US 2447769 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 24, 1948. PRINGEY 2,447,769
METKOD OF AND MEANS FOR COOLING BEVERAGES Filed Sept. 29, 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet 1' IN V EN TOR.
( 2 f/VN 5. PAP/N65 y Aug. 24, 1948. PRlNGEY 2,447,769
METHOD OF AND MEANS FOR COOLING BEVERAGES Filed Sept. 29, 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented Aug. 24, 1948 arnoo or AND MEANS FOR COOLING BEVERAGES Glenn 8. Pringey, Euclid, Ohio, minor by decree of distribution to Helen P. Pringey Application September 29, 19, Serial No. 556,320
3 Claims. (Cl. 62-115) This invention relates tcFthe art of refrigeration and more particularly toan improved method and means for cooling fluids, space or things.
It is among the objects of my invention to provide a method and means -for cooling a liquid while flowing in a dispensing conduit all the way to the spigot or outlet therefrom to avoid warm spots or warm slugs of fluid in the conduit; to
provide uniform cooling thereof over a wide range of rates of flow; and to provide substantially constant, though readily adjustable delivery temperatures for the fluid dispensed therefrom.
Another object is to provide for cooling more than one space, fluid or thing at different or relatively determinable rates or temperatures in a single system as from a single compressor. A more speciflc object is to cool two or more units at the same or different temperatures by means of a flooded system using a high side float to supply therefrigeraant from a single condensing unit.
Another object is to eliminate the hazards, uncertainties and complications of cooling fluids, spaces, etc.', that attend upon the use of refrigerants in whole or in part the vapor phase in the cooling zone or zones, and a corollary object is to provide circuits and controls that will effect desir- 4 abl control and apportionment of cooling with one or more coils"'substantially fllled with refrigerant in the liquid phase, through the vaporization of which cooling is affected.
Other objects include the provision of a refrigerating system that is simple. in construction, economical of manufacture, installation and use, eilicient in its operation, and readily adaptable to a wide range of conditions of service, temperature and use.
Other objects and advantages will appear from the following description of a preferred and illustrative embodiment of my invention, reference being had to the accompanying drawings in which Figure 1 is a layout in elevation of an illustrative refrigerating system in a form useful for the cooling and dispensing of beverages. and Figure 2 is-an enlargement of the upper right portion of the'parts illustrated in Figure 1 including the spigot for the beverages to be dispensed, a control valve for the refrigerant and other details of the construction.
'-,A-"problem in the refrigeration field, the solution of which by the employment of my invention willillustrate many of the precepts thereof, is that of the cooling and dispensing of beverages suchas beer. It will be understood that my invention is not confined to the solution of this particular problem but since the solution illustrates various advantages of my invention and gives an example of its nature and operation it will be described particularly hereinafter.
-Referring to Figure 1' of the drawings the installation. there depicted contemplates that the chamber I may comprise an insulated space for the storage of beer in a keg or cask which chamber I is shown, as is of en the case, in the base-- ment or below the floor, above which is commonly located the bar 4 where the beverage may be withdrawn from time to time through the spigot 5. Suitable pressure may be applied to the beverage in the keg 2 from a source not shown through a conduit 5 whereby to force the beverage through the conduit I to the spigot I. Other kegs or containers, not shown, and not necessarily on tap may also be disposed in the chamber I.
Substantially the whole of the conduit I from a point preferably Just within the room or chamber I to a point closely adjacent the spigot i, see also Figure 2, is-contained within a larger surrounding conduit I0 which not only houses the conduit 1 but also aflords extra capacity to contain refrigerant material so that the conduit 1 may extend substantially throughout its lull length in a pool of fluid refrigerant material. The relation of the conduit 1 within the conduit It may be likened to the well-known arrangement often employed in heat exchangers in which the fluid contained in the larger conduit may take heat from the smaller conduit and the fluid contained therein. Within the room I is also disposed a space cooling coil 20, which, as will presently be described, also contains refrigerant material and receives heat directly from the air'in the chamber I and from the contents of the chamber such as the beer or other beverage in the keg 2 and/or such other kegs, or things as maybe stored in the same chamber preparatory to the consumption thereof.
It will also be observed in Figure 1 that I employ in the practice of my invention a refrigerant compressor 30 which may be of any conventional type, and I have shown more or less diagrammatically a compressor motor II appropriately connected to the compressor as by belt drive in the conventional way. Leading from the compressor I also show in the conventional way a cooling condenser through which the compressed refrigerant passes to a trap and container 33 known in the trade as a Hi-side float which per se is not part of my invention, but which is characterized in its operation by its float controlled outlet 34 which is closed and kept closed by the float 35 until the level of liquid refrigerant lifts the float to permit the egress of liquid while retaining with the trap or chamber a the compressed refrigerant in the vapor or gaseous state. The liquid that leaves the trap 33 is forced therefrom under the influence of the pressure which the compressor maintains in the condenser I2 and within the trap 31,. Refrigerant in the gaseous or vapor stage comes to the compressor of the conduit 36 to contain a desired cushioning volume of refrigerant gas or vapor is preferably provided as shown.
Those skilled in the art will understand that refrigerant may be selected from among the several well-known varieties of well established materials such as methal chloride or Freon, and will understand the ordinary kind of adjustments required for the system to correlate its function and operation to particular refrigerant materials.
In the embodiment of my invention shown in Figure 1 the conduit 40 leads liquid refrigerant fromthe trap 33 to the lower end of the conduit ID as at 4| whence the liquid refrigerant is conducted through and contained within the whole length of the conduit ill to the end fitting ll thereof, see Figure 2.- Leading from the highest point of the conduit I is the conduit 42 which affords a path of egress for refrigerant from the conduit ill to a valve 50. A conduit 43 leads refrigerant downwardly, as shown, from the valve 50 to a manifold 44, the upper part of which stand higher than the cooling coil 20 within the chamber I, and the lower part of which communicates with the lowermost portion ofthe coil 20. Preferably the conduit 43 terminates within the manifold 44 somewhat below the upper side outlet 45 thereof with which the conduit 36 communicates. The manifold 44 is shown lower than the valve 50 and at a lower elevation than the upper end of the conduit or element l0. While I have shown the manifold 44 disposed at a lower elevation than the valve 50 as a practicable embodiment for the illustrative beer cooling installation, it must be understood that the manifold 44 may be disposed at a higher elevation than the valve 50 whenever convenience so requires. The elevation of the manifold 34 in relation to the valve 50 does not alter the operation of my invention; the only change in condition being that the contents of the conduit 43 will contain more refrigerant in the liquid phase as the height of the manifold 44 exceeds the height of the valve 50.
In the installation so far described it will be seen that the refrigerant first passes through the cooling element or conduit in and then in series relationship through the cooling element 20 and thence through the return conduit 36 which is a common return for both the elements In and 20. As will be more fully described below it will further appear that the refrigerant in its liquid state passes through the cooling elements Ill and 20 in a series relationship but that the refrigerant in its gaseous form is returned from both elements through the common conduit 36, i. e., in a parallel return relationship from both the cooling elements.
As shown in Figures 1 and 2 the valve 50 in this exemplary installation has a manually operable wheel or handle 5| shown as extending upwardly through the surface of the bar 4. The handle Si is secured to the shaft of a screw adlusting means 52 by which the pressure in the spring 53. tending to close the valve, may be manually adjusted; The spring 53 bears upon the upper surface of a flexible diaphragm 54 which in turn bears upon the valve closure member and stem 55. The diaphragm 54 is exposed to atmospheric pressure on its upper side via vent port 51 and is exposed to the pressure of the element It on its under side via the conduit 42. A follower spring 56 holds the head of the stem 55 in contact with the diaphragm 54, raising the stem when fluid pressure below the diaphragm sufficiently exceeds atmospheric pressure and the effort of the adjustably compressed spring 53. The valve 50 will therefore open whenever fluid pressure in the coil l0 and conduit 42 exceeds a selected minimum pressure and thereupon fluid will flow through the valve from the element ill to the manifold 44 through the conduits 42 and 43. Turning the handle or hand wheel M will adjust this minimum pressure to any desired amount within practicable limits with the result that fluid will be permitted to flow from the element l0 through the valve II at whatever pressure is selected by adjustment of the spring 53 of the valve 53. In this way the proportion of heat absorbed by the refrigerant in the element It as compared with the heat absorbed in the element 20 can be apportioned by adjustment of the valve 50 as will more fully appear below.
As mentioned above the conduit or cooling element l0 terminates, as I prefer, as closely adjacent to the body of the spigot 5 as is practical. In the form of my invention shown herein I provide a fitting member 60 which bodily receives the end of the conduit l0 preferably in a sweater or brazed-in contact substantially as shown and receives the conduit 1 in sweated or brazed fluid tight engagement as at 6i. Preferably the fitting 60 is externally threaded throughout its length and carries a nut 62 which may bear against the inward side of the vertical structure of the'bar 63 whilst the spigot 5 receives the threaded end 84 of the fitting Bil in the female threads 65. An appropriate gasket 66 may bear between the bottom of the cavity of the spigot and the end of the fitting Bil to make a fluid tightjoint. By these or similar means I preferably provide that the refrigerant may be brought closely adjacent to the spigot to cool the same by conduction and so that there will be no substantial length of conduit adjacent the spigot in which beer or other beverage may become warm or unpalatable between draughts.
The parts being related and assembled as above described I cause the refrigerating system to be filled with such a quantity of refrigerant that substantially the whole of the elements It and 20 will contain refrigerant in its liquid phase when the installation is operating normally according to the precepts of my invention. As a practical matter this will require or imply that refrigerant in the liquid phase will ordinarily be present-in the conduits l0 and 42 up to about the highest point thereof as indicated by the broken line LL; that refrigerant in the liquid phase will also stand in the manifold 44 and in whole or in part in the uppermost level of the coil 24 at about the level of the broken line MM and will stand in the trap 33 at about the level of the line NN where the float valve 35 may be Just raised from its seat or Just about to be raised from its seat depending upon the phase of the cycle of operation of the installation. The
other parts of the refrigerant system will of course contain the refrigerant in the gaseous state as those skilled in the art will appreciate. If the conduit 43 leads upwardly from the valve I, additional liquid refrigerant will be supplied to flll the conduit.
In the operation of the exemplary beer dispensing installation herein illustrated and described. it may be assumed that a fresh keg 2 whichmay or may not have been preliminarily chilled in the chamber i has been appropriately connectedtto the conduit I and through the pump conduit 6 to the well known beer pumpor other instrument, not shown, and that the spigot 5 has been manipulated to permit the conduit 1 to be filled with beer. Assuming further that the spigot 5 is then closed, the beer in the conduit I will have entered the conduit at the temperature of the contents I of the keg 2 which may be higher than desired dispensing temperature at the spigot 5. If the keg 2 has had no opportunity to be chilled in the chamber I before being connected to the conduit I the beverage may well be in thefirst instance many degrees higher than its desired dispensing-temperature at the spigot 5. In either event the heat of the beer in the conduit I will flow to the liquid refrigerant in the conduit I0 inducing boiling of the liquid refrigerant and increasing the fluid pressure in the conduits l0 and 42 and at the inlet side of the valve 50 and under the diaphragm or bellows 54 thereof. Pressure so generated upon exceeding the adjusted resistance of the valve 50 will open the valve permitting the outflow of fluid whether gas or llquir. or both through the conduit 43 into the manifold 44. This flow will raise the pressure throughout the returnside of the system. and upon the pressure responsive controlswitch 31. when the pressure in the conduit and the return side of the system rises above a predetermined and adjustable relation to atmospheric pressure the switch 31 will close and energize the compressor 30, which will tend to reduce the pressure in the return side of the system on the one hand and deliver condensed liquid to the conduit 40 on the other hand. The foregoing condition will persist until the content of the conduit 1 is reduced to a temperature which will permit the valve 50 to close. At that point the pressure on the return side of the system may or may not be sumoiently reduced to cut out the switch 31 depending on the adjustment of the switch, the condition in the chamber I and the cooling coil 20. If the keg 2 were warm in the hypothesis above stated or if additional warm kegs were placed in the storage chamber i when the keg 2 was attached to the line 1 additional cooling would perhaps be required for the chamber I, and this additional cooling will be reflected in the boiling of liquid refrigerant in the coil and the maintenance of the pressure of the return side of the system with the further or continued operation of the compressor, which in turn, will continue to deliver liquid through the conduit 40 and into the conduit Id. In this instance, however, this increased pressure in the conduits I0 and 42 and below the diaphragm 54 of the valve 50 will open the valve 50 to permit refrigerant in the liquid stage to flow therethrough to, the manifold M and the coil 20 where its boiling under the condition of reduced pressure maintained by the compressor would continue to take heat from the space I until the temperature of that space is desirably reduced. It will be understood that the conduits l2 and 43 as well as the valve SI and con-- dults I0 and ll will be heavily and properly in- 6 sulated by covering means, not shown, to inhibit undesirable warming of the refrigerant contents thereof.
While the space I is being cooled or being kept cool by the operations above mentioned it is contemplated that fluid may be withdrawn from the spigot I. Movement of warm beverage into the conduit I ,will induce boiling of the fluid in the conduit IO. and in that event both liquid and gaseous refrigerant may well .be passed through the valve 50 to. manifold 44; the liquid finding its way into the manifold M and the coil 20 and the gas finding its way, with the 8 s emanating from the coil 20, through the conduit 36 back to the compressor.
Throughout these cycles of operations and the overlappings thereof the temperature of the dispensed beverage may be conveniently and desirably controlled by the adjustment of the valve Ill. When the valve ill is pinched down whereby to require a relatively high pressure in the element III to effect the opening of the valve 50', such a condition correspondingly inhibits boiling ofthe refrigerant therein and thus raises the temperature of the refrigerant. Similarly when the valve 50 is pinched down to require the higher pressure to induce its opening. the inhibition thereby induced against boiling of the liquid refrigerant in the element III correspondingly re"- duces the cooling effect of the element I0 upon the conduit 1 and the contents thereof. In the so-called pinched down condition of the valve il a less cooling will be done by the coil ll without changing the temperature of the coil 20. If, however, it be desired that the temperature of the coil III be lowered then the adjustment of the valve 50 is altered to pass fluid at relatively lower pressures. This condition permits the boiling of the fluid in the element III at lower temperatures, takes more heat from the contents of the conduit 1 and brings about the passing of a relatively greater proportion of gas than liquid through the valve 50 to the manifold M. Thus the temperature of the coil III can be alte'red and adjustedby manipulation of the valve 50 as desired while the temperature of the coil 20 is held substantiallyconstant under the selected control and adjustment of the pressure responsive switch element 31.
In-the exemplary embodiment of my invention above described it will be seen that through the adjustment of the valve 50 and the pressure responsive control 31 I may bring about any desired apportionment of the cooling load between the elements I0 and III in any desired amount and relation within the capacity of the compressor and the quantity and nature of the refrigerant employed, having in mind the radiating areas of the respective cooling elements, and the inherent tendency of the element 20 to have at least as low a temperature as the lowest temperature obtainable in the element II. I may also treat the thing or things to be cooled to successive treatments having regard for the relative capacity of the elements Ill and 20 in relation to the heat content of the thing or things that may transmit heat thereto. For example with the use of but a single compressor I could use one of the cooling elements such as element II for cooling a household refrigerator to about the desirable 40 F. of common practice while using the other element such as the element 20 in a deep freeze unit maintaining a temperature at about 0 F. Where I have shown the element II as being a single conduit in heat exchanger 7- relation to a single conduit I, it will .be readily appreciated that the function, operation and effect thereof could be preserved in different forms or in'a plurality of cooling elements l similarly positioned and related to the other elements of the combination, and that while the cooling element "is shown as but a single continuous coil it might also take other forms or the form of a plurality of similar coils similarly disposed and related to the manifold 44 and the other elements of the combination hereinabove described.
It will be similarly understood and appreciated that the cooling element I0 need not take the form of heat exchanger and may take any other form within the precepts of my invention so long as its relation to the other elements of the combination is preserved. Likewise the coil may take the form of a heat exchanger instead of a space cooler without altering its mode of operation so long as its relation to the other combinations are similarly preserved.
If it should be desired to refine the control of the coil 20 or separately limit its effect on the temperature in the space I, it is not without my teaching to place a pair of thermostatically actuated valves, not shown, at the points 2| and 22 of the entrance and exit respectively of the coil 20, preferably providing for the simultaneous operation of such valves in response to the temperature in the space i. In this way so long as the control 31 and the compressor 30 are set to and capable of inducing a lower temperature in the space I than the valves at 2i and 22 permit, the coil 20 and its cooling effect along with its refrigerant content would merely be shunted out of the system except for the periods when the thermostatic control of the valves brought the coil 2| back into play. Similarl by the adjustment of such valves or by the employment of shut-off valves at the points 21 and 22 the coil 20 and its contents may be arbitrarily shunted out of the system leaving the element It and the other parts of the system to continue their function and useful operation.
While I have not mentioned especially the desirability of insulation for the chamber of space I nor the form or amount of proper insulation of the parts such as the coil l0 and the return conduit 43, I assume that the desirability, form and amount thereof will be understood by those skilled in the art. While I have shown the lowermost portion of the conduit l0 and the adjacent part of the conduit 40 as extending within the space I, so that the corresponding portion of the conduits within the space i might, unless insulated therefrom, serv to cool the space I as well as the conduit 1, this will be understood to be merely more or less diagrammatic and illustrative of the reasonable facility of adaptation of my invention to the ordinary exigencies and circumstances that may arise under the conditions of service in which my invention may be advantageously employed.
While I have illustrated and described a preferred form and embodiment of my invention, changes, modifications and improvements thereupon will occur to those who understand and practice the precepts thereof and I do not care to be limited in my patent to the preferred embodiment herein described or to the details thereof or in any manner other than by the claims appended hereto.
1. The method of cooling a beverage a supply of which is maintained in an enclosed space remote from the dispensing tap and is connected therewith by a fluid conduit, which consists in maintaining a' pool of refrigerant under predetermined pressure in the liquid phase around said conduit substantially all the way from said space to said tap, bleeding refrigerant whether in the liquid or vapor or both phases from said pool at substantially the point of highest elevation thereof, leading the liquid constituents of the refrigerant bled from said first pool to a second pool disposed in said space, maintaining a lower pressure on said second pool than that on said first pool and withdrawing non-liquid refrigerant from above said second pool and from the refrigerant constituents bled from said first pool.
2. In a refrigeration system of the Hi-side float" type including a compressor for cooling a beverage storage space and conduit leading from said space to a spigot in which different cooling elements are maintained substantially flooded with refrigerant in the liquid phase at different pressures, the combination of a first cooling element surrounding substantially the full length of the beverage conduit and receiving liquid refrigerant from said compressor and having its sole outlet at substantially the point of highest elevation thereof, a relief valve controlling all the outflow of refrigerant fluid from said outlet, a second cooling element for cooling said storage space, means for passing only liquid constituents of said refrigerant fluid to said second element and diverting gaseous constituents therefrom, said second cooling element having an outlet at substantially the point of highest elevation thereof, and fluid conducting means leading said diverted gaseous constituents and gaseous refrigerant from said outlet to the inlet side of the compressor.
r 3. A refrigeration system for cooling beverage in' its passage from a source of supply through a conduit to aspigot which comprises a refrigerant conduit surrounding the beverage conduit from a point immediately adjacent said spigot for substantially the full length of said beverage conduit, means for delivering refrigerant to said refrigerant conduit in the liquid phase and maintaining the same substantially full of liquid refrigerant, a minimum pressure valve controlling the outflow of fluid refrigerant from the said refrigerant conduit, fluid conducting means extending upwardly from said refrigerant conduit'at substantially the point of its highest elevation and leading to said valve and maintaining a liquid head upon said conduit, and means for returning the gaseous constituentsof the fluid emanating from said valve and condensing the same for recirculation through said refrigerant conduit.
GLENN B. PRINGEY.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 274,500 Kline Mar. 27, 1883 1,728,183 King Sept. 17, 1929 1,854,529 Maccabee Jan. 26, 1932 2,081,883 Phillip May 25, 1937 2,133,966 Buchanan Oct. 25, 1938 2,150,233 Martin Mar. 14, 1939 2,172,129 Phillip Sept. 5, 1939 2,191,623 Phillip Feb. 27, 1940 2,316,376 Weiss Apr. 13, 1943 2,339,082 Knomor Jan. 11, 1944