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Publication numberUS2446044 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 27, 1948
Filing dateJul 24, 1946
Priority dateJul 24, 1946
Publication numberUS 2446044 A, US 2446044A, US-A-2446044, US2446044 A, US2446044A
InventorsElmer W Davis
Original AssigneeElmer W Davis
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Writing implement
US 2446044 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 27, l948 E. W. DAVISl WRITING IMPLEMENT Filed July 24, 1946 R. m n W.

BYWMMQQMM! Patented July 27, 1948 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE WRITING IMILEMENT Elmer W. DavisNeWton Center, Mass.

Application July 24, 1946, Serial No. 685,980`

(Cl. 1Z0-9) 8 Claims. 1

This invention relates to writing implements, such as pencils andpens, and it has for one of its objects to provide a novel writing implement in which the marking element, whether it be in the form of the lead of a lead pencil or in the form of the point ofa pen, is normally retracted within and concealed by the body of the implement,` but which will `be projected beyond the tip of the implement when the latter is placed against the-surface on which the marking is to be made and the user presses downwardly on the body of the implement. i i .Theinvention may be embodied ina writing implement Ywhich is constructed so that the marking element will be projected into its operative writing position byapplying a relatively light downward pressure on the body of the implement, or said implement may be made so that the application of a considerably greater downward pressure on the body will be required tomove the marking element from its retracted position into its projected operative marking position.

A further object of the invention isto provide a novel writing implement in which when the downward pressure on the body is released, the marking element will automatically move backwardly from its operative projectedposition into its retracted position within the implement body. While the invention may be embodied in writing implements designed for ordinary purposes, yet it is of especial advantage when embodied in a writing implement that is to be used under circumstances which require the making of several carbon copies of the written matter at the time that the original copy is made.

In conducting many lines of business which require the lling out of numerous forms, it is frequently necessary to make several carbon copies` of the original form. If the number of such carbon copies is more than four or five, the person filling out the form has to bear down on the writing implement with considerable force in order to make the last carbon copy legible. In `using an ordinary pencil for thispurpose, there is no way for the writer to tell Whether or not he is making a legible last carbon copy except by making frequent visual examinations thereof.

If in the performance of hisduties, a person is required to make for a considerable length of time entries involving the making of a large number of carbon copies, the heavy pressure he is required to apply to the pencil or other writing implement in order to make the last carbon copy 2 legible is quite fatiguing, and after working for some time his writing muscles may become tired; with the result that unconsciously the pressure yhe `is applying to the Writing implement is eased up somewhat, and may be eased up to a point in sufficient to produce the required number of car bon copies. Y

As applied to a writingimplement for making carbon copies, my invention has the advantage that whenever the user of the writingv imple'i ment fails to bear down on it with sufficient force to make the required number of carbon copies, the marking element will be automatically moved backwardly from its operative marking position into its retracted position within the body of the implement, and thelatter will thus become inoperative for making the originalv copy, which is the copy the writer sees as he writes. Hence, so long as the original copy is being maddHthe user of the implement knows that he is applying sucient pressure to the implement to produce the required num-ber of carbon copies,` while whenever the implement failsto make the origilnal copy, the writer knows he is not applying suiicient pressure'to make the last carbon copy legible.

As applied to a writing implement in the form of a pencil designed for ordinary use, the invention provides a pencil in which' the lead isnormally in its retracted position within the body of the pencil so that whenthe pencil is carried in ones pocket, there is no exposed lead `to soil the inside of the pocket or to mark papersor other articles that may be in the pocket, while when the implement is withdrawn from the pocket and put to use for writing purposes, the normal downward pressure `which the writer will apply to the body of the implement in order to make a mark on the paper will automatically move the lead forwardly into its operative writing position in which it projects forward of the pencil tip and is thus fully exposedfor writing purposes. l

In order to give an understanding of the invention, I have illustrated herein a selected em bodiment thereof, inwhich the marking element is shown as the lead of a lead pencil, but Irwish to make it clear that the invention is not limited to an implement of the pencil type, butis equally applicable to writing implements inv which the marking element isin the form` of apen point of any suitable type. i i

In the drawings:

Fig. l" isa longitudinal section through a writing `implement of the pencil type embodying` `the invention and showing the lead or marking element in its normal retracted position within the body of the implement.

Fig. 2 is a similar view showing the writing implement in condition for writing with the marking element projected into its operative position and exposed for writing purposes.

Fig. 3 is a section on the line 3 3, Fig. l.

Fig. 4 is a section on the line 1l-Ji, Fig. 2.

As stated above, I have chosen to illustrate my invention herein as it might be embodied in a writing implement of the pencil type in which the marking element is in the form of the lead of the lead pencil, and in order to keep the illustration of the invention in a simple form, I have shown a marking element in which the lead is located within a lead-carrying member in the manner of an ordinary lead pencil. I wish to state, however, that the invention is not confined in its use to a writing implement of this type, but is applicable generally to pencils of various types, and also to pens of varous types.

In the construction herein illustrated, the body portion of the writing implement comprises two concentric shell or casing elements, an outer shell-I and an inner shell 2 which is enclosed within the outer shell, said shells being movable relative to each other in an axial direction.

The inner shell member 2 has located within it the marking element, which, as stated above, is herein shown as'the lead 3 of a lead pencil which is carried in a suitable lead-carrying member- 4 tha'tI is located within the inner shell l2 and is movable therein so that the lead 3 may be moved from its retracted inoperative position within the shell 2 as shown in Fig. 1 to an exposed operative writing position in which it projects beyond the tip 5 of the inner shell as shown Ain Fig. 2.

As stated above, the lead-carrying member 4 may be the simple form herein illustrated or may be the more complicated form used in various types of pencils.'

The tip portion 5 of said inner'shell is preferably tapered as illustrated and is provided at its end with an aperture 6 of a size to receiveand guide the lead 3.

The implement is so constructed that normally the'lead 3 or` other marking element is in a retracted position within the inner casing member 2, but when sucient downward pressure is applied tothe outer casing member, the marking element will be projected beyond the tip 5 of the 'inner member as shown in Fig.`2, and will thus be exposed for writing purposes, said lead or marking element remaining so exposed so long as the requisite downward pressure is applied to the'outer member. Whenever the pressure on the outer member is relieved, however,

the marking relement is automatically retracted -into the body'of thel implement.

To provide for such operations, the leadcarrying member 4 is connected at its upper end to a head element 'I on which is mounted for turning movement a gear member 8 that meshes with teeth formed in both the outer shell member I and the inner shell member 2. y The head I is shown as having two upstanding ears 9 between which the gear 8 is located, said gear being mounted for rotation on a pin or shaft I0 carried by the ears 9.

The inner shell member 2 is formed in one side with a plurality of spaced openings or slots II 'to receive the teeth of the gear 8, the portions I2 lof the inner shell between the slots functioning as gear teeth adapted to mesh with the teeth of the gear 8.

The outer shell member I is also provided with a plurality of spaced openings I3` to receive the teeth of the gear B, the dividing portions I4 between the openings I3 also functioning as gear teeth to mesh with the gear 8.

'Ihe inner shell member 2 is provided with a longitudinal slot I5 which registers with the openings I3 of the outer shell member and in which the gear 8 operates, the pivotal pin I0 for the gear 8 being located slightly at one side of the axial line of the implement so as to enable the gear 8 to mesh properly with the teeth I2 and I4 formed in the inner and outer shell members. Located within the implement body is a spring I6 which acts against the inner and outer members and tends normally to hold them in the relative positions shown in Fig. 1. This spring is seated at its lower end against a head I'I carried by the upper end of the inner shell member 2, and at its outer end it seats against a cap I 8 secured to the upper end of the outer shell member I.

With the parts in their normal relative positions shown in Fig. 1, the inner shell member 2 is held by the spring I6 with its tip end 5 projected some distance beyond the lower end 'I9 of the outer shell member, and the marker-carrying member 4 is in its retracted position with the lead or other marking element 3 located inside of the tip 5 of the inner shell member.

When the end of the tip 5 is placed against a supported sheet of paper or against any supporting surface and downward pressure is applied to the outer shell member I, the downward movement of the outer shell member relative to the inner shell member will rotate the gear 8 in a clockwise direction, Fig. 1, and so long as the inner shell member is held against the supportingv surface such rotating movement will cause a relative downward movement of the head 1 and the marker-carrying member 4 relative to the inner shell member. When during such downward movement the marking element 3 is carried into the aperture 6 and comes against the paper or supporting surface, the Vcontinued downward pressure will operate through the gear 8 to retract the inner shell member and thus raise it from the paper or supporting surface as shown in Fig. 2, thereby leaving the marking element 3 ful-ly exposed for writing purposes.

Said marking element 3 will thus remain exposed so long as suicient downward pressure is applied to the outer casing, but whenever the pressure is relieved or eased up to a point in suicient to overcome the action of the spring I6, then the latter comes into play to retract the marking element and restore the parts to the relative position sh-own in Fig. 4 in which the said marking element is located entirely within the inner shell, and the implement is inoperative for writing purposes.

In making the device, a spring I6 will be chosen which is of sullcient strength so that the downward pressure which it is necessary to apply to the outer casing in order to project the marking element into writing position will be suilicient for the purpose for which the implement is to be used.

If, for instance, the writing implement is to be used for ordinary writing purposes, a relatively light spring I6 will be used, so that the pressure which a person normally applies to the'implement bodyin ordinary writing will be sufficient to compress thespring and move the rmarking ele-ment from its retracted position into its operative writing position.

' On theother hand, if the implement is to be used in Vmaking carbon copies, then the spring I6 willlbe of suiiicientstrength so that the pressure required to project the marking element into its operative position will be suiiicient tomake the required number of carbon copies.`

When, therefore,` the device'is being thus used, the person using it knows that he is making lthe required number of carbon copies for which the implement is built so long as he is applying suf# fioient downward pressure onthe implement body to make the original copy.

If in using the device the writer fails to maintain the necessary downward pressure on the outer vcasing to make the required number of carbon copies, the spring I6 will act automatically to retract the marking element and thus render the implement inoperative even for making an original copy.

` As I have stated above,A although reference has been made to the use of the implement in making carbon copies, yet the invention is also adaptable for use in writing implements that are designed for ordinary writing purposes, and when applied to an instrument of this type, the marking element will normally be held in its retracted position situated within the implement body, but as soon as the implement is used for writing purposes, the downward pressure which the writer normally applies to the implement body will automatically project the marking element forwardly from its retracted position into its exposed writn ing position.

In order to give the implement a finished appearance, I propose to enclose the outer shell member l in an envelope 20 which may be of metal or of plastic material or any other suitable material. This envelope 20 covers the openings I3 in the outer member and gives the implement a finished appearance.

I claim:

1. A writing implement having a body, a marking element within said body, said body and marking element being relatively movable to retract the marking element into an inoperative position Within the body or to project it into an operative writing position, and means normally holding the marking element in its retracted position but responsive to pressure applied to the implement body to project the marking element into its operative writing position.

2. A writing implement for use in making an original and a plurality of carbon copies, said implement having a body, a marking element within said body movable relative thereto between a retracted inoperative position within said body and a projected operative writing position, and means normally holding the marking element in its retracted inoperative position but responsive to pressure applied to the implement body in the direction of its length sufficient in amount to make the required number of carbon copies t-o project said marking element into its writing position.

3. A writing implement for use in making an original and a plurality of carbon copies, said implement having a body, a marking element within said body movable relative thereto between a retracted inoperative position within said body and a projected operative writing position, and means normally holding the marking element in 6 its retracted inoperative positionbut responsive to pressure applied to the implement body in the direction oi its length suiiicient in amount to make the requirednumber of carbon copies to project said marking element into its writing position, said'means operating automatically to move the marking element into its inoperative position whenever the pressure on the implement body isreduced below that required for making the desired number of carbon copies.

4. A Writing implement comprising a body presentinginner and outer shell members movable relative `to each other in the direction oi their length, a marker-carrying member and a marking element carried ythereby located within the inner shell member and movable relative thereto between anl inoperative position in which the marking element is located within said inner shell member 5and an operative position in which said marking element is projected beyond said inner shell member, and means, including a spring, normally holding the marking element in its inoperative position but responsive to pressure applied to the outer shell member in the direction of its length to move the inner shell member backwardly relative to the outer shell member and to move the marker-carrying member forwardly relative to the inner shell member.

5. A writing implement for use in making an original copy and a plurality of carbon copies, said implement comprising a body presenting an outer shell member and an inner shell member movable relative to each other in the direction oi their length, a marker-carrying member and marking element carried thereby within the inner shell member and movable relative thereto between an inoperative position in which the marking element is located within the inner shell member and an operative writing position in which said marking element is projected beyond the inner shell member, and means responsive to a pressure applied to the implement body in the direction of its length sufcient in amount to make the required number of carbon copies to move the inner shell member backwardly relative to the outer shell member and to move the markercarrying member forwardly relative to the inner shell member from its inoperative to its operative position.

6. A writing implement for use in making an original copy and a plurality of carbon copies, said implement comprising a body presenting an outer shell member and an inner shell member movable relative to each other in the direction of their length, a marker-carrying member and marking element carried thereby within the inner shell member and movable relative thereto between an inoperative position in which said marking element is located within the inner shell member and an operative writing position in which it is projected beyond the inner shell member, and means responsive to a pressure applied to the implement body in the direction of its length suiiicient in amount to make the required number of carbon copies to move the inner shell member backardly relative to the outer yshell member and to move the marker-carrying member lforwardly relative to the inner shell member from its inoperative to its operative position,

said means operating automatically to move the required for making the required number of carbon copies.

7. A Writing implement compri-sing a body presenting inner and outer shell members movable axially relative to each other, a marker-carrying member and marking element carried thereby within the inner shell member and movable relative thereto between an inoperative retracted position and an operative writing position, a gear carried by the marker-carrying member, said inner shell member having gear teeth meshing with the gear on one side thereof and the outer shell member having gear teeth meshing With the gear on the outer side thereof, whereby pressure applied to said outer shell member in 8 able axially relative to each other, a markercarrying member and marking element carried thereby Within the inner shell member and movable relative thereto between an inoperative retracted position and an operative writing position, a gear carried by the marker-carrying member, said inner shell member having gear teeth meshing With the gear on one side thereof and the outer shell member having gear teeth meshing With the gear on the other side thereof, a compression spring acting against both the inner s-hell member and outer shell member and normally holding the inner shell member in its forward position and the marker-carrying member in its retracted inoperative position, whereby pressure applied to the outer shell memberin the direction of its length compresses the spring and operates through said gear to move the inner shell member backwardly relative to the outer 20 shell member and to project the marker-carrying member forwardly into an operative position.

ELMER W. DAVIS.

Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1 *None
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2808032 *Oct 12, 1955Oct 1, 1957Ducharme Arthur AWriting instrument
US4778300 *Mar 11, 1986Oct 18, 1988L'orealCase for an applicator element
US5292329 *Dec 4, 1992Mar 8, 1994Werner Richard SRetractable surgical knife
US5423843 *Dec 3, 1993Jun 13, 1995Werner; Richard S.Retractable surgical knife
US5569282 *Jun 13, 1995Oct 29, 1996Werner; Richard S.Retractable surgical knife
US5779724 *May 24, 1996Jul 14, 1998Werner; Richard S.Retractable surgical knife
US7854559 *Mar 27, 2009Dec 21, 2010Spark Gold Co.Pen with double pen barrel
US20100166487 *Mar 27, 2009Jul 1, 2010Yu-Yin LiuPen with double pen barrel
DE1278283B *Feb 25, 1961Sep 19, 1968Raymund NaegeleWechselschreibstift
WO1994013216A1 *Jun 22, 1993Jun 23, 1994Richard S WernerRetractable surgical knife
WO1995015122A1 *May 23, 1994Jun 8, 1995Richard S WernerRetractable surgical knife
Classifications
U.S. Classification401/62, 401/103
International ClassificationB43K21/00, B43K8/24
Cooperative ClassificationB43K8/003, B43K21/00, B43K21/006, B43K8/24
European ClassificationB43K21/00G, B43K8/00G, B43K21/00, B43K8/24