid. The film moves downward in service as indicated by the arrow at the bottom, and the left edge 3| is accurately guided at the film gate, both in the editing apparatus during preparation and in the trainer during projection. The line 32 parallel to the left edge just inside the line of sprocket holes 33 is the important vertical index or base line which has already been referred to. The reserved transverse zones all lie between the vertical base line 32 and a boundary line 34 just inside the opposite line of sprocket holes. The lines 32 and 34 do not appear on the actual film.

The horizontal index or registry lines 31 do appear on the control film. They are placed there by the editing apparatus in a manner to be described. The space between alternate lines roughly constitutes one frame in the present scheme but other lengths may constitute a frame. As will be explained, the reason for having practically a double-length frame in the present case is that the physical space requirements of dependable apparatus make a long frame space and substantial interspacing desirable and since it may be desired to follow two different targets at the same time on the same control band, the indicia for one may be in part interspersed with those of the other. The length of gate frames for the targets is shown in Figure 1. These horizontal index lines need not be photographed on the control band at every unit of length but only at places where they are desired and that is usually where the target is to be' followed, whether or not any aim indicia thereof appear in the reserved areas.

For one target, designated as target No. 1, there is a zone 40 for time of flight, a zone M for azimuth right, a zone 42 for elevation, a zone 43 for azimuth left, and a zone 44 for trajectory control. The last zone 44 is shown as comprising the sub-zones 44a for spare or reserve, 44b for up, 440 for down, 44d for right, Me for left, 44 for zero or cancel and return to zero, 44g for multiplier or repeat of any of the other operations under trajectory control, and 44h for a register letter or number to designate the target, frame or attack being depicted. The time of flight zone employs one photocell in projection; the three zones azimuth right, elevation, and azimuth left, together employ one photocell; and the trajectory control zone employs one photocell for each sub-zone or separate function.

The same control band is here used for following two targets and the indicia zones for the second target, No. 2, are designated by the same reference numerals as the first but with a prime added. The gate frame lengths for the two targets overlap each other in order to space apart the zones for each target and provide more length for the physical apparatus needed for projection. Different gate and projection mechanism may be used for each target so this arrangement presents few objections and a number of advantages. Or the same projection mechanism, acting alternately for the two targets, may be used.

By analogous arrangement more than two targets may be provided for if desired. Using separate projection machines operating with differ ent prints of this control band or stopping at different longitudinally displaced positions for different targets, the pull-down length when the two-target film illustrated is used will be that indicated on the left margin brackets in Figure 1 as gate frame Target No. 1 (or No. 2).

In Figures 2 to '7 short lengths of actual film (for one target only) are shown, Figures 2, 4 and 6 being the former type film where locational coordinates serve as actual representation of a single aim spot aperture, and Figures 3, 5 and 7 being the new type film where the locational coordinates are all referred to a single vertical base line and laid out in parallel horizontal transverse zones as shown in Figure 1. Only the aim spot locational apertures are represented, the aperture for time of flight Or lag and the various apertures for trajectory control 44 being merely openings of any required size and shape (and location in the case of lag) necessary to pass a beam of light adequate to energize a photoelectric cell and hence omitted.

In Figure 2 the aim spot 50 is shown to the left of the center line 5i. Assuming a frame to be 400 azimuth units wide and 400 elevation units long, the spot 5!] is located at units from a left base or index line 52, 100 units from a top index line 53, and 100 units from the center line waves 511.. Its coordinates mayathew be?abbreviated2 as Hrtop-Vm. from-the left? and top index dines and as 'HLud Vmrtrom thevmlddie-and itopalines. ln Figure -3; whereathe two rhorizontal zones and Ja -for .aaimuth-are-2200v unitsln lengthr and 'the zone 3: for elevation-,iswiuowunits :inilength and measured from the 'common:'vertical index line 32 at the left, the same spot, shown at 50. in Figure '2, is, represented by the sapcrture ",1 a in apertureoiflb. in the elevationzone 42.- =The spot being located :to the left of the center line: in Figure. 2; there is noraperture in--the.=$'.azimuth right! :zone H of: Figure 3; fhewaperturescl'alla and. 50b are eachformed in two' parts for.- clarity oi rdefinitionv and other ereasons iwhich- -are explained .in the first "Waller et 81; application and which will be explained'together-with additional reasons herein.

V200- is represented. Itafallson the-centemline so may be designated as HLO, HRepVzoo. IirFigure- 5 it .issjointlysrepresented by the apertures a in the .fiazimuth right ozone; M, 1-55b5 .in the elevation?! zone"; and 550 inthe' azimuthlefti zonel43. .The-apertures-55a andJSSc'eare ilralfsize and near. the letter zeroindex line, :this being therepresentation of zero in .the presentsystem.

-In'. Figures 8 and7-.a1third:-aim spottoxis depicted.-. Its. location iswI IaoowVsoo OT'J'HRIOOQPNSOQ and in Figure-.7 it fist-represented jointly bysthe aperture 50a :in the azimuth rightf zoneand b in thefelevationlkzone 42.

In forming the apertures 'photographi'cally by the apparatus to betdescribed :there ,is, provision for making some. apertures .larg-er thanxothers. to providemorewlatitude of-iaim as the target gets nearer and. intersectsq'a. tvider cone of fire. This is indicated by the-masksshown.,in1Figm-es- 8 and. 9 for formingthe aperturest :Figure S yrene resents .the azimuth 'apertures,-.-either =r1l'ight" or left of center, and Figure 9 represents the corresponding elevation apertures. Say there :are twelve masks, eleven. withaperturesandeone-with an obscuring plate, the efirst HI or=- vlawillbe that for greatest accuracyrwhen 'the target 'is at thelimit of the-firing range and w illbe approximatelythe same size otaperture as-that in the slide mask of theprojection apparatuson trainer. The .others' H2. to HIV-l; V2 to -V I I have-apertures of increasing size until H8, V8 isreachedt *Here the two aperture elements. merge into oneiwhich represents .the..maxi.rnum..latitude of; aim; and H9]. V9 and HID, .vlfleandiHll, Vt! .aretmerely rectangles, preferably. of.-;increasing=v lengths Moreover, the "elevation saperturesn no .loriger rieedlto be inclined tocompensate ionfilmshrinkage (se'e thesecond-mentioned Waller etal. application) hence aremadewith vertical sides like the-.azimuthi apertures. ,,1

Having. notedth efiects :to :beTobtained, :the apparatus. and .method forv obtainingz-the desired results may be described: ".Figure' 10-showscthe editing apparatus as a? whole #Most -oi-theremainingfigures are directed totheaperture tombing. device orcamera.

A..projectordirects. target imagesaf'rorm picture. film .upon. a screen 'IOnly ioneaprojector is...shownbut in practice a plurality; :five'rcommonl-y, areused; There will be-thersame numben and. arrangement as inethe: gunnery trainer and both will be. the same asthe number: andarrangementor cameras which photographed thertarget. The screen-.is...preferably spherical swith thereon-- cave. side -.toward the-projector. sflherproiector is'cperated bynawmotorlM'l whichiwillz-seitherorun thezfihn-icomtinuously or 'exposaitltramebytrame assa series of: :stills; exchangeable-upon (that supervisors .rdemands. ailhe supervisor operatesctrom a! control: panel. 6.6, only ai'tfew of the details of whichwneed. betshown.

rilheiimage is followed by a' pointer-B1 .whichhas the*samepositiontrelative to thescreen and focal axis as 1=ther corresponding dummyrgun int-the trainer. w'lhere will be asamanyrpointers asthere are-dummyigunsnandrbecause of theirvidentical corresponding arrangement they r 1 automatically take care-of parallax, i; entire-lateral displacement of the'gunner s. sightffromcthe focal'axis. :Only (met-pointersis-shown. :E'The pointer 'is connected bycables 68, 6,9,Zl01and H .to a'number of slides I and 14*WhlGh4fiX the'aimspot, thefvcables lid-and: fi9 actuatingnone slide-:operator and the cables Tl-Band H actuating-another 'slid-epperator. The .slides. 12; 7-3: and 14 fare th;'B18VatiOn" and azimuthv right and azirnuth -1eft.---locators respectively. ImEigurelfl the .two-azimuthwslides 13, M.- areiplaced: 1 one below the cther so thamonly one appears.

-Anh3J-Id operatororrdial 16 throughrarpair'of cable's. Tl; e1 atactuatestalag ortime .Oifiig'ht slide 19.

All "of. these slideseare associated witha camera or. .editor- 80. which forms the necessary control apertures or indicia .inm-the:rsensitizedscontrol band.

The projector 65 and the editortflcarerd-riven by. motors -Ml-.: (already-referred to)z and;=M2 respectively whichiareconnected througlm'a difierentialgear 8|. .-The projectoriisi-providedawitli a counter. .82. the editor .with a counter 83 rand-the diflerentialtwith a counter- 84; allcounterspreierably being ---located at the: supervisor's control panel 661-.7Normally the projectorzandeditor run in. synchronismnand their countersregistervthe samenumber .of picture .and' control: frames from thestart ottheJfilms; but theyrmay be operated tozthrow .them out .of phase by any.' desired anumber 0L frames. and the differential; counter indicates thenumber-of trames otthisdisplacerrlent,

plus or minus. When the :differential counter reads zero. the. camera--and editor'are abreast again, .The'zdisplacement is provided tolztake account of time ofwflight or lag wherebyw-hen the. picture-and-.controlbands are run abreast in the-trainer-there will be an immediate hitrindication if the gunneryhas led the targetsufilciently.

Figure 12shows howthe pointer is mounted to operate the pairs of cables B8Iarid' 69 for elevation and and H for azimuth? :Thearrangementristslmilar to-that oftherdummmgun, cafI'h polntertlin the: form of ar:telescope with vertical and horizontal crosshairs, :is mounted ona horizontal-"shaft on axis 8:! and the. cables 68 and 69 for elevationaamsecured-to .a sector or pulley 88% fast on :the shaft; The shaft 81 is mounted on; ashead 89 which is'secured to a tubular vertical shaft sn wturnablyimounted in atubular pedestal 3|.W'ThGflOWBl-bfldbf theshaft carries a' sector orf pulley Site which the"'cab1es"70 arid H for azimuth are attached; Thecables 68 and 59 are'disposed substantiallyat the axis of the vertical shaft 9,0,:hence are practically unaflec't'ed by the turning of this shaft.

SReferring toiFlgure 11, when the imaged a target :T; such as an airplane, is'projected o'h'the screen JS bya' given frame of the picture-filmits best:--"observed "dimension is measured, as by calipers 93. Angularity is taken lnto'-aecount=and the distance iof the' target'computed by reference 7 to known dimensions of the particular airplane shown. Speed of travel of the target can be determined by its travel over a given number of frames of film, the speed of the picture camera being known. Of these and other data, such as projectile flight characteristics, gravity, windage, etc., there is made a log, frame by frame, for every sequence where a target is within firing range. Having this log of pertinent data the control film may be edited, frame by frame, as the picture film is re-run and the target is followed by the pointer.

At'the left of Figure 13 there is shown the mechanism at the editor which is actuated by the cables 68, 69, 10, 1I when the pointer is operated. It comprises levers 95 and 96 mounted on a shaft 91 carried by a bracket 98 secured to the side of the editor. Since the front lever tends to hide the parts behind it, reference should also be made to Figure 15 which shows these parts in plan. The lower ends of the levers 95 and 96 are formed as sectors to which the pairs of cables 68 and 69 and 10 and H are respectively attached.

To the front lever 95, which is for azimuth, there are attached on opposite sides of the pivot shaft 91 two connecting rods 99 and I which are pivoted to azimuth slides MI and I02. The slides therefore move simultaneously but in opposite directions. The upper IOI, as used, represents distance to the right of the center line; and the lower I62 represents distance to the left of the center line.

To the second lever 96, which is for elevation, .on one side of the pivot shaft 91 there is attached a connecting rod I05, which at its other end is pivoted to an elevation slide I06. The parts from th pointer to the slides are so proportioned that the elevation slide I06 has a length of movement only half as great as that of the azimuth slides. This provides for one azmuth slide aperture to traverse the width of the film while the other is off the film to the left and vice versa, each azimuth slide thus having a total range of movement twice as wide as the horizontal zone on the control band while th elevation slide traverses only the width of the film.

To the sector at the lower end of a third lever I08 the pair of cables 11 and 18 for lag or time of flight are attached. To the upper end of the lever I08 there is attached a connecting rod I09 which at its inner end is pivoted to a timeof-flight slide I III. This slide has the same range of movementas the elevation slide and traverses only the width of the film.

The slides IIlI, I02, I06 and III] enter a housing or cabinet II2 of the editor or camera 90,'as

shown in Figure 13. Inside the housing (see Figure 14) the slides IOI, I02, I06 and'I I0 carry lenses H5, H6, H1 and IIS which traverse the space behind the sensitized control band 36 which moves down in gate mechanism I2I as required by the claw type intermittent pull-down mechanism I22. A'rotary shutter I23 carried on a shaft I24 is synchronized with the pull-down mechanism. At a fixed location adjacent the film position at the gate mechanism there is mounted a lens I25 in the line of a light tube I26 provided with a slit for forming the horizontal index line 31 (Figure 1).

The lens H8 is not mounted directly on the slide H0 but at the lower end of a light tube I21 which is carried by the slide I I0 and upon rollersv I26 operating upon a track I29 which is parallel to the slide tracks I30. I

The lenses H5, H6 and II! for the HR 'slide IN, the HL slide I02, and the Vslide I06, respectively, are placed at the front end of light tubes I33, I34 and I35, respectively, which are secured to the slides. These tubes enlarge in both directions horizontally and in both directions vertically and at their enlarged rear ends are connected to slide frames I36, I31 and I38, respectively,

In addition to their support on the slides at the front end through the light tubes, the slide frames at their rear ends are provided with rollers I39, I40 and MI which ride on tracks I42, I43 and I44, respectively. The slide frames, includin their light tubes are rather long and might cause the slides to bind, so the rear ends are geared to be driven evenly with the slides. For this purpose the slide frames at their rear ends are provided with racks I41, I48 and I49, respectively. Through shafts I5I, I52 and I53 provided with pinions on both ends, the racks I41, I48 and I49. are driven from rack gears provided on theslides IOI,I02andI06. v

As best shown in Figure 15, each light tube I33, I34 and I35 is closed tightly at the rear end except for a center opening I55 behind which (Figures 16 and 17) is located a lamp chamber I56 carrying a lamp I51. Flexible leads I58 connected to the lamps are long enough to permit the necessary sliding movements of the slide frames on which the lamps are mounted to prevent fouling or breakage of the leads.

On each slide frame I36, I31 and I38 there is mounted a turnable annular multi-facet mask band I60. It may be mounted on a disk IISI provided with a hub I62 which is rotatable on a vertical shaft I63 mounted on a slide frame. As

shown, the mask band carries twelve masks pro-,

vided with apertures of varying sizes to take account of varying target distances, all as explained above in connection with the light apertures formed in the control band by the masks (Figures 8 and 9).

Inasmuch as the three apertures HR, I IL and V together define a single aim spot, the three mask bands must rotate together to represent any predetermined target distance; but inasmuch as the frames on which the mask bands are mounted slide separately in different relationships, there must be separate means for ro tating each mask band in any traversed position which it may assume. Such means, as shown in Figures 15, comprises a toothed pinion I65 fixed on a shaft I66 rotatably mounted in a bearing I61 carried by a slide frame. The teeth of the pinion operate in an annular row of holes I68 formedin an annular element secured to the mask band. The outer end of a shaft I66 is slidably splined in a drive pinion I69. The several drive pinions I69 for the three slide frames Operate between fixed guides and are driven by three pinions fast on a vertical shaft I 10 which through suitable reduction gearing is driven by a motor M4 mounted on top of the housing I'I2,

The'motor is started manually and is stopped by an automatic control with the mask bands in approximately accurate positions and the mask is then accurately positioned by a spring pressed roller detent I13 (Figure 15) which cooperates with notches I14'formed inthe edge of a member carried by the mask band. Dropping of the detent after the automatic control has selected the desired mask operates a switch I15 to stop the motor. The motor stops after all three switc'hes I15 have been operated and after the required number of mask facets has been turned.

The desired'maskof the multi-facet-band- 460 may be selectedfrom thesupervisor's control panel 66 through. a sp1it-disk= commutat0r I 80 (Figure. 14) mountedcn'ashaft -IBI which is geared to the motorwMl and the drive-cithe rotary-mask bands I60. In Figure 14 an-i-ndi'cator disk I82 is shown on the externalend of the sha ft I8 I, this disk in conjunction with a fixed ref erence mark furnishing an indication as to which mask-is in operating position on the focal axis.

ing lock-down button on the supervisors panel;

the split-disk commutator turns until the gap I83 is located over the energized-contact; whereupon the-current to the motoris-disco'n-tinued and the band-I50 is-halted with thedesired mask in the focal axis; Reversing contacts 184; 'I85 prevent the passage of the gapoff the ends of the rows of contacts.

Theoperationof the apparatus begins with the projection of a target image-on t-he screenS. As stated, there may be a plurality of projectors 65, thoughfor simplicity only one'isshown. I Whenthepictureis shown by a bank of' projectors the bands are all synchronized and .thepictures shown as they'were photographed. The photographer willoliave obtained various essential data on the target,.the gunintended: to be used; and the firing conditions.;, In the-:editing room on the first 'run after the. films have =.been= :put in good: condition, it isdesired thattheizdistancerof the :target-from the -.gunner.rbe obtained-for eachaframe in.- which the target is, withinishootingu'ange. For this purs pose t'he film is projected frame by .frame .and an. operator measures the target, as .with theacalipers: of-Eigure 11. He comparesthe truezdistance from known: sizes and zobserved'rangularityxandr addsthis to the .other data to bev usedinfpreparing-the control film.

When all data; are zcollectedthez supervisor furnished with 8.110% for each frame of. therfilm; The editing devicesa80, ,of, .whiclrsthereamayzb'e several; one .for eachsdummy .gun to be usedon the I. trainer; 1 are loaded l'WithI sensitized: control filmand brought-to aisy nchronizedzero position.

along vwith. the picture band .or bands..-;:.The counters 82, 83, 84 on-the supervisors control panel. may read 0,. 0,10. The; entire apparatus is housed in a, ,dark room; .andJftheaeditors haveztmbe opened the pictureproiectorsarecut.off.:.:

The. pictures. during editing, are projected :one frame at atime and the control bands-exposed to light beams. .thrcughthe slide lenses. I I 5,: Ill 6; I I'LL I [8 and I25 (Figure 14). The proiectormotor may be used .to place .the ..picture and control bands as much. .out of phase as. time .ofaprojectile flight from gunto target may demand,..or..to.bring them JoackWinto .phase. Both. of the fil-m.drive motors MI andM2 areofltheinching type .which can heo'perated to. 'moveone frame ateach energization. They may also be runat. constant speed when. that is necessary, The; counters show whether the film. bands areabreast or. have-.the correct displacement.

Having the proper control band frames in the exposure position, the supervisor operatesthe maskselector motor M4 to'bring the desired mask into the focal axis. This is dOn,.!aS stated, by pushinga button corresponding to target distance, I-IV -I I to HV -I 2, whereupon the split 10 disk commutator I brings around the desired masks. The turning bands I60 for the two horizontai zones-andthe one vertical zone are turned together.

' Nextthe pointer (or pointers) B1 are trained upon-the target on the screen S, which brings the-slides IIlI, I96, I02 ('theaim slides) into proper position, and along with them brings the mask slideframes136, I31, I38 -and their selected masks intoproper position.

The 'time-of flight slide I I0, with its frame I21,- is movedi-ntoproper position by turning the selector I6 as required by the computed time of flight: Incidentally, while the'selector is shown apartfOrschema-tic representation it, like the other'ccntr-olsymay be mounted on the supervisors control panelw wine-9.11 exposure lights in the editor turned on, -'fcr-'aim time of flight, and for the horizontal registry line (also for the trajectory control when providedjthough i-t is not-present here andmay be embodied in otherequipment for re-exposure) the camera *motor is operated to operate the shutter I=23 andeXpose the film frame portions whichfall in the'lighted zones. mechanicaldn'terlocks are providedto prevent operation of theshutter if the masks and commutatonare notstopped-accurately in proper position. The 'detent switch- I15 forms part-of this interlock,

At this'ti-me or later "the'motors MI and M2 are-operated-to move the pictureand control bands forward' by one frame. Similarly by adjust-i-ng the'control filrn' the indicia for a second target may-be placed on the control band'by a second exposure to reach the unexposed areas, as note-'Figure-1.--'

It isthus seen-that the invention provides very convenient-apparatus for photographically preparing or editing control band of the specified type. "-Howevem-the principles of the invention in" one aspect or another may have other-uses.

Whilebne embodiment-of the invention has been'iliustrated and-describedby way of example, it--is-to be understood that there maybe various embodimentsw-ithin the limits of the prior 'art and the-'scope'of the subjoined claims.

We claimas our invention:

1. In gunnerytrai-ning apparatus; in combina' tion,=-'a projector-forthrowing a" target image from' apicture-frame on a screen; a pointer inthe naturerof a' dummy gun tobedirected towardsaid target, 'an editing device for placing aim mania on a control framesaid editing'device including an exposure slide movable transversely across said control frame in response tohorizon tal movements 'of said pointer for indicating aim" azimuth, a'nd a second slide movable transversely across said control frame in response to vertical movements" of said I pointer for indicating aim elevations.- 1

2. In gunnery trainingapparatus, in combina; tion, a. projector for throwinga targetzsim'age from a picture frame on a screen, a pointer in the nature-of a "dummy gunto be directed toward said' target an editing device'for placing aim indicia-on a control frame,'said ed-itingdevice -inc1uding'-two connected reversely moving exposure'slides movabletransversely across said control. frame inresponse to horizontal-move ments ofsaidpointer for indicating aim' azimuth,- and -a third slide movable transversely across said control frame in response to vertical movementsor said pointer for indicating aimelevation:-

Electrical and- 3. In gunnery training apparatus, in combina-- tion, a projector for throwing a target image from a picture frame on a screen, a pointer in the nature of a dummy gun to be directed toward said target, an editing device for placing aim indicia on a control frame, said editing device including two connected reversely moving exposure slides movable transversely across said control frame in response to horizontal movements of said pointer for indicating aim azimuth, and a third slide movable transversely across said control frame in response to vertical movements of said pointer for indicating aim elevation, said azimuth slides indicating from an edge index line on the control frame azimuth distances from each side of a vertical line on the screen, and said elevation slide indicating from the same edge index line on the control frame elevation distances down from a top horizontal line on the screen.

4. In gunnery training apparatus, in combination, a sensitized control frame on which indicia are to be placed, an aperture slide movable across said frame, .a light supply means mounted to move with said slide, and a plurality of masks of different light transmission value mounted to move with said light supply means and slide and selectively positionable relative to said light supply means for selectively producing indicia of different light transmission value on the frame in any traversed position of the slides.

5. In unnery training apparatus, in combination, a sensitized control frame on which indicia are to be placed, an aperture slide movable across said frame, a light supply means mounted to move with said slide, means mounted to move with said slide and carrying a plurality of masks of different light transmitting values for selective disposal relative to said frame and said light source means, and means for selectively positioning said masks in any traversed position of said slide, light source means, and mask carrying means.

6. In gunnery training apparatus, in combination, a sensitized control frame on which indicia are to be placed, a plurality of aperture slides movable across said frame, a lamp mounted on each of a plurality of slides, a rotatable mask carrier having a plurality of different indicia masks of different light transmittingv values mounted on said slides, and means for moving all of said mask carriers together for selectively positioning different masks in any position of the slides.

7. In gunnery training apparatus, in combination, a sensitized control frame on which indicia are to be placed, a plurality of aperture slides separately movable across said frame, a lamp mounted on each slide, a rotatable carrier mounted on each of a plurality of slides and having a plurality of masks with apertures of different size, and means for rotating said carriers in any position of a slide for selectively positioning different masks in association with a lamp and the frame.

8. In gunnery training apparatus, in combination, a sensitized control band, means for moving said band frame by frame to an exposure position, and means for placing indicia at selective transverse locations in a plurality of parallel transverse zones on a frame of said band, said indicia placing means comprising a plurality of parallel slides each carrying a lamp and an indicia-forming aperture mask. I

9. In gunnery training apparatus, in combination, a sensitized control band, means for moving verse locations in a plurality of parallel transverse zones on a frame of said band, said indicia placin means comprising a I plurality of parallel slides each carrying a lamp and a plurality of selective indicia-forming aperture masks.

10. In gunnery training apparatus, in combination, a sensitized control band, means for moving said band frame by frame to an exposure position, means including transversely movable slides and light means for photographically placing indicia apertures at selective transverse locations in a plurality of parallel transverse zones on a frame of said band, and means for placing a transverse registration aperture line across said band parallel to said zones.

11. In gunnery training apparatus, in combination, a sensitized control band, means for moving said band frame by frame to an exposure position, means including transversely movable slides and light means for placing indicia at selective transverse locations in a plurality of spaced parallel transverse zones on a frame of said band, means for placing a transversely registration aperture line across said band parallel to said zones, and means for placing other indicia at a selective transverse location in a parallel transverse zone.

12. In gunnery training apparatus, in combination, an exposure opening, an exposure slide movable across said opening, a plurality of aperture masks of different light transmitting values carried on said slide, means for moving said slide across said aperture, means for moving a selected one of said masks into operative position on said slide, and means for directing a light beam of different size and different position in said aperture in accordance with the mask which is in the projecting position and the transverse position of the slide.

.13. In gunnery training apparatus, in'combination, an exposure opening, an exposure slide movable across said opening, a plurality of aperture masks of different light transmitting values carried on said slide, means for moving said slide across said aperture, means for moving a selected one of said masks into operative position on said slide, and means for directing a light beam of different size and different position in said aperture in accordance with the mask which is in the projecting position and the transverse position of the slide, said mask moving means including actuating means at a fixed location and connections from the fixed actuating means to mask moving means on said slide.

14. In gunnery training apparatus, in combination, camera mechanismfor moving and exposing a sensitized control band frame by frame, a plurality of aim registry devices movable across a frame of the control band, a mask carrier movably mounted on each movable aim registry device, means including a remote actuator for moving each of said aim registry devices a selected distance across said frame, and means including a remote selector for moving all of said mask carriers together to place a selected set of masks into operative position on said devices.

15. In gunnery training apparatus, in combination, camera mechanism for moving and exposing a sensitized control band frame by frame, a plurality of aim registry aperture slides movable across the frame exposure opening, a rotary aperture mask carrier mounted on each slide, means for moving said slides separately, and

13 means for moving said mask carriers together in any position of the carriers.

16. In gunnery training apparatus, in combination, a projector for throwing a target image from a picture frame on a screen, a pointer in the nature of a dummy gun to be directed toward said target and movable in elevation and train, a control frame, a plurality of apertured slides mounted for movement transversely in parallelism across said frame, and connecting means between said pointer and said slides for moving one of said slides transversely when the pointer moves in elevation and for moving another one of said slides transversely when the pointer moves in train.

17. In gunnery training apparatus, in combination, a projector for throwing a target image from a picture frame on a screen, a pointer mounted before the screen and movable in elevation and train to aim for an image on said screen, a control frame provided with three adjacent parallel transverse zones for indicia apertures of elevation and train, an apertured slide movable transversely across said zones, one for elevation and two for train, the slides for train being connected together for reverse movement and having apertures which are both aligned with a marginal index line of the control band when the slides for train are in central position, and connecting means between the pointer and slides for moving the elevation slide when the pointer moves in elevation and for moving said train slides in opposite directions when the pointer moves in train, the one train slide aper- REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 875,333 Dyer et al. Dec. 31, 1907 1,032,172 Zollinger July 9, 1912 1,130,702 Bjerregaard Mar. 9, 1917 1,442,297 Riedel Jan. 16, 1923 1,446,510 Leventhal Feb. 27, 1923 1,698,106 Owens Jan. 8, 1929 1,793,772 Bouma Feb. 24, 1931 1,929,518 Ross Oct. 10, 1933 1,971,828 Morton Aug. 28, 1934 2,045,549 Freedman et a1. 1 June 23, 1936 2,122,689 Jones July 5, 1938 2,199,764 Tondreau May 7, 1940 2,220,474 Bryce Nov. 5, 1940 2,322,602 Terry June 22, 1943 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 342,284 Great Britain July 26, 1929

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3964178 *Jul 3, 1975Jun 22, 1976The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavyUniversal infantry weapons trainer
Classifications
U.S. Classification434/20, 352/240, 352/39, 346/107.2
International ClassificationF41G3/26
Cooperative ClassificationF41G3/26
European ClassificationF41G3/26